Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-7j4dq Total loading time: 4.314 Render date: 2022-10-01T21:22:24.484Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Part III - Language

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2019

Bruce R. Smith
Affiliation:
University of Southern California
Katherine Rowe
Affiliation:
Smith College, Massachusetts
Ton Hoenselaars
Affiliation:
Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands
Akiko Kusunoki
Affiliation:
Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, Japan
Andrew Murphy
Affiliation:
Trinity College Dublin
Aimara da Cunha Resende
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil
Get access

Keywords

dialectdiscourselanguage variationparts of speechstyleadjectiveadverbThe Arte of English PoesieArte of Rhetoriqueauxiliaryborrowingcoinagecomparative compoundconsonantsconversionderivationdictionaryEarly Modern EnglishEnglish grammargrammarGreat Vowel Shiftlanguage changeLate Middle Englishliteracyloanwordmorphologynational identitynegationnounorthographypronounpronunciationReformationrhetoricsspeechspellingstylesuperlativesyntaxA Table Alphabeticall of Hard Usual English Wordsverbvocabularyvowelsword orderaccentCrystal, DaviddialectGlobe (playhouse)language evolutionoriginal practices linguisticsoriginal pronunciationpronunciationRoyal Shakespeare Companyarticlesclause organizationcomparisondo-periphrasispossessivesrelativesverbal systemaffective meaningcollocationdiscourse analysisdyadhonorificidiolectmarked and unmarked formspragmatic competencepronouns (vocative and oblique)speech actstransgressive languagetu and vousT-V distinctionclassical languagesDutchEuropeforeignersforeign language(s)FrenchGreekItalianlanguagelanguage learningLatinOvidSpanishWelshBibledictionary(ies)Douay-Rheims BibleKing James Biblelanguage learninglexicon(s)Lexicons of Early Modern English (LEME)“stranger” (foreign) languagesstrangers” (foreigners)translation(s)classical translationClassicsgrammar schoolmistranslationOvidQuincetranslationwomenbroken Englishclass dialectdialecteducationforeign languagesFrenchgrammarHenry Vinkhorn languagethe King’s EnglishLatinlinguisticspronunciationregional dialectScottishsouthwestern Englishstage dialectthieves’ cantWelshCiceroconceiteducationErasmushistorical playsorationpersuasionprocessschoolingcharactercoinagesneologismsphrasesrhetorictropeswordplaywordsauthorshipnew-optics analysisstylistic analysiscoinagelanguagelinguisticsneologismOxford English Dictionary (OED)phrasessenseswords
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Sources cited

Blake, N. F. A Grammar of Shakespeare’s Language. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crystal, David. Pronouncing Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Empson, William. The Complete Poems. Ed. Haffenden, John. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2000.Google Scholar
Jonson, Ben. The Works of Ben Jonson, Vol. 9. 1640. Boston: Elibron Classics, 2006.Google Scholar
Kay, Christian, Roberts, Jane, Samuels, Michael, and Wotherspoon, Irené, eds. The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009.Google Scholar
Michigan Early Modern English Materials. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/memem/.Google Scholar
Spevack, Marvin. A Shakespeare Thesaurus. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1993.Google Scholar
Williams, Gordon. A Glossary of Shakespeare’s Sexual Language. London: Athlone, 1997.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Alexander, Catherine M. S., ed. Shakespeare and Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crystal, David. The Stories of English. London: Penguin, 2004.Google Scholar
Crystal, David. Think on My Words: Exploring Shakespeare’s Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crystal, David, and Crystal, Ben. Shakespeare’s Words: A Glossary and Language Companion. London: Penguin, 2002. http://www.shakespeareswords.com.Google Scholar
Maguire, Laurie. Shakespeare’s Names. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007.Google Scholar
Meier, Paul. Dialect Services. 2010. http://www.paulmeier.com/shakespeare/.Google Scholar
Ronberg, Gert. A Way with Words: The Language of English Renaissance Literature. London: Edward Arnold, 2000.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Brook, G. L. The Language of Shakespeare. London: André Deutsch, 1976.Google Scholar
Cawdrey, Robert. A Table Alphabeticall of Hard Usual English Words. London: 1604.Google Scholar
Crystal, David. “Think on my Words”: Exploring Shakespeare’s Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mair, G. H., ed. Wilson’s Arte of Rhetorique. Oxford: Clarendon, 1909.Google Scholar
Nevalainen, Terttu. An Introduction to Early Modern English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puttenham, George. The Art of English Poesy: A Critical Edition. Ed. Whigham, Frank and Rebhorn, Wayne A.. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2007.Google Scholar

Further reading

Barber, Charles. Early Modern English. 1976. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997.Google Scholar
Blake, N. F. A Grammar of Shakespeare’s Language. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blake, N. F. Shakespeare’s Language: An Introduction. London: Macmillan, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. 1995. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Crystal, David. Pronouncing Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crystal, David, and Crystal, Ben. Shakespeare’s Words. London: Penguin, 2002.Google Scholar
Franz, Wilhelm. Die Sprache Shakespeares in Vers und Prosa [1898–99]. 4th ed. Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1939.Google Scholar
Görlach, Manfred. Introduction to Early Modern English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hope, Jonathan. Shakespeare’s Grammar. London: Thomson Learning, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kökeritz, Helge. Shakespeare’s Pronunciation. New Haven: Yale UP, 1953.Google Scholar
Kökeritz, Helge, and Prouty, Charles Taylor. Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies. New Haven: Yale UP, 1954.Google Scholar
Partridge, A. C. Orthography in Shakespeare and Elizabethan Drama. London: Edward Arnold, 1977.Google Scholar

Sources cited

“As Shakespeare Heard It.” Wireless Notes and Programmes. The Guardian [London] 6 December 1937: 2.Google Scholar
“As Shakespeare Spoke. Elizabethan Pronunciation on the Stage.” The Observer [London] 4 July 1909: 6.Google Scholar
British Universities Film and Video Council. 2012.Google Scholar
Brown, Ivor. “Thrones for Two.” The Observer [London] 14 September 1952: 6.Google Scholar
Crystal, David. Pronouncing Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. http://www.pronouncingshakespeare.com/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Current Theatre Notes.” Shakespeare Quarterly 4.1 (1953): 6175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
“An Elizabethan Broadcast.” New York Times 21 February 1937.Google Scholar
Gimson, A. C. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold, 1962.Google Scholar
Gimson, A. C. Macbeth recordings at the British Library filed under “Test Record,” UCL Phonetics Archives.Google Scholar
Glow, G. The Mermaid Theatre: The First Ten Years. Westerham (UK): Westerham Press, 1969.Google Scholar
Kökeritz, Helge. Shakespeare’s Pronunciation. New Haven: Yale UP, 1953.Google Scholar
Lundberg, Holder. “Up from Stratford.” The New Yorker 13 February 1954: 21.Google Scholar
Meier, Paul. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream: An Original Pronunciation Production. Part 1: Before.” A World of Voice. Ed. Knight, Dudley. Spec. issue Voice and Speech Review (2011): 209–23.Google Scholar
Noel-Armfield, G. Le Maître Phonétique 3 (1909): 118.Google Scholar
“Our London Correspondence.” The Guardian [London] 1 April 1952: 6.Google Scholar
“Our London Correspondence.” The Guardian [London] 25 July 1952: 6.Google Scholar
Twelfth Night as a Masquerade.” The Guardian [London] 18 May 1933: 5.Google Scholar

Further reading

Blandford, F. G. Shakespeare’s Pronunciation: A Transcription of “Twelfth Night,” Act I, Scene V. Cambridge: Heffer and Sons, 1927.Google Scholar
Collins, B., and Mees, I. M.. The Real Professor Higgins, The Life and Career of Daniel Jones. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1999.Google Scholar
Dobson, E. J. English Pronunciation, 1500–1700. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1957.Google Scholar
Jones, Daniel. The Pronunciation of English. 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.Google Scholar
Meier, Paul. “In 1595, ‘Prove’ Rhymed with ‘Love.’” American Theatre (February 2011): 4850.Google Scholar
Meier, Paul. The Original Pronunciation of Shakespeare’s English. (An e-text downloadable from: http://www.paulmeier.com/shakespeare/.) Lawrence: Paul Meier Dialect Services, 2011.Google Scholar
Wells, J. C. Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sources cited

Abbott, Edwin A. A Shakespearian Grammar: An Attempt to Illustrate Some of the Differences between Elizabethan and Modern English. 3rd ed. London: Macmillan, 1870.Google Scholar
Altenberg, Bengt. The Genitive v. the of-Construction: A Study of Syntactic Variation in 17th Century English. Lund: CWK Gleerup, 1982.Google Scholar
Banks, David. The Development of Scientific Writing: Linguistic Features and Historical Context. London: Equinox, 2008.Google Scholar
Barber, Charles. Early Modern English. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997.Google Scholar
Barnet, Sylvan, ed. Shakespeare: Hamlet. 2nd rev. ed. New York: Signet Classics, 1998.Google Scholar
Bergs, Alexander. Social Networks and Historical Sociolinguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blake, Norman F. A Grammar of Shakespeare’s Language. Houndmills: Palgrave, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fanego, Teresa. “Finite Complement Clauses in Shakespeare’s English, Part 2.” Studia Neophilologica 62.2 (1990): 129–49.Google Scholar
Franz, Wilhelm. Die Sprache Shakespeares in Vers und Prosa. 4th ed. Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1939.Google Scholar
González-Díaz, Victorina. English Adjective Comparison: A Historical Perspective. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hope, Jonathan. Shakespeare’s Grammar. Arden Shakespeare Companion Series. London: Thomson Learning, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobsson, Bengt. Inversion in English with Special Reference to the Early English Period. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells, 1951.Google Scholar
Kytö, Merja. “Be/have + Past Participle: The Choice of the Auxiliary with Intransitives from Late Middle to Modern English.” English in Transition: Corpus-Based Studies in Linguistic Variation and Genre Styles. Ed. Rissanen, Matti, Kytö, Merja, and Heikkonen, Kirsi. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997. 1785.Google Scholar
Nehls, Dietrich. Synchron-diachrone Untersuchungen zur Expanded Form in Englischen. Munich: Hueber, 1974.Google Scholar
Rissanen, Matti. “Syntax.” The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. 3: 1476–1776. Ed. Lass, Roger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 187331.Google Scholar
Smallwood, Philip J. Samuel Johnson’s Preface to Shakespeare: A Facsimile of the 1778 Edition. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1985.Google Scholar
Stein, Dieter. “At the Crossroads of Philology, Linguistics and Semiotics: Notes on the Replacement of TH by S in the Third Person Singular in English.” English Studies 68 (1987): 406–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yanagida, Kyoko. “A Study of Relative Pronouns in Shakespeare’s Plays – with Reference to Frequency.” Hakuoh University Journal 15.2 (1991): 122.Google Scholar

Further reading

Adamson, Sylvia, Hunter, Lynette, Magnusson, Lynne, Thompson, Ann, and Wales, Katie, eds. Reading Shakespeare’s Dramatic Language: A Guide. London: The Arden Shakespeare, 2001.Google Scholar
Blake, Norman F. Shakespeare’s Language: An Introduction. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burton, Dolores M. Shakespeare’s Grammatical Style: A Computer-Assisted Analysis of “Richard II” and “Antony and Cleopatra.” Austin: U of Texas P, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busse, Beatrix. Vocative Constructions in the Language of Shakespeare. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busse, Ulrich, and Busse, Beatrix. “Early Modern English: The Language of Shakespeare.” English Historical Linguistics: An International Handbook. Vol. 1. Ed. Bergs, Alexander and Brinton, Laurel J.. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2012. 808–26.Google Scholar
Delabastita, Dirk, and Hoenselaars, Ton, eds. Multilingualism in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries. Spec. issue English Text Construction 6.1 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fanego, Teresa. “‘Fare thee well, dame.’ Shakespeare’s Forms of Address and Their Socio-affective Role.” SEDERI Yearbook of the Spanish and Portuguese Society for English Renaissance Studies 15 (2005): 2342.Google Scholar
Fanego, Teresa. Infinitive Complements in Shakespeare’s English: Synchronic and Diachronic Aspects. Santiago de Compostela: Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.Google Scholar
Lass, Roger. “Phonology and Morphology.” The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. 3: 1476–1776. Ed. Lass, Roger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 56186.Google Scholar
Ravassat, Mireille, and Culpeper, Jonathan, eds. Stylistics and Shakespeare’s Language: Transdisciplinary Approaches. London: Continuum, 2012.Google Scholar
Salmon, Vivian, and Burness, Edwina, eds. A Reader in the Language of Shakespearean Drama. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sources cited

Barber, Charles. “‘You’ and ‘thou’ in Shakespeare’s Richard III.” Leeds Studies in English 12 (1983): 273–81.Google Scholar
Calvo, Clara. “Pronouns of Address and Social Negotiation in As You Like It.” Language and Literature 1.1 (1992): 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Draudt, M. G. C. Shakespeare’s Use of You and Thou: The Subtext of “Love’s Labour’s Lost.” Vienna: Braunmuller, 1984.Google Scholar
Hargrave, Francis, ed. A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and other Crimes and Misdemeanours from the Reign of King Richard II to the Reign of King George I. Vols. 1 and 4. 2nd ed. London: 1730.Google Scholar
Hope, Jonathan. “Second Person Singular Pronouns in Records of Early Modern ‘Spoken’ English.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 1 (1993): 83100.Google Scholar
Linfield, N.You and Thou in Shakespeare’s Othello.” Iowa State Journal of Research 57.2 (November 1982): 163–78.Google Scholar
Stansbury, Joan. “Characterisation of the Young Lovers in A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” Shakespeare Survey 35 (1982): 5763.Google Scholar
Wales, Kathleen M.‘Thou’ and ‘you’ in Early Modern English: Brown and Gilman Reappraised.” Studia Linguistica 37.2 (1983): 107–25.Google Scholar
Williams, Charles. “The Use of the Second Person in Twelfth Night.” English 9 (1953): 125–28.Google Scholar

Further reading

Freedman, Penny. Power and Passion in Shakespeare’s Pronouns: Interrogating ‘you’ and ‘thou.’ Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.Google Scholar
Lass, Roger, ed. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. 3: 1476–1776. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Alford, John A., ed. “Piers Plowman”: A Guide to the Quotations. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1992.Google Scholar
Berec, Laurent. Claude de Sainliens, un huguenot bourbonnais au temps de Shakespeare. Paris: Éditions Orizons, 2012.Google Scholar
Billings, Timothy. “Two New Sources for Shakespeare’s Bawdy French in Henry V.” Notes and Queries 52.2 (2005): 202–04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blank, Paula. Broken English: Dialects and the Politics of Language in Renaissance Writings. London: Routledge, 1996.Google Scholar
Delabastita, Dirk. “If I Know the Letters and the Language: Translation as a Dramatic Device in Shakespeare’s Plays.” Shakespeare and the Language of Translation. Ed. Hoenselaars, Ton. Rev. ed. London: Arden Shakespeare, 2004. 3152.Google Scholar
Delabastita, Dirk, and Hoenselaars, Ton, eds. Multilingualism in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries. Spec. issue English Text Construction 6.1 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckhardt, Edouard. Die Dialekt- und Ausländertypen des älteren englischen Dramas. 2 vols. Louvain: A. Uystpruyst, 1910–11.Google Scholar
Elam, Keir. Shakespeare’s Universe of Discourse: Language-Games in the Comedies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
Hoenselaars, A. J. Images of Englishmen and Foreigners in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries: A Study of Stage Characters and National Character in English Renaissance Drama, 1558–1642. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1992.Google Scholar
Hoenselaars, A. J.In the Shadow of St. Paul’s: Linguistic Confusion in English Renaissance Drama.” Neophilologus 76 (1992): 464–79.Google Scholar
Höfele, Andreas, and von Koppenfels, Werner, eds. Renaissance Go-Betweens: Cultural Exchange in Early Modern Europe. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, R. F. The Triumph of the English Language: A Survey of Opinions Concerning the Vernacular from the Introduction of Printing to the Restoration. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1953.Google Scholar
Jonson, Ben. “To the memory of my beloued, The Avthor Mr. William Shakespeare: And what he hath left us.” William Shakespeare: The Complete Works. 2nd ed. Ed. Wells, Stanley and Taylor, Gary. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005. lxxilxxii.Google Scholar
Kermode, Lloyd Edward. Aliens and Englishness in Elizabethan Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Lever, J. W.Shakespeare’s French Fruits.” Shakespeare Survey 6 (1953): 7990.Google Scholar
Montgomery, Marianne. Europe’s Languages on England’s Stages, 1590–1620. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012.Google Scholar
Mullaney, Steven. The Place of the Stage: License, Play and Power in Renaissance England. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1988.Google Scholar
Porter, Joseph A.More Echoes from Eliot’s Ortho-epia Galllica in King Lear and Henry V.” Shakespeare Quarterly 32.4 (1986): 486–88.Google Scholar
Simonini, R. C. Jr.Language Lesson Dialogues in Shakespeare.” Shakespeare Quarterly 2.4 (1951): 319–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Deanne. The French Fetish from Chaucer to Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn, ed. Language and Culture in Medieval Britain: The French of England, c.1100-c.1500. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2009.Google Scholar
Wyatt, Michael. The Italian Encounter with Tudor England: A Cultural Politics of Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yungblut, L. H. Strangers Settled Here Amongst Us: Policies, Perceptions and the Presence of Aliens in Elizabethan England. London: Routledge, 1996.Google Scholar

Further reading

Blake, N. F. Shakespeare’s Non-Standard English: A Dictionary of His Informal Language. London: Continuum, 2004.Google Scholar
De Groot, Jerome. 2011. “‘Euery one teacheth after thyr owne fantasie’: French Language Instruction.” Performing Pedagogy in Early Modern England: Gender, Instruction and Performance. Ed. Moncrief, Kathryn M. and McPherson, Kathryn Read. London: Ashgate, 2011. 3352.Google Scholar
Hoenselaars, Ton, and Buning, Marius, eds. English Literature and the Other Languages. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambley, Kathleen R. The Teaching and Cultivation of the French Language in England during Tudor and Stuart Times. London: Longman, 1920.Google Scholar
Lawrence, Jason. “Who the devil taught thee so much Italian?”: Italian Language Learning and Literary Imitation in Early Modern England. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2005.Google Scholar
Lennon, Brian. In Babel’s Shadow. Multilingual Literatures, Monolingual States. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakley-Brown, Liz, ed. Shakespeare and the Translation of Identity in Early Modern England. London: Continuum, 2011.Google Scholar
Weber, Jean-Jacques, and Horner, Kristine. Introducing Multilingualism: A Social Approach. Abingdon: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Arthusius, Gotardus. Dialogues in the English and Malaiane Languages. Trans. Spalding, Augustine. London: William Welby, 1614.Google Scholar
Castiglione, Baldassare. The Courtyer of Count Baldessar Castilio Divided into Foure Bookes. Trans. Hoby, Thomas. London: William Seres, 1561.Google Scholar
Cawdrey, Robert. A Table Alphabeticall. London: Edmund Weaver, 1604.Google Scholar
Cooper, Thomas. Thesaurus linguae romanae & brittanicae. London: Thomas Berthelet, 1565.Google Scholar
Corro, Antonio. The Spanish grammer with certeine rules teaching both the Spanish and French tongues. 1586. English version, London: John Wolfe, 1590.Google Scholar
Cotgrave, Randle. A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues. London: Adam Islip, 1611.Google Scholar
Elyot, Thomas. Dictionary. London: Thomas Berthelet, 1538.Google Scholar
Estienne, Robert. Dictionaire françois-latin. Paris: Robert Estienne, 1549.Google Scholar
Florio, John. Firste Fruites. London: Thomas Woodcock, 1578.Google Scholar
Florio, John. Queen Anna’s New World of Words. London: Edward Blount, 1611.Google Scholar
Florio, John. Second Frutes. London: Thomas Woodcock, 1598.Google Scholar
Florio, John. A Wordle of Wordes. London: Edward Blount, 1598.Google Scholar
Hollyband, Claudius. The French Littleton. London: Thomas Vautroullier, 1566.Google Scholar
The Holy Bible conteining the Olde Testament, and the New. [King James Bible.] London: Robert Barker, 1612.Google Scholar
le Mayre, Marten. The Dutch Schoole Master. Wherein is shewed the true and perfect way to learne the Dutch tongue, to the furtherance of all those which would gladlie learne it. London: George Eide for Simon Waterson, 1606.Google Scholar
Lexicons of Early Modern English [LEME]. http://leme.library.utoronto.ca/.Google Scholar
Minsheu, John. Dictionarie in Spanish and English. London: Edm. Bollifant, 1599.Google Scholar
Minsheu, John. Ductor in Linguas: The Guide into Tongues. London: William Aspley, 1617.Google Scholar
Montaigne, Michel. Essayes or Morall, Politike, and Millitarie Discourses. Trans. Florio, John. London: Edward Blount, 1604.Google Scholar
The New Testament. Trans. Tyndale, William. Cologne: H. Fuchs [?], 1525.Google Scholar
The New Testament of Jesus Christ, Translated Faithfully into English, out of the Authentical Latin. [Douay-Rheims Bible.] Rheims: John Fogny, 1582.Google Scholar
Nicot, Jean. Thresor de la langue françoise. Paris: David Douceur, 1606.Google Scholar
Pliny the Elder. Historie of the World, commonly called the Naturall Historie. London: Adam Islip, 1601.Google Scholar

Further reading

Anderson, J. H. Words That Matter: Linguistic Perception in Renaissance English. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.Google Scholar
Burke, Peter, and Po-chia Hsia, R.. Cultural Translation in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, Jonathan. Chasing the Sun: Dictionary-Makers and the Dictionaries They Made. London: Jonathan Cape, 1996.Google Scholar
Höfele, Andreas, and von Koppenfels, Werner. Renaissance Go-Betweens: Cultural Exchange in Early Modern Europe. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hotchkiss, V. R., and Robinson, F. C.. English in Print: From Caxton to Shakespeare to Milton. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2008.Google Scholar
Lawrence, Jason. “Who the devil taught thee so much Italian?”: Italian Language Learning and Literary Imitation in Early Modern England. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2005.Google Scholar
Morini, Massimiliano. Tudor Translation in Theory and Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.Google Scholar
Williams, Deanne. The French Fetish from Chaucer to Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Willinsky, John. Empire of Words: The Reign of the OED. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994.Google Scholar
Wyatt, Michael. The Italian Encounter with Tudor England: A Cultural Politics of Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sources cited

Ascham, Roger. The Scholemaster, or plaine and perfite way of teachyng children, to understand, write, and speak the Latin tong. London: 1570.Google Scholar
Baldwin, T. W. William Shakspere’s Small Latine and Lesse Greeke. 2 vols. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1944. The text is available as a searchable, open-access online edition at http://durer.press.illinois.edu/baldwin/index.html.Google Scholar
Barkan, Leonard. “What Did Shakespeare Read?The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. Ed. de Grazia, Margreta and Wells, Stanley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 3148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bate, Jonathan. Shakespeare and Ovid. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.Google Scholar
Boutcher, Warren. “The Renaissance.” The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation. Ed. France, Peter. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. 4555.Google Scholar
Burrow, Colin. “Shakespeare and Humanistic Culture.” Shakespeare and the Classics. Ed. Martindale, Charles and Taylor, A. B.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, Danielle. The Politics of Early Modern Women’s Writing. London: Longman, 2001.Google Scholar
Daniell, David. “Translating the Bible.” The Nature of Religious Language: A Colloquium. Ed. Porter, Stanley E.. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1996. 6887.Google Scholar
Delabastita, Dirk. “‘If I Know the Letters and the Language’: Translation as Dramatic Device in Shakespeare’s Plays.” Shakespeare and the Language of Translation. Ed. Hoenselaars, Ton. London: Thomson Learning, 2004. 3152.Google Scholar
Foakes, R. A., ed. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
Gillespie, Stuart. Shakespeare’s Books: A Dictionary of Shakespeare’s Sources. London: Athlone, 2001.Google Scholar
James, Heather. “Shakespeare’s Learned Heroines in Ovid’s Classroom.” Shakespeare and the Classics. Ed. Martindale, Charles and Taylor, A. B.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 6685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Emrys. The Origins of Shakespeare. Oxford: Clarendon, 1977.Google Scholar
Jonson, Ben. “To the memory of my beloued, The Avthor Mr. William Shakespeare: And what he hath left us.” William Shakespeare: The Complete Works. 2nd ed. Ed. Wells, Stanley and Taylor, Gary. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005. lxxilxxii.Google Scholar
Martindale, Charles. “Shakespeare and Virgil.” Shakespeare and the Classics. Ed. Martindale, Charles and Taylor, A. B.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 89106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martindale, Charles, and Martindale, Michelle. Shakespeare and the Uses of Antiquity. London: Routledge, 1990.Google Scholar
Moore, Helen. “Ancient and Modern Romance.” The Oxford Handbook of Literary Translation in English. Vol. 2: 1550–1660. Ed. Braden, Gordon, Cummings, Robert, and Gillespie, Stuart. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010. 333–46.Google Scholar
Morini, Massimiliano. Tudor Translation in Theory and Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.Google Scholar
Mueller, Janel, and Scodel, Joshua, eds. Elizabeth I: Translations, 1544–1589. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2009.Google Scholar
Nuttall, A. D.Action at a Distance: Shakespeare and the Greeks.” Shakespeare and the Classics. Ed. Martindale, Charles and Taylor, A. B.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 209–22.Google Scholar
Oakley-Brown, Liz. “Titus Andronicus and the Cultural Politics of Translation in Early Modern England.” Renaissance Studies 19.3 (2005): 325–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakley-Brown, Liz. “Translating the Subject: Ovid’s Metamorphoses in England, 1560–67.” Translation and Nation: Towards A Cultural Politics of Englishness. Ed. Ellis, Roger and Oakley-Brown, Liz. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2001. 4884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ovid, . Heroides and Amores. Trans. and ed. Showerman, Grant. London: William Heinemann, 1914.Google Scholar
Salter, Thomas. A Mirrhor mete for all Mothers, Matrones, and Maidens, intituled the Mirrhor of Modestie. London: Edward White, 1579.Google Scholar
Smith, G. Gregory, ed. Elizabethan Critical Essays. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1904.Google Scholar
Taylor, A. B.The Real Object of Mockery in ‘Pyramus and Thisbe.’Shakespeare Survey 42 (1990): 5364.Google Scholar
Tudeau-Clayton, Margaret. Jonson, Shakespeare and Early Modern Virgil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.Google Scholar

Further reading

Braden, Gordon. The Classics and English Renaissance Poetry: Three Case Studies. New Haven: Yale UP, 1978.Google Scholar
Braden, Gordon, Cummings, Robert, and Gillespie, Stuart, eds. The Oxford History of Literary Translation. Vol. 2: 1550–1660. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burke, Peter, and Hsia, R. Po-chia, eds. Cultural Translation in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Delabastita, Dirk, and Hoenselaars, Ton, eds. Multilingualism in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries. Spec. issue English Text Construction 6.1 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoenselaars, Ton, ed. Shakespeare and the Language of Translation. Rev. ed. London: Arden Shakespeare, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, Heather. Shakespeare’s Troy: Drama, Politics and the Translation of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martindale, Charles, and Taylor, A. B., eds. Shakespeare and the Classics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Patricia. Shakespeare from the Margins. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.Google Scholar
Rhodes, Neil. Shakespeare and the Origins of English. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shurink, Fred, ed. Tudor Translation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.Google Scholar
Taylor, A. B., ed. Shakespeare’s Ovid: The Metamorphoses in the Plays and the Poems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Walker, Kim, “Wrangling Pedantry: Education in The Taming of the Shrew.” Shakespeare Matters: History, Teaching, Performance. Ed. Davis, Lloyd. Newark: U of Delaware P, 2003. 191208.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Boorde, Andrew. The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. 1542. Ed. Furnivall, F. J.. London: Early English Text Society, 1871.Google Scholar
Carew, Richard. Survey of Cornwall. 1602. Richard Carew of Antony. Ed. Halliday, F. E.. London: Andrew Melrose, 1953.Google Scholar
Dekker, Thomas. Lanterne and Candlelight: or, the The Bellman’s Second Night’s Walke. 1608. Thomas Dekker. Ed. Pendry, E. D.. London: Edward Arnold, 1967. 187282.Google Scholar
Gil, Alexander. Logonomia Anglica. Part II. 1619. Trans. Alston, Robin C., eds. Daniellsson, Bror and Gabrielson, Arvid. Stockholm Studies in English 27 and 28. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksells, 1972.Google Scholar
Harman, Thomas. A Caveat or Warening, for Commen Cursetors. 1567. Ed. Viles, Edward and Furnivall, F. J.. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1869.Google Scholar
Redford, John. Wit and Science. c.1550. “Lost” Tudor Plays. Ed. Farmer, John S.. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966.Google Scholar
Udall, Nicholas. Respublica. 1553. Ed. Magnus, Leonard A.. London: Kegan Paul, 1905.Google Scholar

Further reading

Blake, N. F. Non-Standard Language in English Literature. London: Deutsch, 1981.Google Scholar
Blake, N. F. Shakespeare’s Non-Standard English: A Dictionary of His Informal Language. London: Continuum, 2004.Google Scholar
Blank, Paula. Broken English: Dialects and the Politics of Language in Renaissance Writings. London: Routledge, 1996.Google Scholar
Blank, Paula. “Languages of Early Modern Literature in Britain.” The Cambridge History of Early Modern English Literature. Ed. Loewenstein, David and Mueller, Janel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 141–69.Google Scholar
Coleman, Julie. A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries. Vol. 1: 1567–1784. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.Google Scholar
Jones, R. F. The Triumph of the English Language: A Survey of Opinions Concerning the Vernacular from the Introduction of Printing to the Restoration. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1953.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Jonson, Ben. Timber, or Discoveries. Ed. Hutson, Lorna. In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Ben Jonson. Ed. Bevington, David, Butler, Martin, and Donaldson, Ian. 7 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. VII: 481596.Google Scholar
Nashe, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Nashe. Ed. McKerrow, R. B.; rev. Wilson, F. P.. 5 vols. Oxford: Blackwell, 1958.Google Scholar
Silvayn, Alexander. The Orator. London: 1596.Google Scholar
Vickers, Brian. “Shakespeare’s Use of Rhetoric.” A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Ed. Muir, Kenneth and Schoenbaum, Samuel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971. 8398.Google Scholar
Wright, George T.Hendiadys and Hamlet.” Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 96 (1981): 168–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further reading

Adamson, Sylvia, Alexander, Gavin, and Ettenhuber, Katrin, eds. Renaissance Figures of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mack, Peter. Elizabethan Rhetoric: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Platt, Peter G.Shakespeare and Rhetorical Culture.” A Companion to Shakespeare. Ed. Kastan, David Scott. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. 277–96.Google Scholar
Rhodes, Neil. Shakespeare and the Origins of English. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richards, Jennifer. Rhetoric. London: Routledge, 2008.Google Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vickers, Brian. In Defense of Rhetoric. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Adamson, Sylvia, Alexander, Gavin, and Ettenhuber, Katrin, eds. Renaissance Figures of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, T. W. William Shakspere’s Small Latine & Lesse Greeke. 2 vols. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1944.Google Scholar
Castiglione, Baldassare. The Book of the Courtier. Trans. Hoby, Thomas, ed. Cox, Virginia. London: Dent, 1994.Google Scholar
Cicero, . De Oratore. Trans. Rackham, H.. Loeb Classical Library. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1992.Google Scholar
Erasmus, Desiderius. De Utraque Verborum ac Rerum Copia. Trans. King, Donald B. and Rix, H. David. Milwaukee: Marquette UP, 1999.Google Scholar
Howell, Wilbur Samuel. Logic and Rhetoric in England, 1500–1700. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1956.Google Scholar
Johnson, Samuel. “Preface to Shakespeare.” Johnson on Shakespeare. Ed. Desai, R. W.. 2nd ed. London: Sangam Books, 1985.Google Scholar
Mack, Peter. Elizabethan Rhetoric: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare and the Arts of Language. New York: Oxford UP, 2001.Google Scholar
Parker, Patricia. Literary Fat Ladies: Rhetoric, Gender, Property. London: Methuen, 1988.Google Scholar
Peacham, Henry. The Garden of Eloquence. The British Library facsimile, 2010.Google Scholar
Plett, Heinrick F. Rhetoric and Renaissance Culture. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[pseudo-]Cicero, . Ad Herennium. Trans. Caplan, H.. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1989.Google Scholar
Puttenham, George. The Art of English Poesy. Ed. Whigham, Frank and Rebhorn, Wayne A.. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2007.Google Scholar
Quintilian, . Institutio Oratoria. Trans. Butler, H. E.. Loeb Classical Library. 4 vols. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976.Google Scholar
Ramus, Peter. Rhetoricae Distinctiones in Quintilianum. 1549. Trans. Newlands, Carole. Dekalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1986.Google Scholar
Rhodes, Neil. Shakespeare and the Origins of English. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Susenbrotus, Joannes. Epitome Troporum ac Schematum. Text, trans., and comm. Brennan, Joseph Xavier. Unpublished PhD diss. U of Illinois at Urbana, 1953.Google Scholar
Vickers, Brian. In Defense of Rhetoric. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.Google Scholar
Walker, Jeffrey. Rhetoric and Poetics in Antiquity. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.Google Scholar
Wilson, Thomas. The Art of Rhetoric. 1560. Ed. Medine, Peter E.. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1994.Google Scholar
Wright, George T.Hendiadys and Hamlet.” Hearing the Measures: Shakespearean and Other Inflections. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 2001. 343.Google Scholar
Wright, George T. Shakespeare’s Metrical Art. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991.Google Scholar

Further reading

Joseph, Sister Miriam. Shakespeare’s Use of the Arts of Language. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2005.Google Scholar
Keller, Stefan Daniel. The Development of Shakespeare’s Rhetoric: A Study of Nine Plays. Tübingen: Frank Verlag, 2009.Google Scholar
Lanham, Richard. A Handlist of Rhetorical terms. 2nd ed. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lausberg, Heinrich. Handbook of Literary Rhetoric: A Foundation for Literary Study. Trans. Bliss, Matthew T., Jansen, Annemiek, and Orton, David E.. Leiden: Brill, 1998.Google Scholar
Mahood, M. M. Shakespeare’s Wordplay. London: Methuen, 1963.Google Scholar
McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare’s Late Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sloane, Thomas, ed. The Encyclopedia of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford UP, 2001.Google Scholar
Sonnino, Lee A. A Handbook to Sixteenth-Century Rhetoric. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968.Google Scholar
Vickers, Brian. Classical Rhetoric in English Poetry. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1970.Google Scholar
Vickers, Brian. “Rhetoric and Poetics.” The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy. Gen. ed. Schmitt, Charles B.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. 715–45.Google Scholar

Sources cited

Chambers, E. K. William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems. Oxford: Clarendon, 1930.Google Scholar
Cook, Hardy. “A Selected Guide to Shakespeare on the Internet.” Shaksper.net. 2009. http://shaksper.net/scholarly-resources/shakespeare-on-the-internet.Google Scholar
Craig, Hugh. “Shakespeare’s Vocabulary: Myth and Reality.” Shakespeare Quarterly 62.1 (2011): 5374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, Hugh, and Kinney, Arthur. Shakespeare, Computers, and the Mystery of Authorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crystal, David. The Stories of English. London: Allen Lane, 2004.Google Scholar
Efron, Brad, and Thisted, Ronald. “Estimating the Number of Unseen Species: How Many Words Did Shakespeare Know?Biometrika 63 (1976): 435–47.Google Scholar
Elliott, Ward E. Y., and Valenza, R. J.. “And Then There Were None: Winnowing the Shakespeare Claimants.” Computers and the Humanities 30 (1996): 191245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliott, Ward E. Y., and Valenza, R. J.. “Oxford by the Numbers: What Are the Odds That the Earl of Oxford Could Have Written Shakespeare’s Poems and Plays?Tennessee Law Review 72.1 (2004): 323453. http://www.cmc.edu/pages/faculty/welliott/UTConference/Oxford_by_Numbers.pdf.Google Scholar
Elliott, Ward E. Y., and Valenza, R. J.. “Shakespeare by Ear: What Can Intuition Tell Us about What He Wrote?The Shakespeare Newsletter 57 (winter 2007–08): 99117. http://www.cmc.edu/pages/faculty/welliott/ShakespearebyEar.pdf.Google Scholar
Elliott, Ward E. Y., and Valenza, R. J.. “Shakespeare’s Vocabulary: Did It Dwarf All Others?Stylistics and Shakespeare’s Language – Transdisciplinary Approaches. Ed. Ravassat, Mireille and Culpeper, Jonathan. London: Continuum, 2011.Google Scholar
Elliott, Ward E. Y., and Valenza, R. J.. “Smoking Guns and Silver Bullets: Could John Ford Have Written the Funeral Elegy?Literary and Linguistic Computing 16.3 (2001): 205–32.Google Scholar
Foster, Donald W. Elegy by W.S.: A Study in Attribution. Newark: U of Delaware P, 1989.Google Scholar
Hart, Alfred. “Growth of Shakespeare’s Vocabulary.” Review of English Studies 19 (1943): 242–54.Google Scholar
Hope, Jonathan. The Authorship of Shakespeare’s Plays: A Socio- linguistic Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoy, Cyrus. “The Shares of Fletcher and His Collaborators in the Beaumont and Fletcher Canon.” Studies in Bibliography 8 (1956): 129–46; 9 (1957): 143–62; 10 (1958): 85–106; 11 (1959): 91–116; 12 (1960): 77–108; 13 (1961): 45–67; 14 (1962): 71–90.Google Scholar
Jackson, MacDonald P.The Date and Authorship of Thomas of Woodstock: Evidence and Its Interpretation.” Research Opportunities in Medieval and Renaissance Drama 46 (2007): 67100.Google Scholar
Jackson, MacDonald P. Defining Shakespeare: Pericles as Test Case. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, MacDonald P.Early Modern Authorship: Canons and Chronologies.” Thomas Middleton and Early Modern Textual Culture. Ed. Taylor, Gary and Lavagnino, John. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007. 8097.Google Scholar
Jackson, MacDonald P.New Research in the Dramatic Canon of Thomas Kyd.” Research Opportunities in Renaissance Drama 47 (2008): 107–27.Google Scholar
Jackson, MacDonald P. Shakespeare’s A Lover’s Complaint: Its Date and Authenticity. Auckland: University of Auckland, 1965.Google Scholar
Jackson, MacDonald P. Studies in Attribution: Middleton and Shakespeare. Salzburg: Jacobean Drama Studies, 1979.Google Scholar
Lake, David J. The Canon of Thomas Middleton’s Plays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
Lake, David J.Three Seventeenth-Century Revisions: Thomas of Woodstock, The Jew of Malta, and Faustus B.” Notes and Queries 228 (1983): 133–43.Google Scholar
May, Steven W.The Seventeenth Earl of Oxford as Poet and Playwright.” Tennessee Law Review 72.1 (2004): 221–54.Google Scholar
McCrum, Robert, MacNeil, Robert, and Cran, William. The Story of English. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.Google Scholar
Müller, F. Max. Lectures on the Science of Language. New York: Scribner, 1862.Google Scholar
Nelson, Alan H.Stratford Si! Essex No! (An Open-and-Shut Case).” Tennessee Law Review 72.1 (2004): 149–69.Google Scholar
Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002.Google Scholar
Rosenbaum, Ron. The Shakespeare Wars: Clashing Scholars, Public Fiascoes, Palace Coups. New York: Random House, 2006.Google Scholar
Schoenbaum, Samuel. Internal Evidence and Elizabethan Dramatic Authorship: An Essay in Literary History and Method. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 1966.Google Scholar
Schoenbaum, Samuel. Shakespeare’s Lives. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991.Google Scholar
Shapiro, James. Contested Will: Who Wrote Shakespeare? New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010.Google Scholar
Tarlinskaja, Marina. Shakespeare’s Verse: Iambic Pentameter and the Poet’s Idiosyncrasies. New York: Peter Lang, 1987.Google Scholar
Tarlinskaja, Marina. “The Verse of A Lovers Complaint: Not Shakespeare.” Words That Count: Essays on Early Modern Authorship in Honor of MacDonald P. Jackson. Ed. Boyd, B.. Newark: U of Delaware P, 2004. 141–58.Google Scholar
Taylor, Gary. “The Canon and Chronology of Shakespeare’s Plays.” William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion. Ed. Wells, S. W. et al. Oxford: Clarendon, 1987. 69144.Google Scholar
Taylor, Gary. “Shakespeare and Others: The Authorship of Henry the Sixth, Part One.” Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 7 (1995): 145205.Google Scholar
Taylor, Gary, and Lavagnino, John, eds. Thomas Middleton and Early Modern Textual Culture: A Companion to the Collected Works. Oxford: Clarendon, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thisted, Ronald, and Efron, Brad. “Did Shakespeare Write a Newly-Discovered Poem?Biometrika 74.3 (1987): 445–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vickers, Brian. ‘Counterfeiting’ Shakespeare: Evidence, Authorship, and John Ford’s Funerall Elegye. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vickers, Brian. Shakespeare, A Lover’s Complaint, and John Davies of Hereford. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Vickers, Brian. Shakespeare, Co-author: A Historical Study of Five Collaborative Plays. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002.Google Scholar

Further reading

Elliott, Ward E. Y., and Valenza, Robert J.. “Two Tough Nuts to Crack: Did Shakespeare Write the ‘Shakespeare’ Portions of Sir Thomas More and Edward III?Literary and Linguistic Computing 25 (2010): 6783, 165–77. http://www.cmc.edu/pages/faculty/welliott/UTConference/2ToughNuts.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sources cited

Crystal, David. The Stories of English. London: Allen Lane, 2004.Google Scholar
OED Online. Oxford UP. http://dictionary.oed.com/. Accessed 19 April 2013.Google Scholar
The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.Google Scholar

Further reading

Garner, Bryan A.Shakespeare’s Latinate Neologisms.” Shakespeare Studies 15 (1982): 149–70.Google Scholar
Salmon, Vivian. “Some Functions of Shakespearian Word- Formation.” Shakespeare Survey 23 (1970): 1326.Google Scholar
Schäfer, Jürgen. Documentation in the O.E.D.: Shakespeare and Nashe as Test Cases. Oxford: Clarendon and Oxford UP, 1980.Google Scholar
Spevack, Marvin. A Complete and Systematic Concordance to the Works of Shakespeare. 6 vols. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1968.Google Scholar