Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-727vs Total loading time: 0.724 Render date: 2022-12-05T04:51:39.000Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Part II - Inhabitants

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 March 2021

Jenifer Neils
Affiliation:
American School of Classical Studies, Athens
Dylan K. Rogers
Affiliation:
University of Virginia
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Further Reading

The available literature on the population and social structure of Athens is vast and continues to multiply; for that reason, what follows is necessarily selective. For questions of population, a good place to begin is Akrigg 2019, as he references much of the earlier literature on both sides of the population debate. Much of the work on Athenian society has been focused on various groups and statuses. For the phratries, the standard work is still Lambert 1993, but see also Humphreys 2018. For a general examination of status categories in Athens, see Kamen 2013. On questions of gender and citizenship, see Blok 2017. For wealth and poverty, see Taylor 2017, and Kierstead and Klapaukh 2018. On associations in Athens and their connections with citizenship, see Jones 1999, Ismard 2010 and 2018, and Humphreys 2018. On questions of kinship relations, see Humphreys 2018. On metics, the standard work is still Whitehead 1977; for metic women, Kennedy 2014. For slavery, see Vlassopoulos 2009, Lewis and Canevaro 2014, and Lewis 2018.

Bibliography

Akrigg, B. 2019. Population and Economy in Classical Athens. Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blok, J. 2017. Citizenship in Classical Athens. Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coale, A.J., and Demeny, P.. 1966. Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations. Princeton.Google Scholar
Duplouy, A. 2015. “Genealogical and Dynastic Behaviour in Archaic and Classical Greece: Two Gentilician Strategies.” In Aristocracy in Antiquity: Redefining Greek and Roman Elites, eds. Fisher, N. and van Wees, H., Swansea, 5984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, M.H. 1985. Demography and Democracy: The Number of Athenian Citizens in the Fourth Century bc. Herning.Google Scholar
Hansen, M.H. 2011. “How to Convert an Army Figure into a Population Figure.” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 51: 239253.Google Scholar
Humphreys, S.C. 2018. Kinship in Classical Athens. Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ismard, P. 2010. La cité des réseaux: Athènes et ses associations, VIe–Ier siècle av. J.-C. Paris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ismard, P. 2018. “Associations and Citizenship in Attika from Solon to Kleisthenes.” In Defining Citizenship in Archaic Greece, eds. Duplouy, A. and Brock, R., Oxford, 145159.Google Scholar
Jones, N.F. 1999. The Associations of Classical Athens: The Response to Democracy. Oxford.Google Scholar
Kamen, D. 2013. Status in Classical Athens. Princeton.Google Scholar
Kennedy, R.F. 2014. Immigrant Women in Athens: Gender, Ethnicity, and Citizenship in the Classical City. New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kierstead, J.C., and Klapaukh, R.. 2018. “The Distribution of Wealthy Athenians in the Attic Demes.” In Ancient Greek History and Contemporary Social Science, eds. Canevaro, M., Erskine, A., Gray, B., and Ober, J., Edinburgh, 376401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, S.D. 1993. The Phratries of Attika. 2nd edn. Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Lambert, S.D. 1997. “The Attic Genos Salaminioi and the Island of Salamis.” ZPE 119: 85106.Google Scholar
Lewis, D.M. 2015. “Slavery and Manumission.” In The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Law, eds. Harris, E. and Canevaro, M., Oxford.Google Scholar
Lewis, D.M. 2018. Greek Slave Systems in their Eastern Mediterranean Context, c. 800–146 bc. Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, D.M and Canevaro, M. 2014. “Khoris Oikountes and the Obligations of Freedmen in late Classical and early Hellenistic Athens.” Incidenza dell’antico 12: 91121.Google Scholar
Loraux, N. 1993. The Children of Athena: Athenian Ideas about Citizenship and the Division between the Sexes. Princeton.Google Scholar
Moreno, A. 2007. Feeding the Democracy: The Athenian Grain Trade in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries bc. Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osborne, R. 1985. Demos: The Discovery of Classical Attika. Cambridge.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. 2007. “A New Political World.” In Debating the Athenian Cultural Revolution: Art, Literature, Philosophy, and Politics 430–380 bc, ed. Osborne, R., Cambridge, 7290.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. 2017. Poverty, Wealth, and Well-Being: Experiencing Penia in Democratic Athens. Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, M. 1997. Salamis and the Salaminioi: The History of an Unofficial Athenian Demos. Leiden.Google Scholar
Vlassopoulos, K. 2009. “Slavery, Freedom, and Citizenship in Classical Athens: Beyond a Legalistic Approach.” In Slavery, Citizenship, and the State in Classical Antiquity, eds. Vlassopoulos, K. and Geary, D.. European Review of History 16:3: 347364.Google Scholar
Whitehead, D. 1977. The Ideology of the Athenian Metic. Cambridge.Google Scholar

Further Reading

The Greek (and especially Athenian) family continues to be the focus of a wide range of discussion. For the perspectives developed in this chapter, see especially Patterson 1998, Closterman 2006, and Cohen 2011. Humphreys 1980 remains an important and fundamental article for the topic.

Bibliography

Additional resources to accompany this chapter can be found at: www.cambridge.org/NeilsRogers

Clairmont, C. 1993. Classical Attic Tombstones. Vols. 1–7. Kilchberg.Google Scholar
Closterman, W. 2006. “Family Members and Citizens: Athenian Identity and the Peribolos Tomb Setting.” In Antigone’s Answer: Essays on Death and Burial, Family, and State in Ancient Athens, ed. Patterson, C., Lubbock, 4978.Google Scholar
Cohen, A. 2011. “Picturing Greek Families.” In A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds, ed. Rawson, B., Malden, MA, 465487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphreys, S.C. 1980. “Family Tombs and Tomb-Cult in Classical Athens.” JHS 100: 96126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liston, M.A., Rotroff, S.I., and Snyder, L.M.. 2018. The Agora Bone Well. Princeton.Google Scholar
Patterson, C. 1998. The Family in Greek History. Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
Patterson, C. ed. 2006. Antigone’s Answer: Essays on Death and Burial, Family, and State in Ancient Athens. Lubbock.Google Scholar
Zelnick-Abramovitz, R. 2015. “Whose Grave Is This? The Status of Grave Plots in Ancient Greece.” Dike 18: 5198.Google Scholar

Further Reading

A recent exhibition at the Museum of Cycladic Art on ancient health practices and cults has summary essays on various aspects of health and disease (Stampolidis and Tassoulas 2014). Two collections of papers on ancient health provide a wide range of perspectives on the topic (Hope and Marshall 2000; King 2005). The Phaleron Archaeological Project being conducted at the Malcolm Weiner Laboratory for Archaeological Science of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens has, as of this writing, begun to move from cleaning and preparation to publication of 1,200 skeletons. This enormous cemetery of the early port of Athens will provide an unparalleled view of the lives of ordinary Athenians, slaves, and convicted criminals. Updates are available on the project website: http://phaleron.digital-ascsa.org/.

Bibliography

Additional resources to accompany this chapter can be found at: www.cambridge.org/NeilsRogers

Bourbou, C. 2003. “A Survey of Neoplastic Disease in Ancient and Medieval Greek Populations.” Eulimine 4: 181188.Google Scholar
Hope, V.M., and Marshall, E., eds. 2000. Death and Disease in the Ancient City. London.Google Scholar
King, H., ed. 2005. Health in Antiquity. London.Google Scholar
Lagia, A. 2007. “Notions of Childhood in the Classical Polis: Evidence from the Bioarchaeological Record.” In Constructions of Childhood in Ancient Greece and Italy, eds. Cohen, A. and Rutter, J.B., Princeton, 293306.Google Scholar
Liston, M.A. 2012. “Reading the Bones: Interpreting the Skeletal Evidence for Women’s Lives in Ancient Greece.” In A Companion to Women in the Ancient Mediterranean, eds. James, S.A. and Dillon, S., Malden, MA, 125140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liston, M.A., and Papadopoulos, J.K. 2004. “The Rich Athenian Lady Was Pregnant: The Anthropology of a Geometric Tomb Reconsidered.” Hesperia 73.1: 738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liston, M.A., Rotroff, S.I., and Snyder, L.M.. 2018. The Agora Bone Well. Princeton.Google Scholar
Littman, R.J. 2009. “The Plague of Athens: Epidemiology and Paleopathology.” Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 76: 456467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell-Boyask, R. 2008. Plague and the Athenian Imagination: Drama, History, and the Cult of Asclepius. Cambridge.Google Scholar
Papagrigorakis, M.J., Yapijakis, C., Synodinos, P.N., and Baziotopoulou-Valavani, E.. 2006. “DNA Examination of Ancient Dental Pulp Incriminates Typhoid Fever as a Probable Cause of the Plague of Athens.” International Journal of Infectious Diseases 10: 206214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papadopoulos, J.K., and Smithson, E.L., eds., with Liston, M.A., Ruscillo, D., Strack, S., and Dimitriadou, E.. 2018. The Early Iron Age: The Cemeteries. Agora 36. Princeton.Google Scholar
Prevedorou, E.-A., and Buikstra, J.E.. 2019. “Bioarchaeological Practice and the Curation of Human Skeletal Remains in a Greek Context: The Phaleron Cemetery.” Advances in Archaeological Practice 7: 6067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siek, T. 2019. “Reconsidering Palaeoepidemiological Investigations in Palaeo-Oncology.” PhD dissertation, University College London.Google Scholar
Smith, S.K. 2009. “Skeletal Evidence for Militarism in Mycenaean Athens.” In New Directions in the Skeletal Biology of Greece, eds. Schepartz, L.A., Fox, S.C., and Bourbou, C., Princeton, 99110.Google Scholar
Smith, S.K. 2010. “Differential Diagnosis and Discussion of a Large Nasal Neoplasm from a Late Bronze Age Athenian Male.” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 20: 731736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stampolidis, N.C., and Tassoulas, Y.. 2014. Hygeia: Health, Illness, Treatment from Homer to Galen. Athens.Google Scholar

Further Reading

The growing field of Animals Studies has encouraged recent publications on many aspects of ancient Greek (and thus Athenian) animals; e.g., bovines by McInerney 2010, who reflects on their symbolic value and their many functions within ancient Greek culture; birds by Mynott 2018. The best general introduction is Campbell 2014, with chapters organized according to theme, and covering much that is mentioned here, as well the economy, magic, communication, husbandry, metamorphosis, zoology, etc. For classification, terminology, and species, see Calder 2011; Korhonen and Ruonakoski 2017; and the user-friendly collections of Kitchell 2013, and Lewis and Llewelyn-Jones 2018. Fauna are covered by MacKinnon (in Campbell 2014); Ekroth and Wallensten 2013; and see Liston et al. 2018, for dogs found deposited with infants in a second-century bc well in the Agora. For animal fossils and their connections to mythology, see Mayor (in Campbell 2014). Both Kalof 2011 and Campbell 2014 place Greek animals into a wider ancient context. Hybrid creatures in Athenian literature and art are well covered in Padgett 2003 and Aston 2011, while animal-shaped vessels from Athens and elsewhere are the topic of a recent exhibition and well-illustrated catalogue (Ebbinhaus 2018).

Bibliography

Additional resources to accompany this chapter can be found at: www.cambridge.org/NeilsRogers

Aston, E. 2011. Mixanthrôpoi: Animal–Human Hybrid Deities in Greek Religion. Liège.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bérard, C. et al. 1989. A City of Images: Iconography and Society in Ancient Greece. Princeton.Google Scholar
Boardman, J. 1978. Greek Sculpture: The Archaic Period. London.Google Scholar
Boardman, J. 1998. Early Greek Vase Painting. London.Google Scholar
Calder, L. 2011. Cruelty and Sentimentality: Greek Attitudes to Animals, 600–300 bc. Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, G.L., ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebbinhaus, S. 2018. Animal-Shaped Vessels from the Ancient World: Feasting with Gods, Heroes, and Kings. New Haven.Google Scholar
Ekroth, G., and Wallensten, J., eds. 2013. Bones, Behaviour, and Belief: The Zooarchaeological Evidence as a Source for Ritual Practice in Ancient Greece and Beyond. Stockholm.Google Scholar
Jameson, M.H. 2014. Cults and Rites in Ancient Greece: Essays on Religion and Society. Cambridge.Google Scholar
Kalof, L., ed. 2011. A Cultural History of Animals in Antiquity. Oxford.Google Scholar
Kaltsas, N. 2002. Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Athens.Google Scholar
Kitchell, K.F. 2013. Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z. London.Google Scholar
Korhonen, T., and Ruonakoski, E.. 2017. Human and Animal in Ancient Greece: Empathy and Encounter in Classical Literature. London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurtz, D.C., and Boardman, J.. 1971. Greek Burial Customs. London.Google Scholar
Lewis, S., and Llewelyn-Jones, L.. 2018. The Culture of Animals in Antiquity: A Sourcebook with Commentaries. London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lissarrague, F. 1990. The Aesthetics of the Greek Banquet: Images of Wine and Ritual. Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liston, M.A., Rotroff, S.I., and Snyder, L.M.. 2018. The Agora Bone Well. Princeton.Google Scholar
McInerney, J. 2010. The Cattle of the Sun: Cows and Culture in the World of the Ancient Greeks. Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mynott, J. 2018. Birds in the Ancient World: Winged Words. Oxford.Google Scholar
Padgett, M. ed. 2003. The Centaur’s Smile: The Human Animal in Early Greek Art. New Haven.Google Scholar
Popkin, M. 2012. “Roosters, Columns, and Athena on Early Panathenaic Prize Amphoras: Symbols of a New Athenian Identity.” Hesperia 81: 207235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steiner, D. 2013. “Swallow This: A Pelike within Late Archaic Song and Visual Culture.” Helios 40: 4170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Inhabitants
  • Edited by Jenifer Neils, American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Dylan K. Rogers, University of Virginia
  • Book: The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Athens
  • Online publication: 10 March 2021
Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

  • Inhabitants
  • Edited by Jenifer Neils, American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Dylan K. Rogers, University of Virginia
  • Book: The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Athens
  • Online publication: 10 March 2021
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Inhabitants
  • Edited by Jenifer Neils, American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Dylan K. Rogers, University of Virginia
  • Book: The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Athens
  • Online publication: 10 March 2021
Available formats
×