Home
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-q5g9d Total loading time: 0.245 Render date: 2022-01-24T20:04:09.820Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

# 6 - An ocean climate modeling perspective on buoyancy-driven flows

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 April 2012

## Summary

Ocean models are based on the conservation of vector momentum, and scalar tracers, which give time evolution (prognostic) equations for the velocity field, the active temperature and salinity tracers, and all passive tracers of interest, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients. In contrast, ocean density, ρ, is diagnostic and not necessarily conserved. It is computed from the active tracers using an equation of state (EoS). Griffies (2002) and works cited therein discuss the approximations leading to the primitive equations that are typically solved by climate models, and common ways that the global ocean is discretized. Various methods of integrating the equations are also presented, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Asummary, including the equations themselves, is provided in Treguier et al. (Chapter 7, this volume). The existence of such excellent references means that this chapter can focus on specific illustrative examples of the workings of buoyancy in particular ocean models, without being comprehensive, or repeating the background.

The great challenge of climate modeling is the roughly 10-decade-wide range of potentially important interacting scales; from the more than 107 m global scale to the less than 10-2 m viscous scale. Present coupled climate calculations are reaching down to the 104 m horizontal and 10 m vertical scales in the ocean, but still many subgrid scale (SGS) processes and interactions rely on parameterizations. In principle, model fidelity should benefit from increased resolution. Indeed, improvements can be dramatic.

Type
Chapter
Information
Buoyancy-Driven Flows , pp. 240 - 280
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

## Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

### Purchase

Buy print or eBook[Opens in a new window]

## References

, 1960: Control of inversion height by surface heating. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 483–494.Google Scholar
, , , , , , and , 2005: Response of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and ventilation to increasing carbon dioxide in CCSM3. J. Climate 19, 2382–2397.Google Scholar
, , , , , and , 2010: Frontal Scale air–sea interaction in high-resolution coupled climate models. J. Climate 23, 6277–6291, doi: 10.1175/2010 JCLI3665.1.Google Scholar
, and , 2007: Temporal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N. Science 317, 935–938, doi:10.1126/science.1141304.Google Scholar
, , , , , and , 2006: Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2347–2365.Google Scholar
, , and , in press: Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115, C11005, doi:10.1029/ 2010JC006243.
, 1970: A numerical study of three-dimensional channel flow at large Reynolds number. J. Fluid Mech. 41, 453–480.Google Scholar
, 1972: Theoretical expression for the countergradient vertical heat flux. J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5900–5904.Google Scholar
, and , 1994: The production of North Atlantic DeepWater: Sources, rates, and pathways. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12319–12341.Google Scholar
, , and , 2004: Boundary circulation at the exit of the Labrador Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34, 1548–1570.Google Scholar
, and , 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20, 150–155.Google Scholar
, 2002: Fundamentals of Ocean Climate Models. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
, , , , and , 2005: On the DeepWestern Boundary Current south of Cape Cod. Deep-Sea Res. II 52, 615–625.Google Scholar
, 1999: Interannual variability of the subsurface high salinity tongue south of the equator at 165°E. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 2038–2049.Google Scholar
, , and , 2001: Age tracers in an ocean GCM. Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 1423–1441.Google Scholar
, , and , 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys. 32, 363–403.Google Scholar
, and , 1999: Validation of vertical mixing in an equatorial ocean model using large eddy simulations and observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 449–464.Google Scholar
and , 2008: The Global Climatology of an Interannually Varying Air-Sea Flux Data Set. Climate Dyn. 33, 341–364, doi: 10.1007/s00382-008-0441-3.Google Scholar
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and , 2009: Improving oceanic overflow representation in climate models: The Gravity Current Entrainment Climate Process Team. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 657–670.Google Scholar
, 1974: Model of the height variation of the turbulence kinetic energy budget in the unstable planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 465–474.Google Scholar
, , and , 1980: Mean-Field and second-moments budgets in a baroclinic, convective boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1313–1326.Google Scholar
, , and , 1988: Instability and multiple steady states in a meridional-plane modle of the thermohaline circulation. Tellus 40A, 162–172.Google Scholar
, and , 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. 20, 851–875.Google Scholar
, and , 1971. Statistical Fluid Mechanics, vol. 1. MIT Press, Cambridge MA.
, and , 1981: Parameterization of vertical mixing in numerical models of the tropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 1443–1451.Google Scholar
, and , 2006: Transit-time distributions in a global ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 36, 474–495.Google Scholar
, , , , , , , , , , and , 2005: Thermohaline circulation hysteresis: A model intercomparison. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L23605, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023655.Google Scholar
, , , and , 2004: Autonomous profiling floats: Workhorse for broadscale ocean observations. Mar. Techn. Soc. J. 38(1), 31–39.Google Scholar
, , , , , and , 2009: Large-eddy simulation of an idealized tropical cyclone. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2884.1.Google Scholar
, , and (2008): The global ocean carbon cycle. In: and (eds.), State of the Climate in 2007. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89(7), S52–S56.
, 1988: Mixing in a thermohaline staircase. In: and (eds.), Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean, pp. 435–452. Elsevier, New York.
, 1961: Thermohaline convection with two stable regimes of flow. Tellus 13, 224–230.Google Scholar
, 1986: Thermohaline effects on the ocean circulation and related simple models. In: and (eds.), Large-Scale Transport Processes in the Oceans and Atmospheres, pp. 163–200. NATO ASI Series, Reidel.
, , and , 2007: On the effects of parameterized Mediterranean overflow on North Atlantic ocean circulation and climate. Ocean Modelling 19, 31–52.Google Scholar
, and , 1993: Large eddy simulation in geophysical turbulence parameterization: An overview. In: in (eds.), Large Eddy Simulation of Complex Engineering and Geophysical Flows, pp. 349–368. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
and , 2004: Later winter generation of spiciness on subducted isopycnals. Phys. Oceanogr. 34, 1528–1547.Google Scholar
and , 2007: Observational evidence of winter spice injection. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 37, 2895–2919.Google Scholar
, and , 2005: A prognostic scheme of sea surface skin temperature for modeling and data assimilation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023030.Google Scholar

# Send book to Kindle

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

# Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

# Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×