Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-h9sqt Total loading time: 0.42 Render date: 2022-01-20T13:59:02.539Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

7 - The evolution of technology: scientific method, engineering design, and translational research

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

Rebecca Richards-Kortum
Rice University, Houston
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Tredgold, T. ICE Council Minutes. ICE Meeting of Council. 1827–1835 December 29;3.
,National Science Foundation. Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship. 2007 [refd 2007 June 1]; Available from:
,National Institutes of Health. NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. 2007 May 25 [refd 2007 June 1]; Available from:
Hopkin, K. Biography of Huda Y. Zoghbi, M.D. Chevy Chase, M.D.: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; 2003.Google Scholar
Heart–Lung Machine. Arlington, VA: The Whitaker Foundation; 2006.
Stephenson, LW. History of cardiac surgery. In: Edmonds, LH, Cohn, LH, eds. Cardiac Surgery in the Adult. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003.Google Scholar
Kasper, D, Braunwald, E, Fauci, A, Longo, D, Hauser, S, Jameson, JL. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.Google Scholar
,American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2007 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2007.Google Scholar
History of Medical Diagnosis and Diagnostic Imaging. 2006 August [refd 2006 September 16]; Available from:
Lebedev, MA, Nicolelis, MA. Brain–machine interfaces: past, present and future. Trends in Neurosciences. 2006 Sep; 29(9): 536–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapin, JK, Moxon, KA, Markowitz, RS, Nicolelis, MA. Real-time control of a robot arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex. Nature Neuroscience. 1999 Jul; 2(7): 664–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fetz, EE. Real-time control of a robotic arm by neuronal ensembles. Nature Neuroscience. 1999 Jul; 2(7): 583–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brain-Computer Interfaces Come Home: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; 2006 November 28.
Bonetta, L. Flow cytometry smaller and better. Nature Methods. 2005; 2(10): 785–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodriguez, WR, Christodoulides, N, Floriano, PN, Graham, S, Mohanty, S, Dixon, M, et al. A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings. PLoS Medicine. 2005 Jul; 2(7): e182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yager, P, Edwards, T, Fu, E, Helton, K, Nelson, K, Tam, MR, et al. Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health. Nature. 2006 Jul 27; 442(7101): 412–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
,PATH. Rapid Diagnostic Test Technologies: Lateral-flow. [refd 2007 April 10]; Available from:
Pandy, MG. Computer modeling and simulation of human movement. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering. 2001; 3: 245–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, JH, Thampatty, BP. An introductory review of cell mechanobiology. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 2006 Mar; 5(1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bedoya, J, Meyer, CA, Timmins, LH, Moreno, MR, Moore, JE. Effects of stent design parameters on normal artery wall mechanics. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2006 Oct; 128(5): 757–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capturing the Full Power of Biomaterials for Military Medicine: Report of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences; 2004.
Burt, HM, Hunter, WL. Drug-eluting stents: a multidisciplinary success story. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2006 Jun 3; 58(3): 350–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saulnier, B. The Big Picture. Cornell Alumni Magazine. 2004 Sep/Oct; 107(2).Google Scholar
Langer, RS. An interview with a distinguished pharmaceutical scientist: Robert S. Langer. Pharmaceutical Research. 1999 Apr; 16(4): 475–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Langer, R. Robert Langer, ScD – Engineering medicine. Interview by M. J. Friedrich. Jama. 2005 Oct 5; 294(13): 1609–10.Google Scholar
Timeline of Key Events in U.S. Transplantation and UNOS History. 2007 [refd 2007 April 12]; Available from:
U.S. Transplantation Data. 2007 [refd 2007 April 12]; Available from:
Help Save a Life. 2007 [refd 2007 April 12]; Available from:
Polak, JM, Bishop, AE. Stem cells and tissue engineering: past, present, and future. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006 Apr; 1068: 352–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nerem, RM. Tissue engineering: the hope, the hype, and the future. Tissue Engineering. 2006 May; 12(5): 1143–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehrenreich, M, Ruszczak, Z. Update on tissue-engineered biological dressings. Tissue Engineering. 2006 Sep; 12(9): 2407–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atala, A, Bauer, SB, Soker, S, Yoo, JJ, Retik, AB. Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty. The Lancet. 2006 Apr 15; 367(9518): 1241–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aschheim, K. Profile: Anthony Atala. Nature Biotechnology. 2006 Nov; 24(11): 1311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ideker, T, Winslow, LR, Lauffenburger, AD. Bioengineering and systems biology. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2006 Feb; 34(2): 257–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
,Institute for Systems Biology. Health Care in the 21st Century: Predictive, Preventive and Personalized. 2006 [refd 2006 November 13]; Available from:
Westerhoff, HV, Palsson, BO. The evolution of molecular biology into systems biology. Nature Biotechnology. 2004 Oct; 22(10): 1249–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henry, CM. Systems biology. Chemical and Engineering News. 2003 May 19: 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hess, H, Bachand, GD, Vogel, V. Powering nanodevices with biomolecular motors. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany). 2004 May 3; 10(9): 2110–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edwards, JS, Palsson, BO. The Escherichia coli MG1655 in silico metabolic genotype: its definition, characteristics, and capabilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000 May 9; 97(10): 5528–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephanopoulos, G. Metabolic fluxes and metabolic engineering. Metabolic Engineering. 1999 Jan; 1(1): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wishart, D. Production of Protein Pharmaceuticals (Part 1) [PowerPoint Slides]: University of Alberta; 2005.
Asthagiri, AR, Lauffenburger, DA. Bioengineering models of cell signaling. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering. 2000; 2: 31–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bennasroune, A, Gardin, A, Aunis, D, Cremel, G, Hubert, P. Tyrosine kinase receptors as attractive targets of cancer therapy. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2004 Apr; 50(1): 23–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maynard, J, Georgiou, G. Antibody engineering. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering. 2000; 2: 339–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daar, AS, Thorsteinsdottir, H, Martin, DK, Smith, AC, Nast, S, Singer, PA. Top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries. Nature Genetics. 2002 Oct; 32(2): 229–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pecoul, B, Chirac, P, Trouiller, P, Pinel, J. Access to essential drugs in poor countries: a lost battle?Jama. 1999 Jan 27; 281(4): 361–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Free, MJ. Achieving appropriate design and widespread use of health care technologies in the developing world. Overcoming obstacles that impede the adaptation and diffusion of priority technologies for primary health care. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2004 Jun; 85 Suppl. 1: S3–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Innovation or Stagnation?Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration; 2004 March.
Koizumi, K. National Institutes of Health in the FY 2007 Budget. In: ,Intersociety Working Group, ed. AAAS Report XXXI Research and Development FY 2007. Annapolis Junction, MD: AAAS 2006.Google Scholar
,A.8. Health Related R&D. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2005 – Towards a knowledge-based economy OECD Publishing 2005.
Wong, J, Quach, U, Thorsteinsdottir, H, Singer, PA, Daar, AS. South Korean biotechnology – a rising industrial and scientific powerhouse. Nature Biotechnology. 2004 Dec; 22 Suppl.: DC42–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, M. Global Vaccine Initiative Hits Snag. Wall Street Journal. 2006 July 7.Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats