Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-ms7nj Total loading time: 1.446 Render date: 2022-08-11T22:55:38.066Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Part I - Encountering Marginalisation

Disparities in Higher Education and the Broader Society

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 September 2020

Jacqueline Bhabha
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Wenona Giles
Affiliation:
York University, Toronto
Faraaz Mahomed
Affiliation:
FXB Center for Health and Human Rights
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
A Better Future
The Role of Higher Education for Displaced and Marginalised People
, pp. 19 - 174
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2002). Who Trusts Others? Journal of Public Economics, 85(2), 207234. DOI:10.1016/s0047-2727(01)00084-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altbach, P., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. Paris: UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000183135Google Scholar
Auriol, L. (2010). Careers of Doctorate Holders: Employment and Mobility Patterns. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:10.1787/5kmh8phxvvf5-enGoogle Scholar
Barro, R. (2000). Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries. Journal of Economic Growth, 5(1), 532. DOI:10.1023/a:1009850119329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beal, S., & Crockett, L. (2010). Adolescents’ Occupational and Educational Aspirations and Expectations: Links to High School Activities and Adult Educational Attainment. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 258265. DOI:10.1037/a0017416CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Björklund, Anders, & Salvanes, Kjell G. (2011). Education and Family Background: Mechanisms and Policies. In Bjorklund, Anders and Salvanes, Kjell G. (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Education, vol 3, Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Borgonovi, F., & Pál, J. (2016). A Framework for the Analysis of Student Well-Being in the PISA 2015 Study: Being 15 in 2015. OECD Education Working Papers. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jlpszwghvvb-enGoogle Scholar
Brennan, J., & Naidoo, R. (2008). Higher Education and the Achievement (and/or Prevention) of Equity and Social Justice. Higher Education, 56, 287302. DOI:10.1007/s10734-008-9127-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brinbaum, Y., & Cebolla-Boado, H. (2007). The School Careers of Ethnic Minority Youth in France: Success or Disillusion? Ethnicities, 7(3), 445474. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796807080237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, R. (2012). Student-Parents and Higher Education: A Cross-National Comparison. Journal of Education Policy, 27(3), 423439. DOI:10.1080/02680939.2011.613598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camilleri, A., Griga, D., Mühleck, K., Miklavič, K., Proli, D., & Schneller, C. (2013). Evolving Diversity II. Participation of Students with an Immigrant Background in European Higher Education. EURASHE, Brussels. www.eurashe.eu/library/equnet_report_2_evolving-diversity_migration-pdf/Google Scholar
Card, D. (September, 2001). Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems. Econometrica, 69(5), 11271160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clancy, P., & Goastellec, G. (2007). Exploring Access and Equity in Higher Education: Policy and Performance in a Comparative Perspective. Higher Education Quarterly, 61(2), 136154. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2273.2007.00343.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crawford, C., Gregg, P., Macmillan, L., Vignoles, A., & Wyness, G. (2016). Higher Education, Career Opportunities, and Intergenerational Inequality. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 553575. DOI:10.1093/oxrep/grw030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cullinan, J., Flannery, D., Walsh, S., & McCoy, S. (2013). Distance Effects, Social Class and the Decision to Participate in Higher Education in Ireland. Economic and Social Review, 44(1), 1951. www.esr.ie/article/view/62Google Scholar
Feliciano, C., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2005). Gendered Paths: Educational and Occupational Expectations and Outcomes among Adult Children of Immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(6), 10871118. DOI:10.1080/01419870500224406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frenette, M. (2006). Too Far to Go On? Distance to School and University Participation. Education Economics, 14(1), 3158. DOI:10.1080/09645290500481865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hauschildt, K., Vögtle, E., & Gwosć, C. (2018). Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe: EUROSTUDENT VI 2016–2018 – Synopsis of Indicators. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann Verlag.Google Scholar
Hillman, N., & Weichman, T. (2016). Education Deserts: The Continued Significance of ‘Place’ in the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. www.acenet.edu/news-room/Pages/CPRS-Viewpoints-Education-Deserts.aspxGoogle Scholar
Holmlund, H., Lindahl, M., & Plug, E. (2011). The Causal Effect of Parents’ Schooling on Children’s Schooling: A Comparison of Estimation Methods. Journal of Economic Literature, 49(3), 615651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Imbeau, L., Landry, R., Milner, H., Pétry, F., Crête, J., Forest, P., & Lemieux, V. (2000). Comparative Provincial Policy Analysis: A Research Agenda. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique, 33(4), 779804.Google Scholar
Jackson, M., Jonsson, J. O., & Rudolphi, F. (2011). Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden. Sociology of Education, 85(2), 158178. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040711427311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B., Lochner, K., & Prothrow-Stith, D. (1997). Social Capital, Income Inequality, and Mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 87(9), 14911498. DOI:10.2105/ajph.87.9.1491CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, A. (2012). The Rise and Consequences of Inequality. Presentation made at the Center for American Progress, Washington, DC. www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/krueger_cap_ speech_final_remarks.pdfGoogle Scholar
Lochner, L. (2011). Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. In Machin, S., Hanushek, E., & Woessmann, L. (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol. 4 (pp. 183282). North Holland, Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Marandet, E., & Wainwright, E. (2010). Invisible Experiences: Understanding the Choices and Needs of University Students with Dependent Children. British Educational Research Journal, 36(5), 787805. DOI:10.1080/01411920903165595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marconi, G. (2017a). Equity in Tertiary Education: Relevance and Data Availability across OECD Countries. In GAPS Think Piece. GAPS. www.gaps-education.org/news-events/closing-gaps-thinkpieces/Google Scholar
Marconi, G. (2017b). Pilot Survey on Equity in Tertiary Education: Results and Discussion. Declassified OECD Document Nr. EDU/EDPC/INES/WP (2017) 7. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3386937Google Scholar
Marginson, S. (2011). Equity, Status and Freedom: A Note on Higher Education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(1), 2336. DOI:10.1080/0305764X.2010.549456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marginson, S. (2016). The Worldwide Trend to High Participation Higher Education: Dynamics of Social Stratification in Inclusive Systems. Higher Education, 72(4), 413434. DOI:10.1007/s10734-016-0016-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
OECD (2008). Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:10.1787/9789264063518-huGoogle Scholar
OECD (2011). OECD Regional Typology. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD (2012). Grade Expectations: How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students’ Ambitions. PISA report. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264187528-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2015a). Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2015-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2015b). In It Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264235120-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2015c). Progress Report with the Development of Indicators on Tertiary Education and Outcomes of the Third INES Rating Exercise. Declassified OECD document. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD (2016a). Ad-hoc Survey on National Preferences and Data Availability on Equity in Tertiary Education: Results. OECD internal document. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD (2016b). Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2016-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2016c). Skills Matter. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:10.1787/9789264258051-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2017a). Benchmarking Higher Education System Performance: Conceptual Framework and Data. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD (2017b). PISA 2015 Results (Volume III): Students’ Well-Being. PISA report. Paris:OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264273856-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2017c). Pilot Survey on Equity in Tertiary Education: Results and Discussion. Declassified OECD document. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD (2017d). OECD Employment Outlook 2017. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2017-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2018a). The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background: Factors that Shape Well-Being. OECD Reviews of Migrant Education. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264292093-enGoogle Scholar
OECD (2018b). Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD (n.d.). Benchmarking Higher Education Systems 2017/2018: Estonia, Flemish Community, Norway and the Netherlands. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
OECD/Eurostat/UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015). ISCED 2011 Operational Manual: Guidelines for Classifying National Education Programmes and Related Qualifications. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264228368-enGoogle Scholar
Oreopoulos, P., & Salvanes, K. G. (2011). Priceless: The Nonpecuniary Benefits of Schooling. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(1), 159184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perna, L. (2000). Differences in the Decision to Attend College among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites. Journal of Higher Education, 71(2), 117141. DOI:10.2307/2649245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Portes, A., Aparicio, R., Haller, W., & Vickstrom, E. (2018). Moving Ahead in Madrid: Aspirations and Expectations in the Spanish Second Generation. International Migration Review, 44(4), 767801. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2010.00825.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Psacharopoulos, G. (1990). Comparative Education: From Theory to Practice, or Are You A: \neo.* or B:\*. ist? Comparative Education Review, 34(3), 369380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritzen, J. (2010). A Chance for European Universities. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Saez, E., & Zucman, G. (2016). Wealth Inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from Capitalized Income Tax Data. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(2), 519578. DOI:10.1093/qje/qjw004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shavit, Y., Arum, R., & Gamoran, A. (eds.). (2007). Stratification in Higher Education: A Comparative Study. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Smalley, K., & Warren, J. (2013). Rurality as a Diversity Issue. In Smalley, K., Warren, J., & Rainer, J. (eds.), Rural Mental Health: Issues, Policies, and Best Practices (pp. 3747). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Sørensen, E., & Høst, A. (2015). Does Distance Determine Who Is in Higher Education? In MPRA Paper. MPRA, Munich. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/74517/1/MPRA_paper_74517.pdfGoogle Scholar
UNESCO (2006). International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 1997. Montreal: UNESCO-UIS. www.uis.unesco.orgGoogle Scholar
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2012). International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 2011. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.Google Scholar
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015). ISCED 2011 Operational Manual: Guidelines for Classifying National Education Programmes and Related Qualifications. Montreal.Google Scholar
UOE (2018). UNESCO-UIS/OECD/EUROSTAT Data Collection on Formal Education – Manual on Concepts, Definitions and Classifications. UOE, Montreal, Paris, Luxembourg. 7 March 2018, http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/uoe2016manual_11072016_0.pdfGoogle Scholar
Usher, A. (2004). A New Measuring Stick: Is Access to Higher Education in Canada Equitable? Educational Policy Institute, Toronto. www.yorku.ca/pathways/literature/Access/usher%2004.pdfGoogle Scholar
Welch, A. (2008). Myths and Modes of Mobility: The Changing Face of Academic Mobility in the Global Era. In Byram, M., & Dervin, F. (eds.), Students, Staff, and Academic Mobility in Higher Education (pp. 292311). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
Woessmann, L. (2016). The Economic Case for Education. Education Economics, 24(1), 332. DOI:10.1080/09645292.2015.1059801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alba, R., & Holdaway, J. (2013). The Children of Immigrants at School. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akgunduz, A. (2008). Labour Migration from Turkey to Western Europe, 1960–1974: A Multidisciplinary Analysis. Aldershot & Burlington, VT: Ashgate (2016) London & New York: Routledge (Second Edition).Google Scholar
Crul, M. (2000). De sleutel tot success. Over hulp, keuzes en kansen in de schoolloopbanen van leerlingen van Turkse en Marokkaanse jongeren van de tweede generatie. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
Crul, M. (2013). Snakes and Ladders in Educational Systems: Access to Higher Education for Second Generation Turks in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(9), 13831401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crul, M. (2015). Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second- Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands. European Journal of Education, 50(3), 325339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crul, M. (2018). How Key Transitions Influence School and Labour Market Careers of Descendants of Moroccan and Turkish Migrants in the Netherlands. European Journal of Education, 53, 481594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crul, M., Ghorashi, H., & Valenzuala, A. (in press). Introduction. In Crul, M., Ghorashi, H., & Valenzuala, A. (eds.), Different Faces and Practices of Decolonization. The Challenges of Critically Informed Academia in Polarizing Times. Stellenbosch: SUNMedia.Google Scholar
Crul, M., & Schneider, J. (2010). Comparative Context Integration Theory: Participation and Belong in Europe’s Large Cities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34, 12491268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crul, M., Schneider, J., & Lelie, F. (2012). The European Second Generation: Does the Integration Context Matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crul, M., Keskiner, E., Schneider, J., & Lelie, F. (2017). The Multiplier Effect: How the Accumulation of Cultural and Social Capital Explains Steep Upward Mobility of Children of Low Educated Immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40, 321338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crul, M., Holdaway, J., De Valk, H., Fuentes, N., & Zaal, M. (2013). Educating the Children of Immigrants in New and Old Amsterdam. In Alba, R., & Holdaway, J. (eds.), The Children of Immigrants at School. (pp. 3983) New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuseo, J. (2012). Academic-Support Strategies for Promoting Student Retention and Achievement during the First Year of College. Ulster: University of Ulster.Google Scholar
Cuvelier, P., Berckmoes, D., Rombouts, H., De Beuckelaer, W., & Vandenbussche, P. (2014). Monitoraat op maat. Taalondersteuning academisch Nederlands Universiteit Antwerpen. Antwerp: Universiteit Antwerpen.Google Scholar
De Jong, M. (2012). Ik ben die Marokkaan niet! Onderzoek naar identiteitsvorming van Marokkaans-Nederlandse HBO studenten. Amsterdam: VU University Press.Google Scholar
De Vries, M. (1987). Ogen in je rug. Turkse jonge meisjes en jonge vrouwen in Nederland. Alphen aan de Rijn: Samson.Google Scholar
EP and Nuffic (2015). Education System, The Netherlands: The Dutch Education System Described. The Hague: EP and Nuffic.Google Scholar
Foo, K., & Ariss Fong, N. (2009). Best Practices in Equity and Diversity: A Survey of Selected Universities. Project Report for the Equity Office of the University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
Gandera, P., & Contreras, F. (2008). Understanding the Latino Educational Gap: Why Latinos Don’t Go to College. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Glick Schiller, N., Çaglãr, A., & Guldbrandsen, T. (2006). Beyond the Ethnic Lens: Locality, Globality, and Born-Again Incorporation. American Ethnologist, 33(4), 612633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heath, A., & Brinbaum, Y. (2007). Explaining Ethnic Inequalities in Educational Attainment. Ethnicities, 7, 291304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurd, N., Tan, J., & Loeb, E. (2016). Natural Mentoring Relationships and the Adjustment to College among Underrepresented Students. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57(3), 330341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurtado, S. (2013). Diverse Learning Environments: Assessing and Creating Conditions for Student Success: Final Report to the Ford Foundation. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, University of California.Google Scholar
Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2016). De staat van het onderwijs. Onderwijsverslag 2014/2015. Utrecht: Inspectie van het Onderwijs.Google Scholar
Lens, D., Levrau, F., Piqueray, E., De Coninck, D., Clycq, N., & Timmerman, C. (2015). De universiteit in een tijd van toegenomen diversiteit: Een studie over de in-, door- en uitstroom van ‘maatschappelijk kwetsbare studenten’ aan de UAntwerpen. Antwerp: Centrum voor Migratie en Interculturele Studies, Universiteit Antwerpen.Google Scholar
Lindo, F. (1996). Maakt cultuur verschil? De invloed van groep specifieke gedragspatronen op de schoolloopbanen van Turkse en Iberische migrantenjongeren. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
Louie, V. (2012). Keeping the Immigrant Bargain: The Costs and Rewards of Success in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.Google Scholar
Meeuwisse, M., & Severiens, S. (2012). Studiesucces en leeromgeving. Een studie naar thuisvoelen, inzet en tijdsbesteding. HO management, 4(1), 1820.Google Scholar
Milem, J., Chang, M., & Antonio, A. (2005). Making Diversity Work on Campus: A Research-Based Perspective. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
Nanhoe, A. (2012). Mijn ouders migreerden om erop vooruit te gaan. Onderwijs en de dynamische habitus. Succesbevorderende factoren in de onderwijscarriere van Marokkaanse, Hindostaanse en autochtoon Nederlandse academici uit lagere sociaal-economische milieus in Nederland. Antwerp–Apeldoorn: Garant Publishers.Google Scholar
Rezai, S., Crul, M., Severiens, S., & Keskiner, E. (2015). Passing the Torch to a New Generation: A Qualitative Study of Highly Educated Second Generation’s Receiving Parental Support and Giving Support to the Younger Generation. Journal of Comparative Migration Studies, 3(12), 117.Google Scholar
Santelli, E. (2013). Upward Social Mobility among Franco-Algerians, the Role of Family Transmission. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 39(3), 551573.Google Scholar
Schnell, P. (2014). Educational Mobility of Second-Generation Turks. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schnell, P. (2015). Behind the Scenes: Family Involvement and Educational Achievement of Second-Generation Turks in Austria, France and Sweden. Journal of Comparative Migration Studies, 3(2), 10. DOI:10.1186/s40878-015-0013-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schnell, P., Crul, M., & Keskiner, E. (2013). Success against All Odds: Educational Pathways of Disadvantaged Second Generation Turks in France and the Netherlands. Educational Inquiry, 1(4), 125147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau (2013). Jaarrapport integratie. The Hague: SCP.Google Scholar
Slootman, M. (2017). Diversity Monitor VU 2017. Amsterdam: VU.Google Scholar
Slootman, M., & Wolff, R. (2017). Diversity Monitor 2017: Enrolment, Dropout and Graduation at Three Universities (EUR, VU and UL) A Synthesis. Amsterdam and Rotterdam: VU/EUR.Google Scholar
Smedley, B., Myers, H. F., & Harrell, S. P. (1993). Minority-Status Stresses and the College Adjustment of Ethnic Minority Freshmen. Journal of Higher Education, 64(4), 434452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suárez-Orozco, C., Pimentel, A., & Martin, M. (2009). The Significance of Relationships: Academic Engagement and Achievement among Newcomer Immigrant Youth. Teachers College Record, 111, 712749.Google Scholar
Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Tinto, V. (2012). Completing College: Rethinking Institutional Action. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolff, R. (2013). Presteren op eigen bodem. Een onderzoek naar sociale hulpbronnen en de leeromgeving als studiesuccesfactoren voor niet westerse allochtone studenten in het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs. Amsterdam: UvA.Google Scholar
Wolff, R., & Crul, M. (2002). Talent gewonnen. Talent verspild? Utrecht: ECHO.Google Scholar
Wolff, R., & Crul, M. (2003). Blijvers en uitvallers in hoger onderwijs. Utrecht: ECHO.Google Scholar
Wolff, R., & Severiens, S. (2011). De weg naar een keuze, een afslag naar success. Thema, 2, 1621.Google Scholar
Zijlstra, W., Asper, H., Amrani, A., & Tupan-Wenno, M. (2013). Generiek is divers. Sturen op studiesucces in een grootstedelijke context. Utrecht: ECHO.Google Scholar
Ahmed, S. (2012). On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Raleigh: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altbach, P. G., Davis, C. H., Eisemon, T. O. et al. (1989). Scientific Development and Higher Education: The Case of Newly Industrializing Nations. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
Bhabha, J., Matache, M., Chernoff, M. et al. (2018). One in One Hundred. Available online at https://cdn2.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/114/2018/12/OneinOneHundred.pdfGoogle Scholar
Bogojević, et al. (2003) quoted in Pesikan, A., & Ivic, I. (2016). The Sources of Inequity in the Education System of Serbia and How to Combat Them. CEPS Journal, 6(2), 101124.Google Scholar
Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
Civil Rights Defenders (2017). The Wall of Anti-Gypsyism. Roma in the Republic of Serbia, Stockholm. Available online at https://crd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/The-Wall-of-Anti-Gypsyism-Roma-in-Serbia.pdfGoogle Scholar
Council of Europe (2017). Fighting School Segregation in Europe through Inclusive Education: A Position Paper. Available online at https://rm.coe.int/fighting-school-segregationin-europe-throughinclusive-education-a-posi/168073fb65Google Scholar
Deem, R., & Morley, L. (2006). Diversity in the Academy? Staff Perceptions of Equality Policies in Six Contemporary Higher Education Institutions. Policy Futures in Education, 4(2), 185202. https://doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2006.4.2.185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Djordjević, T. R. (1924). Iz Srbije Kneza Milosa. Stanovnistvo – naselja. Beograd: Geca Kon.Google Scholar
Dotcho, M. (2012). The Health Situation of Roma Communities: Analysis of the Data from the UNDP/World Bank/EC Regional Roma Survey 2011. Roma Inclusion Working Papers. Bratislava: United Nations Development Programme. Available online at www.undp.org/content/dam/rbec/docs/The-health-situation-of-Roma-communities.pdfGoogle Scholar
European Commission (2012). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Koninklijke Brill NV. Available online at https://doi.org/10.1163/2210-7975_HRD-4679-0058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
European Commission (2014). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Report on the Implementation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies, Brussels. Available online at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0209&from=ENGoogle Scholar
European Commission, DG Education and Culture (2014). Proposal for Key Practices of a Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
European Roma Rights Centre (2003). Segregated Education for Romani Children in Serbia and Montenegro. Available online at www.errc.org/roma-rights-journal/segregated-education-for-romani-children-in-serbia-and-montenegroGoogle Scholar
European Roma Rights Centre (2010). Europe’s Highest Court Rules Roma School Segregation by Language Illegal. Available online at www.errc.org/press-releases/europes-highest-court-rules-roma-school-segregation-by-language-illegalGoogle Scholar
European Roma Rights Centre (2016a). Romani Children Segregated in Serbian Kindergarten. Available online at www.errc.org/press-releases/romani-children-segregated-in-serbian-kindergartenGoogle Scholar
European Roma Rights Centre (2016b). Written Comments by the European Roma Rights Centre for Consideration by the European Commission Concerning Roma Inclusion in the Western Balkans Progress Reports 2016. Available online at www.errc.org/uploads/upload_en/file/ec-submission-on-roma-inclusion-in-the-western-balkans-july-2016.pdfGoogle Scholar
European Roma Rights Centre (2017). ERRC submission to the European Commission on the Enlargement Component of the EU Roma Framework. Available online at www.errc.org/uploads/upload_en/file/submission-on-roma-inclusion-in-enlargement-countries-may-2017.pdfGoogle Scholar
European Union, European Court of Auditors (2016). EU policy Initiatives and Financial Support for Roma Integration: Significant Progress Made over the Last Decade, but Additional Efforts Needed on the Ground. Available online at www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR16_14/SR_ROMA_EN.pdfGoogle Scholar
Fields, K., & Fields, B. (2012). Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life. London, New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Fundamental Rights Agency Statements in European Commission (2018). Commission Staff Working Document Evaluation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020, Brussels: 2018, 4.12.2018 SWD (2018) 480 final.Google Scholar
Fundamental Rights Agency (2012). The Situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States. Available online at https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2012/situation-roma-11-eu-member-states-survey-results-glanceGoogle Scholar
Fundamental Rights Agency (2018). Fundamental Rights Report 2018. Available online at http://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/fundamental-rights-report–2018Google Scholar
Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace, and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillborn, D. (2006). Rethinking White Supremacy: Who Counts in ‘WhiteWorld’. Ethnicities, 6(3), 318340. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796806068323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Government of Serbia (2010). Strategy tor Improvement of the Status of Roma in the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade. Available online at www.undp.org/content/dam/serbia/Publications%20and%20reports/English/UNDP_SRB_Strategy_for_the_Improvement_of_the_Status_of_Roma_in_the_Republic_of_Serbia.pdfGoogle Scholar
Government of Serbia (2016). Serbian National Strategy for Roma Inclusion. Available online at www.minrzs.gov.rs/files/doc/2016_godina/Strategija_uljucivanje_roma/Nation al_Strategy_for_Roma_Inclusion_2016–2025.docxGoogle Scholar
Government of Serbia (2017). Strategy of the Social Inclusion of Roma in Serbia for the Period from 2016 to 2025, Quoted in Civil Rights Defenders, The Wall of Anti-Gypsyism. Roma in the Republic of Serbia. Available online at https://crd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/The-Wall-of-Anti-Gypsyism-Roma-in-Serbia.pdfGoogle Scholar
Gray, P. (2008). A Brief History of Education. To Understand Schools, We Must View Them in Historical Perspective. Available online at www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/freedom-learn/200808/brief-history-educationGoogle Scholar
Guy, W. (2001). The Czech Lands and Slovakia: Another False Dawn? In Marushiakova, E. & Popov, V. (eds.), State Policies under Communism, Roma History (pp. 293310). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
Henricsson, L., & Rydell, A. M. (2004). Elementary School Children with Behaviour Problems: Teacher-Child Relations and Self-Perception. A Prospective Study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(2), 111138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinton-Smith, T., Danvers, E., & Jovanovic, T. (2018). Roma Women’s Higher Education Participation: Whose Responsibility? Gender and Education, 30(7), 811828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoyland, J. (1816). A Historical Survey of the Gipsies; Designed to Develop the Origin of This Singular People, and to Promote the Amelioration of Their Condition. York: William Alexander.Google Scholar
Joksic, T. (2015). Discrimination of Roma in Serbia. [online] Available online at: www.aktionbleiberecht.de/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2014/10/Tijana_Joksic_Roma_Discrimantion-1.pdfGoogle Scholar
Jovanovic, T. (2013). Teaching Competencies as a Means of Overcoming Roma Educational Exclusion in Serbia: A Critical Appraisal of Current Policy. MA. University of SussexGoogle Scholar
Jovanovic, T. (2018). Roma Student Access to Higher Education in Serbia: Challenges and Promises. PhD. University of Sussex.Google Scholar
Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2001). Peer Harassment in School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimized. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Karanovich, M. (1979). The Beginning of Girls’ Education in Modern Serbia, 1838–1858. Balkan Studies, 20(2), 429441.Google Scholar
Kovács-Cerović, T. (2006) National Report Serbia. In Zgaga, P. (ed.), The Prospects of Teacher Education in South-East Europe (pp. 487527). Ljubljana: Pedagoška Fakulteta.Google Scholar
Macura-Milovanović, S. (2008b). Barriers to the Inclusion of Roma Children. 30 April 2012, www.childrenwebmag.com/articles/child-care-social-issues/barriers-to-the-inclusion-of-roma-childrenGoogle Scholar
Macura-Milovanovic, S. (2013). Pre-primary Education of Roma Children in Serbia: Barriers and Possibilities, CEPS Journal 3. Available online at www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/7953/pdf/cepsj_2013_2_MacuraMilovanovic_Pre_primary_education_of_Roma.pdfGoogle Scholar
Matache, M., & Barbu, S. (2019). The History of School Desegregation for Roma. Available online at www.romarchive.eu/rom/roma-civil-rights-movement/history-school-desegregation-roma/Google Scholar
Matache, M. (2017a). Biased Elites, Unfit Policies: Reflections on the Lacunae of Roma Integration Strategies. European Review, 25(4), 588607. Available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798717000254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matache, M. (2017b). Dear Gadjo (non-Romani) Scholars … .Boston: FXB Center for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University.Google Scholar
Matras, Y. (2014). I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. Harmondsworth: Allen Lane, Penguin.Google Scholar
McGarry, A. (2017). Romaphobia: The Last Acceptable Form of Racism. London: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2002). Modeling the Role of Child Ethnicity and Gender in Children’s Differential Response to Teacher Expectations.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(1), 159184. Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559–1816.2002.tb01425.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milanković, J., Ivkov-Džigurski, A., Đukičin, S., Ivanović, B. L., Lukić, T., & Kalkan, K. (2015). Attitudes of School Teachers about Roma Inclusion in Education, a Case Study of Vojvodina, Serbia. Geographica Pannonica, 19(3), 122129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mintz, S. (2012). Education in the American Colonies. Available online at www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=36Google Scholar
Mirza, H. S. (2006). ‘Race’, Gender and Educational Desire. Race Ethnicity and Education, 9(2), 137158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelaj, D., Kaçiu, E., Dundo, J., & Dervishi, Z. (2012). Factors Affecting Roma Integration in Albania: A comparative study. Open Society Institute for Albania, Institute for Development and Research Alternatives. [online report]. Available at: www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9662_file1_comparative-study-factors- affecting-roma-inclusion- in-albania-final-docx.pdfGoogle Scholar
OECD (2012). Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools. Available online at https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264130852-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
OECD (2018). Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators. Available online at https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2018-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olweus, D. (2003). A Profile of Bullying in Schools. Educational Leadership, 60(6), 1217.Google Scholar
Olweus, D. (2007). What Is Bullying? Center City: Hazelden Foundation.Google Scholar
Open Society Institute (2007). Monitoring Report: Equal Access to Quality Education for Roma. Available online at https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra-2014_roma-survey_education_tk0113748enc.pdfGoogle Scholar
Open Society Institute (2010). Research on Schools and Classes for Children with Developmental Difficulties: Roma Children in ‘Special Education’ in Serbia: Overrepresentation, Underachievement, and Impact on Life. Available online at www.opensocietyfoundations.org/uploads/b61d6fa6-a304-4a65-917c-2110aa53e24e/roma-children-serbia-20101019.pdfGoogle Scholar
OSCE/ODIHR (2013). Implementation of the Action Plan on Improving the Situation of Roma and Sinti within the OSCE Area Renewed Commitments, Continued Challenges Status Report. Available online at www.osce.org/odihr/107406?download=trueGoogle Scholar
Pesikan, A., & Ivic, I. (2016). The Sources of Inequity in the Education System of Serbia and How to Combat Them. CEPS Journal, 6(2), 101124.Google Scholar
Phillips, C. (2011). Institutional Racism and Ethnic Inequalities: An Expanded Multilevel Framework. Journal of Social Policy, 40(1), 173192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pisarri, M. (2014). The Suffering of the Roma in Serbia during the Holocaust. Available online at www.starosajmiste.info/userfiles/files/download/Pisari_The_Suffering_of_the_Roma_in_Serbia_during_the_Holocaust.pdfGoogle Scholar
Roma Education Fund (2007). Advancing Education of Roma in Serbia. Country Assessment and the Roma Education Fund’s Strategic Directions. Budapest: REF.Google Scholar
Romani CRISS, CURS, Roma Education Fund (2012). Absenteismul cadrelor didactice şi situaţia elevilor romi din şcolile primare din. Bucharest: O analiză exploratorie.Google Scholar
Rorke, B. (2016). 25 Years after Yugoslavia: Roma Exclusion (Part 1). Available online at www.errc.org/news/25-years-after-yugoslavia-roma-exclusion-part–1Google Scholar
Rorke, B., Matache, M., & Friedman, E. (2015). A Lost Decade? Reflections on Roma Inclusion 2005–2015. Available online at www.rcc.int/romaintegration2020/romadecadefold//decade%20implementation/5.%20Decade%20Secretariat%20Reports/A%20Lost%20Decade.pdfGoogle Scholar
Rubin, K., Both, L., & Wilkinson, M. (1990). The Waterloo Longitudinal Project: Correlates and Consequences of Social Withdrawal in Childhood. Waterloo: University of Waterloo.Google Scholar
Sameroff, A. (2010). A Unified Theory of Development: A Dialectic Integration of Nature and Nurture. Child Development, 81(1), 622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
Spasenovic, V., Petrovic, A., & Maksic, S. (2015). Serbia. In Horner, W., Dobert, H., Reuter, L. R., & von Kopp, B. (eds.), The Education Systems of Europe, 2nd edn (pp. 710724). Geneva: Springer International.Google Scholar
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and UNICEF (2014). Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and 2014 Serbia Roma Settlements Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Key Findings. Available online at www.unicef.org/serbia/sites/unicef.org.serbia/files/2018–08/MICS5_2014_SERBIA_Key_Findings_and_Roma_Settlements.pdfGoogle Scholar
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (2011). Census, 2011. Available online at http://popis2011.stat.rs/?page_id=2988&lang=enGoogle Scholar
Stewart, M., Rovid, M., & Vid, M. R. R. (2011). Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Romany Studies. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
Pankhurst, S. (1918). Education of the Masses, Dreadnought Pamphlet No. 1. London: The Dreadnought Publishers.Google Scholar
Telles, E., & Paschel, T. (2014). Who is Black, White, or Mixed Race? How Skin Color, Status, and Nation Shape Racial Classification in Latin America. American Journal of Sociology, 120(3), 864907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNDP/World Bank/EC regional Roma survey (2011). Roma Inclusion Working Papers. Available online at http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2015/EN/1-2015-299-EN-F1-1.PDFGoogle Scholar
UNDP (2017). Regional Roma Survey 2017: Country Fact Sheets. Available online at www.eurasia.undp.org/content/rbec/en/home/library/roma/regional-roma-survey-2017-country-fact-sheets.htmlGoogle Scholar
UNICEF (2009). When Special Means Excluded, Roma Segregation in Special Schools in the CEE/CIS Region. Geneva: UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.Google Scholar
Walker, A., Sinfield, A., & Walker, C. (eds.). (2011). Fighting Poverty, Inequality and Injustice: A Manifesto Inspired by Peter Townsend. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abu El-Haj, T. R. (2007). ‘I Was Born Here, but My Home, It’s Not Here’: Educating for Democratic Citizenship in an Era of Transnational Migration and Global Conflict. Harvard Educational Review, 77(3), 285316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abu El-Haj, T. R. (2015). Unsettled Belonging: Educating Palestinian American Youth after 9/11. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Addams, J. (2008 [1908]). The Public School and the Immigrant Child. In Flinders, D. J. & Thornton, S. J. (eds.), The Curriculum Studies Reader (pp. 2527). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging Adulthood: A Theory of Development from the Late Teens through the Twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469480. DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bajaj, M., & Bartlett, L. (2017). Critical Transnational Curriculum for Immigrant and Refugee Students. Curriculum Inquiry, 47(1), 2535. DOI:10.1080/03626784.2016.1254499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bajaj, M., Ghaffar-Kucher, A., & Desai, K. (2016). Brown Bodies and Xenophobic Bullying in US Schools: Critical Analysis and Strategies for Action. Harvard Educational Review, 86(4), 481505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartlett, L., Mendenhall, M., & Ghaffar-Kucher, A. (2017). Culture in Acculturation: Refugee Youth’s Schooling Experiences in International Schools in New York City. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 60, 109119. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.04.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bigelow, M. (2010). Mogadishu on the Mississippi: Language, Racialized Identity, and Education in a New Land. Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Brinkerhoff, J. M. (2011). Diasporas and Conflict Societies: Conflict Entrepreneurs, Competing Interests or Contributors to Stability and Development? Conflict, Security & Development, 11(2), 115143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camarota, S. A., & Zeigler, K. (2017). 1.8 Million Immigrants Likely Arrived in 2016, Matching Highest Level in U.S. History. Washington, DC: https://cis.org/sites/default/files/2018–01/numbers-dec-17_0.pdfGoogle Scholar
Chopra, V. (2018). Learning to Belong, Belonging to Learn: Syrian Refugee Youths’ Pursuits of Education, Membership and Stability in Lebanon. Unpublished Dissertation (EdD), Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
Council on American-Islamic Relations (2017). Unshakable: The Bullying of Muslim Students and the Unwavering Movement to Eradicate It. California Chapter of the Council on American-Islamic Relations and is an online report https://ca.cair.com/sacval/news/2017-bullying-report/Google Scholar
Crawley, H., & Skleparis, D. (2018). Refugees, Migrants, Neither, Both: Categorical Fetishism and the Politics of Bounding in Europe’s ‘Migration Crisis’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1), 4864. DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2017.1348224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryden-Peterson, S. (2017). Family–school relationships in Immigrant Children’s Well-Being: The Intersection of Demographics and School Culture in the Experiences of Black African Immigrants in the United States. Race Ethnicity and Education, 21(4), 117. DOI:10.1080/13613324.2017.1294562Google Scholar
Dryden-Peterson, S., Dahya, N., & Adelman, E. (2017). Pathways to Educational Success among Refugees: Connecting Local and Global Resources. American Educational Research Journal, 54(6), 10111047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryden-Peterson, S., & Reddick, C. (2017). ‘When I am a President of Guinea’: Resettled Refugees Traversing Education in Search of a Future. European Education, 49(4), 253275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryden-Peterson, S., & Reddick, C. (2019). ‘What I Believe Can Rescue that Nation’: Diaspora Working Transnationally to Transform Education in Fragility and Conflict. Comparative Education Review, 63(2), 213235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durrani, M. (2016). Normalization is Control: Telling Stories to Survive. http://religiondispatches.org/normalization-is-control-telling-stories-to-survive/Google Scholar
Erisman, W., & Looney, S. (2007). Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants. Washington, DC: www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/openingthedoor.pdfGoogle Scholar
Freedom House (2011). Freedom in the World: Syria. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2011/syriaGoogle Scholar
Gahungu, A., Gahungu, O., & Luseno, F. (2011). Educating Culturally Displaced Students with Truncated Formal Education (CDS-TFE): The Case of Refugee Students and Challenges for Administration, Teachers, and Counselors. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 6(2), 119.Google Scholar
Ghiso, M. P., & Campano, G. (2013). Coloniality and Education: Negotiating Discourses of Immigration in Schools and Communities through Border Thinking. Equity & Excellence in Education, 46(2), 252269. DOI:10.1080/10665684.2013.779160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Watch (2011). World Report 2011. New York: Human Rights Watch. www.hrw.org/world-report/2011/country-chapters/syriaGoogle Scholar
Isik-Ercan, Z. (2012). In Pursuit of a New Perspective in the Education of Children of the Refugees: Advocacy for the ‘Family’. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 30253038.Google Scholar
Iskander, N. N. (2010). Creative State: Forty Years of Migration and Development Policy in Morocco and Mexico. Ithaca: ILR Press.Google Scholar
Katsiaficas, D., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Dias, S. I. (2015). ‘When Do I Feel Like an Adult?’: Latino and Afro-Caribbean Immigrant-Origin Community College Students’ Conceptualizations and Experiences of (Emerging) Adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 3(2), 98112. DOI:10.1177/2167696814548059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2005). Reflections on Portraiture: A Dialogue between Art and Science. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(1), 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The Art and Science of Portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Levitt, P., & Jaworsky, B. N. (2007). Transnational Migration Studies: Past Developments and Future Trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 129156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyons, T. (2007). Conflict-Generated Diasporas and Transnational Politics in Ethiopia. Conflict, Security & Development, 7(4), 529549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McBrien, J. L. (2005). Educational Needs and Barriers for Refugee Students in the United States: A Review of the Literature. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 329364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McBrien, J. L. (2011). The Importance of Context: Vietnamese, Somali, and Iranian Refugee Mothers Discuss Their Resettled Lives and Involvement in Their Children’s Schools. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(1), 7590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mendenhall, M., Bartlett, L., & Ghaffar-Kucher, A. (2017). ‘If You Need Help, They are Always There for Us’: Education for Refugees in an International High School in NYC. The Urban Review, 49(1), 125. DOI:10.1007/s11256-016-0379-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, T. M., & Riddle, L. (2009). Investing in Peace: The Motivational Dynamics of Diaspora Investment in Post-Conflict Economies. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 435448. DOI:10.1007/s10551-010-0399-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nykiel-Herbert, B. (2010). Iraqi Refugee Students: From a Collection of Aliens to a Community of Learners. Multicultural Education, 17(3), 214.Google Scholar
Olneck, M. R. (2008). American Public Schooling and European Immigrants in the Early Twentieth Century: A Post-Revisionist Synthesis. In Reese, W. J. & Rury, J. L. (eds.), Rethinking the History of American Education, 1st edn (pp. 103141). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Portes, A. (1998). Children of Immigrants: Segmented Assimilation and Its Determinants. In Portes, A. (ed.), The Economic Sociology of Immigration (pp. 248279). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Prior, M. A., & Niesz, T. (2013). Refugee Children’s Adaptation to American Early Childhood Classrooms: A Narrative Inquiry. The Qualitative Report, 18(39), 117.Google Scholar
Shapiro, D., Dundar, A., Huie, F., Wakhungu, P. K., Yuan, X., Nathan, A., & Hwang, Y. (2017). Tracking Transfer: Measures of Effectiveness in Helping Community College Students to Complete Bachelor’s Degrees. Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SignatureReport13_corrected.pdfGoogle Scholar
Szelényi, K., & Chang, J. C. (2002). ERIC Review: Educating Immigrants: The Community College Role. Community College Review, 30(2), 5573. DOI:10.1177/009155210203000204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szente, J., Hoot, J., & Taylor, D. (2006). Responding to the Special Needs of Refugee Children: Practical Ideas for Teachers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1), 1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teranishi, R. T., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Suárez-Orozco, M. (2011). Immigrants in Community Colleges. The Future of Children, 21(1), 153169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
UNHCR (2018). Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2017. Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
Van Hear, N. (2006). Refugees in Diaspora: From Durable Solutions to Transnational Relations. Refuge, 23(1), 914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker-Dalhouse, D., & Dalhouse, A. D. (2009). When Two Elephants Fight the Grass Suffers: Parents and Teachers Working Together to Support the Literacy Development of Sudanese Youth. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 25(2), 328335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Belonging and the Politics of Belonging. Patterns of Prejudice, 40(3), 197214. DOI:10.1080/00313220600769331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adhikari, M. (2012). A Biography of Harold Cressy, 1889–1916. Cape Town: Juta Press.Google Scholar
Badat, S. (1999). Black Student Politics, Higher Education and Apartheid: From SASO to SANSCO, 1968–1999. Pretoria: HSRC Publishers.Google Scholar
Beinart, W. (1994). Twentieth-Century South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Boucher, M. (1975). Graaff-Reinet and Higher Education: A Decade of Decline, 1875–1885. Kleio, 7(2), 116.Google Scholar
Breckinridge, K. (2014). The Biometric State. Cambridge: Polity Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brookes, E. (1966). A History of the University of Natal. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.Google Scholar
Buckland, R., & Neville, T. (2004). A Story of Rhodes: Rhodes University 1904 to 2004. Braamfontein: McMillan Publishers.Google Scholar
Cape of Good Hope (1854). Report on Public Education, Presented to the House of Assembly by Order of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, 1854. (CCP1/2/1/1.)Google Scholar
Cape of Good Hope (1860). Report of Public Education for the Year 1859, Cape Town, 1860. (CCP. 1/2/1/8 G.15.1.)Google Scholar
Cape of Good Hope (1891). First Report and Proceedings, with Appendices of a Commission Appointed to Inquire into and Report upon certain matters Connected with the Educational System of the Colony. Presented to Both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Excellency the Governor, 1891, Cape Town. G-9–91. (CCP 1/2/1/80.)Google Scholar
Cape of Good Hope. (1909). Report of the Council of the University of the Cape of Good Hope for the Year Ended 31st December, 1909. http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/6346/UCGHR1909.pdf?sequences=1. Retrieved 6 June 2015.Google Scholar
Carrim, N., & Soudien, C. (1999). Critical Anti-racism in South Africa: Rethinking Multicultural and Antiracist Education. In May, S. (ed.), Critical Multiculturalism: Rethinking Multicultural and Antiracist Education (pp. 153171). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
Cooper, D., & Subotzky, G. (1999). The Skewed Revolution: Trends in South African Higher Education, 1988–1998. Bellville: The University of the Western Cape Education Policy Unit.Google Scholar
Commission of Inquiry into Higher Education and Training (2017). Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Higher Education and Training. www.justice.gov.za/commissions/FeesHET/index.html. Retrieved 6 October 2018.Google Scholar
Cooper, D. (n.d.). Social Justice and South African University Student Enrolment Data by ‘Race’, 1988–1998–2008: From ‘Skewed Revolution to “Stalled Revolution”’. And Could Research-Based Policy Interventions Have Made a Difference to These Developments? Unpublished paper. www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/events/necu7/papers/cooper.pdf. Retrieved 12 October 2018.Google Scholar
Council on Higher Education (2000). Towards a New Higher Education Landscape: Meeting the Equity, Quality and Social Development Imperatives of South Africa in the 21st Century. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Council on Higher Education (2004). South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Council on Higher Education (2008). Vital Statistics. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Council on Higher Education (2009). Higher Education Monitor: The State of Higher Education in South Africa. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Council on Higher Education (2015). Vital Statistics. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Council on Higher Education (2018). Vital Statistics. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Department of Education (1997). White Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education. General Notice 1196 of 1997. Pretoria: Government Printer.Google Scholar
Department of Education (2001). National Plan for Higher Education in South Africa. Pretoria: Department of Education.Google Scholar
Department of Higher Education and Training (2010). Report of the Ministerial Committee on the Review of the National Student Financial Aid Scheme. Pretoria: DHET.Google Scholar
Department of Higher Education and Training (2011). Green Paper for Post-School Education and Training. Pretoria: Department of Higher Education and Training.Google Scholar
Disemelo, K. (2015). South African Student Protests Are about Much More than Just #FeesMustFall. The Conversation, October 27, 2015. http://theconversation.com/south-african-student-protests-are-about-much-more-than-just-feesmustfall-49. Retrieved 28 October 2015.Google Scholar
Dubow, S. (2006). A Commonwealth of Knowledge: Science, Sensibility and White South Africa, 1820–2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
GroundUp Staff. (2015). UCT and Transformation Part Two: The Students. GroundUp. www.groundup.org.za/article/uct-and-transformation-part-two-students_2845/. Retrieved 19 October 2018.Google Scholar
Hendricks, F., & Vale, P. (2005). The Critical Tradition at Rhodes University: Retrospect and Prospect. African Sociological Review, 9(1), 113.Google Scholar
Hino, H., Leibbrandt, M., Machema, R., Shifa, M., & Soudien, C. (2018). Identity, Inequality and Social Contestation in the Post-Apartheid South Africa. www.opensaldru.uct.ac.za/handle/11090/946. Retrieved 29 September 2018.Google Scholar
Hofmeyr, J., & McCay, L. (2010). Private Education for the Poor: More, Different, Better. The Journal of the Helen Suzman Foundation, 56, 5056.Google Scholar
Kasibe, W. (2015). Maxwele Being Denied His Rights. The Cape Times, Tuesday June 23, 2015, p. 13.Google Scholar
Kidd, A. (1910). Higher Education in the Cape Colony, 1874–1910. Grahamstown: Groott & Sherry Printers.Google Scholar
Kies, B. (1939). The Policy of Educational Segregation and Some of Its Effects upon the Coloured People of the Cape. Unpublished B Ed Thesis, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
Koen, C., Cele, M., & Libhaber, A. (2006). Student Activism and Student Exclusions in South Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 26(4), 404414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lulat, Y. (2005). A History of African Higher Education from Antiquity to the Present: A Critical Synthesis. Westport, Conn: Praeger.Google Scholar
MacGregor, K. (2010). South Africa: Universities and Gender and the MDGs. University World News, 2 May 2010. www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20100502074043241. Retrieved 6 January 2019.Google Scholar
MacGregor, K. (2014). Higher Education in the 20th Year of Democracy. University World News, 27 April 2014, 317. www.universityworldnews.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.Google Scholar
Macupe, B. (2013). Student Congress to March in Pursuit of Free Higher Education. Sunday Independent, July 21, 2013, p. 8.Google Scholar
Maharajh, R., Motala, E., & Scerri, M. (2011). South Africa: Reforming Higher Education and Transforming the National System of Innovation. In Goransson, B. & Brundenius, C. (eds.), Universities in Transition: The Changing Role and Challenges for Academic Institutions (pp. 193218). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malherbe, E. (1977). Education in South Africa, Vol. 2: 1923–1975. Johannesburg: Juta.Google Scholar
Ministry of Education (2006). Ministerial Statement on Higher Education Funding. Pretoria: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
Mkansi, L. (2014). South Africa’s Funding of Higher Education. The Case of the University of Limpopo. Projourno, 14 August 2014. http://projourno.org/2014/08/south-africas-funding-of-higher-education. Retrieved 23 August 2016.Google Scholar
Msila, V. (2016). #FeesMustFall is Just the Start of Change. Mail & Guardian Online, 21 January 2016. https://mg.co.za/article/2016–01-20-fees-are-just-the-start-of-change/ Retrieved 22 October 2018.Google Scholar
National Commission on Higher Education (1996). Report: A Framework for Transformation. Pretoria: Government Printer.Google Scholar
National Student Financial Aid Scheme (2012). Annual Report, 2012. www.nsfas.org.za/docs/annual-reports/2012/AnnualReport2012.pdf. Retrieved 20 October 2018.Google Scholar
Phillips, H. (1993). The University of Cape Town 1918–1948: The Formative Years. Cape Town: UCT in Association with Juta Press.Google Scholar
Radebe, K. (2013). Young, Middle Class and Black. Moneyweb, 8 May 2013. www.moneyweb.co.za/archive/young/middle-class-and-black. Retrieved 8 January 2019.Google Scholar
Republic of South Africa. (1997). The South African National Higher Education Act. Pretoria: Government Printer.Google Scholar
Republic of South Africa (1999). National Student Financial Aid Scheme Act, No. 56 of 1999. Government Gazette, 413(20652).Google Scholar
Saunders, S. (2016). The Challenges of Politics and Collegial Relations. In Council on Higher Education (ed.), Reflections of South African University Leaders, 1981–2014 (pp. 116). Cape Town: African Minds and Council on Higher Education.Google Scholar
Scott, I., Yeld, N., & Hendry, J. (2007). A Case for Improving Teaching and Learning in South Africa. Higher Education Monitor No. 6. Pretoria: Council on Higher Education.Google Scholar
Scott, I. (2010). Who is ‘Getting Through’ in South Africa? Graduate Output and the Reconstruction of the Formal Curriculum. In Featherman, D., Hall, M., & Krislov, M. (eds), The Next 25 Years: Affirmative Action in Higher Education in the United States and South Africa (pp. 229243). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Soudien, C. (2010). Grasping the Nettle? South African Higher education and Its Transformative Imperatives. South African Journal of Higher Education, 24(6), 881896.Google Scholar
Southall, R. (2016). The New Black Middle Class in South Africa. Auckland Park: Jacana Media.Google Scholar
Staff Writer (2013). South African Black Middle Class Pegged at 3 Million. BusinessTech, 24 October 2013. https://businesstech.co.za/news/general/48210/sa-black-middle-class-pegged-at-3-million/. Retrieved 19 December 2019.Google Scholar
Trow, M. (2007). Reflections on the Transition from Elite to Mass to Universal Access: Forms and Phases of Higher Education in Modern Societies since WWII. In Forest, J. & Altbach, P. (eds.), International Handbook of Higher Education (Vol. 18, pp. 243280). Springer: Dordrecht.Google Scholar
University of Cape Town (2014). ‘Breaking New Ground’: Proposal for Modifying UCT’s Undergraduate Admissions Policy. (v. 23 April 2014). Unpublished UCT document.Google Scholar
University of Cape Town (2017). University of Cape Town Annual Report 2017. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
University of the Witwatersrand (2017). 2017 Annual Report of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
Vally, S. & Dalamba, Y. (1999). Racism, ‘Racial Integration’ and Desegregation in South African Public Secondary Schools. A Report on a Study by the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC). Johannesburg: SAHRC.Google Scholar
Webstock, D. (2016). Overview. In Council on Higher Education (eds.), South African Higher Education Reviewed: Two Decades of Democracy. Pretoria: CHE.Google Scholar
Zizzamia, R., Schotte, S., Leibbrandt, M., & Ranchhod, V. (2016). ‘Vulnerability and the Middle Class in South Africa,’ SALDRU Working Papers 188, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
Allen, W., McLewis, C., Jones, C., & Harris, D. (2018, October). From Bakke to Fisher: African American Students in U.S. Higher Education over Forty Years. RSF, 4(6), 4172. muse.jhu.edu/article/704127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Autor, D. H. (2014). Skills, Education and the Rise of Earnings Inequality among the ‘Other 99 Percent.Science, 344(6186), 843851.Google ScholarPubMed
Baker, R., Klasik, D., & Reardon, S. (2018). Race and Stratification in College Enrollment Over Time. AERA Open, 4(1), 128. journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417751896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Backes, B., Holzer, H. J., & Velez, E. D. (2015). Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. Washington: Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research. www.caldercenter.org/sites/default/files/WP117.pdf.Google Scholar
Bailey, T. R., Jaggers, S. S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). Redesigning America’s Community Colleges: A Clearer Path to Student Success. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baum, S., & Flores, S. M. (2011). Higher Education and Children in Immigrant Families. Future Child, 21(1), 171193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beaver, W. (2017). ‘The Rise and Fall of For-Profit Higher Education’. AAUP News. January–February. www.aaup.org/article/rise-and-fall-profit-higher-education#.XQ1Dg9NKh0I.Google Scholar
Bertrand, M., Halberg, K., Hofmeister, K., Morgan, B., & Shirey, E. (2019). Increasing Academic Progress among Low-Income Community College Students: Early Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Chicago: University of Chicago Poverty Lab.Google Scholar
Bound, J., Lovenheim, M. F., & Turner, S. (2010). Why Have College Completion Rates Declined? An Analysis of Changing Student Preparation and Collegiate Resources. American Economic Journal, 2(3), 129157. www.nber.org/papers/w15566.pdf.Google ScholarPubMed
Cahalan, M., Perna, L. W., Yamashita, M., Wright-Kim, J., & Jiang, N. (2019). 2019 Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States. Washington: The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education.Google Scholar
Carnevale, A. P., & Strohl, J. (2013). Separate And Unequal: How Higher Education Reinforces the Intergenerational Reproduction of White Racial Privilege. Washington: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.Google Scholar
Carnevale, A. P., Jayasundera, T., & Gulish, A. (2016). America’s Divided Recovery: College Haves and Have-Nots. Washington: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.Google Scholar
Carnevale, A. P., & Cheah, B. (2018). Five Rules of the College and Career Game. Washington: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.Google Scholar
Carnevale, A. P., Van Der Wurf, M., Quinn, M. C., Strohl, J., & Repnikov, D. (2018). Our Separate and Unequal Public Colleges. Washington: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.Google Scholar
Carruthers, C. (2019). Five Things to Know about the Tennessee Promise Scholarship. Washington: Brookings Institution. www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2019/05/06/five-things-to-know-about-the-tennessee-promise-scholarship.Google Scholar
Chen, X. (2016). Remedial Coursetaking at U.S. Public 2- and 4-Year Institutions. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
The Century Foundation Working Group on Community College Financial Resources (2019). Recommendations for Providing Community Colleges with the Resources They Need. New York: The Century Fund.Google Scholar
Chetty, R., Friedman, J., Saez, E., Turner, N., & Yagan, D. (2017). Mobility Report Cards: The Role of Colleges in Intergenerational Mobility. Working Paper No. 23618. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. opportunityinsights.org/paper/mobilityreportcards.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Child Trends (2018). Immigrant Children. Washington: Child Trends. www.childtrends.org/?indicators=immigrant-children.Google Scholar
Commission on the Future of Undergraduate Education (2017). The Future of Undergraduate Education. Cambridge: American Academy of Arts and Sciences.Google Scholar
Deming, D. J., & Walters, C. R. (2017). The Impact of Price Caps and Spending Cuts on U.S. Postsecondary Attainment. Working Paper 23736. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. www.nber.org/papers/w23736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eberly, J., & Martin, C. (2012). The Economic Case for Higher Education. Treasury Notes. December 13. www.treasury.gov/connect/blog/Pages/economics-of-higher-education.aspx.Google Scholar
Edgecomb, N., & Bickerstaff, S. (2018). Addressing Academic Underpreparedness in Service of College Completion. Texas Education Review, 6(1), 7583.Google Scholar
The Education Trust (2016). Using Data to Improve Student Outcomes: Learning from Leading Colleges. Washington: The Education Trust.Google Scholar
Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2019, February). Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit. New York: Federal Reserve Bank of New York.Google Scholar
Gándara, D., & Rutherford, A. (2018). Mitigating Unintended Impacts? The Effects of Premiums for Underserved Populations in Performance-Funding Policies for Higher Education. Research in Higher Education, 59(6), 681703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldrick-Rab, S. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities for Improving Community College Student Success. Review of Educational Research, 80(3), 437469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldrick-Rab, S., Kelchen, R., & Houle, J. (2014). The Color of Student Debt: Implications of Federal Loan Program Reforms for Black Students and Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Madison: Hope Lab.Google Scholar
Goolsbee, A., Hubbard, G., & Ganz, A. (2019). A Policy Agenda to Develop Human Capital for the Modern Economy. Washington: Aspen Institute Economic Strategy Group.Google Scholar
Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2009). Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement-Gap. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(3), 366393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holzer, H. J., & Baum, S. (2017). Making College Work: Pathways to Success for Disadvantaged Students. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
Holzer, H. J. & Dunlop, E. (2013). Just the Facts Ma’am: Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes in the U.S. IZA Discussion Paper 7319. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. ssrn.com/abstract=2250297.Google Scholar
Hoxby, C., & Avery, C. (2013). The Missing ‘One-Offs’: The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving Low-Income Students. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 46(1), 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huelsman, M. (2015). The Debt Divide: The Racial and Class Bias behind the ‘New Normal’ of Student Borrowing. New York: Demos.Google Scholar
Huelsman, M. (2018). Debt to Society: The Case for Bold, Equitable Student Loan Cancellation and Reform. New York: Demos.Google Scholar
Jaggers, S. S., & Stacey, G. W. (2014). What We Know about Developmental Education Outcomes. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
Kelchen, R. (2018). Higher Education Accountability. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
McKay, K. L., & Kingsbury, D. (2019). Student Loan Cancellation: Assessing Strategies to Boost Financial Security and Economic Growth. Washington: The Aspen Institute.Google Scholar
Miller, B. (2017). New Federal Data Show a Student Loan Crisis for African American Borrowers. Washington: Center For American Progress. www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-postsecondary/news/2017/10/16/440711/new-federal-data-show-student-loan-crisis-african-american-borrowers.Google Scholar
Miller-Adams, M. (2019). What Can States Learn from Local College Promise Programs? Washington: College Promise. www.Collegepromise.org/cp-resources/policy-brief-what-can-states-learn-from-local-College-promise-programs.Google Scholar
Page, L. C., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2015). Improving College Access in the United States: Barriers and Policy Responses. NBER Working Paper 21781. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. www.nber.org/papers/w21781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pew Research Center (2019, June). Key Findings about U.S. Immigrants. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/17/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants.Google Scholar
Schak, O., Metzger, I., Bass, J., McCann, C., & English, J. (2017). Developmental Education: Challenges and Strategies for Reform. Washington: U.S. Department of Education. www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/opepd/education-strategies.pdf.Google Scholar
Schanzenbach, D. W., Bauer, L., & Breitwieser, D. (2017). Eight Economic Facts on Higher Education. April 26. Washington: Brookings Institution. www.brookings.edu/research/eight-economic-facts-on-higher-education.Google Scholar
Schwartz, D., Strawn, J., & Sarna, M. (2018). Career Pathways Research and Evaluation Synthesis. Washington: Abt Associates.Google Scholar
Scott-Clayton, J., & Li, J. (2016). Black-White Disparity in Student Loan Debt More than Triples after Graduation. Evidence Speaks Reports 2(3). Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Scott-Clayton, J. (2018). The Looming Student Loan Crisis Is Worse than We Thought. Washington: The Brookings Institution. www.brookings.edu/research/the-looming-student-loan-default-crisis-is-worse-than-we-thought.Google Scholar
Scrivener, S., Weiss, M., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C. S., & Fresques, H. (2015). Doubling Graduation Rates: Three-Year Effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for Developmental Education Students. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
Stevens, A. H. (2019). What Works in Career and Technical Education? A Review of Evidence and Suggested Policy Directions. Washington: Aspen Institute. www.aspeninstitute.org/longform/expanding-economic-opportunity-for-more-americans/what-works-in-career-and-technical-education-cte-a-review-of-evidence-and-suggested-policy-directions.Google Scholar
Taylor, B. J., & Cantwell, B. (2019). Unequal Higher Education: Wealth, Status and Student Opportunity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Institute for College Access and Success (2019). Casualties of College Debt: What Data Show and Experts Say about Who Defaults and Why. Washington: TICAS.Google Scholar
The Institute for College Access and Success (2019). Inequitable Funding, Inequitable Results: Racial Disparities at Public Colleges. Washington: TICAS.Google Scholar
The Institute for College Access and Success (2019). What to Know about the Gainful Employment Rule. Washington: TICAS.Google Scholar
Thelin, J. R. (2011). A History of American Higher Education: Second Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education. Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development (2016). Advancing Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education. www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/advancing-diversity-inclusion.pdf.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Educational Statistics (2015). Digest of Educational Statistics 2014. nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2014menu_tables.asp.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Educational Statistics (2016). Digest of Educational Statistics 2015. nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2015menu_tables.asp.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics (2018). Digest of Education Statistics 2016. nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d16/ch_3.asp.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics (2019). Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2017. nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2019021rev.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics (2019). Fast Facts: Historically Black Colleges and Universities. nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=667.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Education (2019). Tribal Colleges and Universities. sites.ed.gov/whiaiane/tribes-tcus/tribal-Colleges-and-universities.Google Scholar
Caldwell, J. Y., Davis, J. D., Du Bois, B., Echo-Hawk, H., Erickson, J. S., Goins, R. T., Hill, C., Hillabrant, W., Johnson, S. R., Kendall, E., Keemer, K., Manson, S. M., Marshall, C. A., Running Wolf, P., Santiago, R. L., Schacht, R., & Stone, J. B. (2005). Culturally Competent Research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings and Recommendations of the First Symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Centre, 12(1), 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Constantine, M. G., & Ladany, N. (2001). New Visions for Defining and Assessing Multicultural Counseling Competence. In Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (2nd ed., pp. 482498). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
D’ Andrea, M., Daniels, J., & Noonan, M. J. (2003). New Developments in the Assessment of Multicultural Competence. In Pope-Davis, D. B., Coleman, H. L. K., Liu, W. M., & Toporek, R. L. (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Competencies in Counseling and Psychology (pp. 287311). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Davidson, C. E. (forthcoming). A Hidden Cartography: Navigating the Non-Matrilineal Terrain of Academe. In Minthorn, R., Nelson, C., & Shotton, H. (Eds.), Indigenous Motherhood in the Academy. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Deloria, Jr., V. (2004). Marginal and Submarginal. In Mihesuah, D. A., & Wilson, A. C. (Eds.), Indigenizing the Academy (pp. 1630). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Deloria, V., & Wildcat, D. R. (2001). Power and Place: Indian Education in America. Boulder, CO: Fulcrum Resources.Google Scholar
Garland, J. L. (2018). American Indian Students and Ability Status: Considerations for Improving the College Experience. In Waterman, S. J., Lowe, S. C., & Shotton, H. J. (Eds.), Beyond Access: Indigenizing Program for Native American Student Success (pp. 139150). Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
Garland, J. L. (2010). Removing the College involvement ‘research asterisk’: Identifying and rethinking predictors of American Indian College student involvement. Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3426253).Google Scholar
Garland, J. L. (2007). Review of the Book Serving Native American Students: New Directions for Student Services. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 612614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grande, S. (2004). Red Pedagogy: Native American Social and Political Thought. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
Harding, A., Harper, B., Stone, D., O’Neill, C., Berger, P., Harris, S., & Donatuto, J. (2011). Conducting Research with Tribal Communities: Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(1), 610. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1103904CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macaulay, A. C. (1994). Ethics of Research in Native Communities. Canadian Family Physician, 40, 18881890.Google ScholarPubMed
McCue, J. (2007). New Modalities of Sovereignty: An Indigenous Perspective. Intercultural Human Rights Law Review, 2, 1929.Google Scholar
Mihesuah, D. A. (2005). So You Want to Write about American Indians: A Guide for Writers, Students, and Scholars. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Mihesuah, D. A., & Wilson, A. C. (2004). Indigenizing the Academy: Transforming Scholarship and Empowering Communities. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Minthorn, R. S., & Shotton, H. J. (2018). Reclaiming Indigenous Research in Higher Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholas, S. E., & McCarthy, T. L. (2015). The Continuum of Literacy in Native American Classrooms. In Reyhner, J. (Ed.), Teaching Indigenous Students: Honoring, Place, Community, and Culture (pp. 3650). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
Padilla, R. V., Treveno, J., Gonzalez, K., & Trevino, J. (1997). Developing Local Models of Minority Student Success in College. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 125135.Google Scholar
Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., & Mueller, J. A. (2019). Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Renn, K. A. (2012). Creating and Re-creating race: The Emergence of Racial Identity as a Critical Element in Psychological, Sociological, and Ecological Perspectives on Human Development. In Wijeyesinghe, C. L. & Jackson, B. W., III (Eds.), New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development: A Theoretical and Practical Anthology (2nd ed.) (pp. 1132). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Sanders, D., & Makomenaw, M. A. V. (2018). Getting Started Locally: How Tribal College and Universities Are Opening Dors to the Undergraduate Experience. In Waterman, S. J., Lowe, S. C., & Shotton, H. J. (Eds.), Beyond Access: Indigenizing Program for Native American Student Success (pp. 5164). Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
Shotton, H. J., Lowe, S. C., & Waterman, S. J. (Eds.) (2013). Beyond the Asterisk: Understanding Native Students in Higher Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
Smith, W. A., Yosso, T. J., & Solorzáno, D. G. (2006). Challenging Racial Battle Fatigue on Historically White Campuses: A Critical Race Examination of Race-Related Stress. In Stanley, C. A. (Ed.), Faculty of Colour: Teaching in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities (pp. 299327). Bolton, MA: Anker.Google Scholar
Springer, M., Davidson, C. E., & Waterman, S. J. (2013). Academic and Student Affairs Partnerships: Native American Student Affairs Units. In Shotton, H. J., Lowe, S. C., & Waterman, S. J. (Eds.), Beyond the Asterisk: Understanding Native Students in Higher Education (pp. 109124). Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
Strayhorn, T. (2019). College Students’ Sense of Belonging: A Key to Education Success for All Students. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the Culturally Different: Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
Takaki, R. (1993). A Different Mirror-A History of Multicultural America. Toronto, Canada: Little, Brown, and Company.Google Scholar
The United Nations General Assembly (2007). Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdfGoogle Scholar
Tuck, E. (2009). Suspending damage: A letter to communities. Harvard Educational Review, 79(3), 409427. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.79.3.n0016675661t3n15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuck, E., & McKenzie, M. (2015). Place in Research: Theory, Methodology, and Methods. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Tuhiwai-Smith, L. (2006). Decolonising Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London, England: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Waterman, S. J., Lowe, S. C., & Shotton, H. J. (Eds.) (2018). Beyond the Access: Indigenizing Programs for Native American Student Success. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
WICHE: Native American-serving nontribal College summit July 26–27 sparks progress toward budding alliance (July, 2018). www.wiche.edu/media-release/native-american-serving-nontribal-july-2018-College-summitGoogle Scholar
Wilson, A. C. (2004). Reclaiming Our Humanity: Decolonisation and the Recovery of Indigenous Knowledge. In Mihesuah, D. A., & Wilson, A. C. (Eds.), Indigenizing the Academy: Transforming Scholarship and Empowering Communities (pp. 6987). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar