This chapter focuses on aspects of structural and functional neuroanatomy relevant to Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry (BN&NP). It considers the general structure of the brain from the brainstem through the cerebral cortex, including a review of white matter anatomy, the cerebral vasculature, and the ventricular system. The brainstem comprises the medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum, and midbrain. Each of these areas and the neurobehaviorally salient structures they contain are reviewed briefly in the chapter. The reticular formation (which is contributed to by several brainstem substructures) and the cranial nerves (some, but not all, of which are located within the brainstem) also are discussed in the chapter. The diencephalon includes the thalamus, metathalamus (medial and lateral geniculate nuclei), epithalamus (habenula, stria medullaris, and pineal body), and subthalamus. The chapter considers briefly the thalamus, hypothalamus (and pituitary), and the epithalamus.