Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 February 2021
Because democracy was not uniformly overthrown during the 1920s and 1930s, Chapter 9 investigates the edges of the autocratic wave. The analysis focuses on Finland, France, and Czechoslovakia, which faced important attacks from the fascist right, yet succeeded in maintaining liberal democracy. Democratic forces in these nations drew on different sources of strength to avoid both an extreme-right power seizure and the imposition of conservative authoritarianism by establishment sectors. Moreover, the chapter also explores the unusual case of Argentina, where a fascist project emerged in the mid-1940s, yet the global de-legitimation of fascism in 1945 prompted its transformation into authoritarian populism, which subsequently turned into a model in Latin America.