Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 February 2021
Chapter 8 examines the main pathways toward autocratic imposition through a series of country cases, especially in-depth investigations of the tension-filled relationship between conservative establishment sectors and rising fascist movements. In Spain, Brazil, and Portugal, conservative elites commanded clear predominance and used fascist movements as mere auxiliaries for installing elitist authoritarianism. In Austria, Estonia, and Romania, by contrast, fascist movements achieved a striking upsurge. Deeply scared, conservative establishment sectors prevented fascist power seizures through authoritarian self-coups and then repressed the extreme-right upstarts, sometimes brutally. Similarly, authoritarian stalwarts in Hungary obstructed a regime insider’s efforts to push toward full-scale fascism.