Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-kpmwg Total loading time: 0.322 Render date: 2021-12-07T06:51:30.375Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

4 - Coolant Circuits and Steam Plant

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 February 2014

Anthony M. Judd
Affiliation:
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
Get access

Summary

Choice of Coolant

This chapter describes the engineering of the remainder of the plant in a fast reactor electricity-generating station, apart from the reactor core that is the subject of Chapter 3. The nature of the plant depends primarily on the coolant, which is the heat-transfer medium. The main considerations determining the choice of the coolant were explained in sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4. The most important is that the high power density of a fast reactor core demands a high-density coolant and high coolant velocities. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the various possible coolants can be summarised in terms of the choices available to a reactor designer, as follows.

Liquid or Gas. Helium has the advantage that it is chemically inert and is therefore appropriate for use in a high-temperature reactor. CO2 has the advantage that there is extensive experience of its use in thermal reactors. Neither presents significant problems of corrosion or erosion. However any gas coolant has to be pressurised to make it dense enough to transport heat out of the core without unreasonably high velocities. The major consequent disadvantage is that it is then very hard to guarantee that decay heat could be removed safely in the event of an accidental loss of pressure. It would be necessary either to accept relatively low power density in the core (compared with what is possible if a liquid coolant is used) or to provide elaborate emergency cooling equipment for use in the event of a major breach of the primary coolant system. For this reason no gas-cooled power-producing fast reactor has, at the time of writing, been built and thus there is no operating experience, but that does not mean that gas coolant may not at some time in the future become attractive.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, C. A. (1978) Optimization of the Westinghouse / Stone and Webster Prototype Large Breeder Reactor, pp 247–259 in Optimisation of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors, British Nuclear Energy Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
Aubert, M., Chaumont, J. M., Mougniot, M., Recolin, M. and Acket, M. (1978) Temperature Conditions in an LMFBR Power Plant from Primary Sodium to Steam Circuits, pp 305–310 in Optimisation of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors, British Nuclear Energy Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
Broomfield, A. M. and Smedley, J. A. (1979) Operating Experience with Tube to Tubeplate Welds in PFR Steam Generators, pp 3–18 in Welding and Fabrication in Nuclear Industry, British Nuclear Energy Society, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, R. H. (1973) Primary Systems Design of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors,Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society, 12, 357–365Google Scholar
Claxton, K. T. (1976) Solubility of Oxygen in Liquid Sodium – Effects on Interpretation of Corrosion Data, pp 407–414 in Liquid Metal Technology in Energy Production, Volume 1, American Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
Collier, J. G. (1972) Convective Boiling and Condensation, McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Eickhoff, K. G., Allen, J. and Boorman, C. (1967) Engineering Development for Sodium Systems, pp 873–895 in Fast Breeder Reactors (BNES Conference proceedings), Pergamon, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, P. B. F, Burton, E. J., Duncombe, E., Harrison, D., Jackson, G. O. and McCaffer, N. T. C. (1967) Control and Instrumentation of the Prototype Fast Reactor, pp 765–782 in Fast Breeder Reactors (BNES Conference proceedings), Pergamon, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frame, A. G., Hutchinson, W. G., Laithwaite, J. M. and Parker, H. F. (1967) Design of the Prototype Fast Reactor, pp 291–315 in Fast Breeder Reactors (BNES Conference proceedings), Pergamon, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hans, R. and Dumm, K., (1977) Leak Detection of Steam or Water into Sodium in Steam Generators of LMFBRs,Atomic Energy Review, 15, 611–699Google Scholar
Hayden, O. (1976) Design and Construction of Past and Present Steam Generators for the UK Fast Reactors,Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society, 15, 129–145Google Scholar
Haywood, R. W. (1975) Analysis of Engineering Cycles (Second Edition), Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Horst, K. M. (1978) General Electric / Bechtel Prototype Large Breeder Reactor, pp 175–184 in Optimisation of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors, British Nuclear Energy Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
IAEA (2012) Liquid Metal Coolants for Fast Reactors Cooled by Sodium, Lead, and Lead-Bismuth Eutectic IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.6 International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
Knowles, J. B. (1976) Principles of Nuclear Power Station Control, Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society, 15, 225–236Google Scholar
Lewins, J. (1978) Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and ControlPergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Lillie, A. F. (1978) Design of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Steam Generators, pp 557–571 in Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Demonstration LMFBRs, International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
Smith, C. A., Simm, P. A. and Hughes, G. (1979) Analysis of Hydride and Oxide Deposition and Resolution in Relation to Plugging Meter Behaviour,Nuclear Energy, 18, 201–214Google Scholar
Tang, Y. S., Coffield, R. D. and Markley, R. A. (1978) Thermal Analysis of Liquid-Metal Fast ReactorsAmerican Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
Tattersall, J. O., Bell, P. R. P. and Emerson, E. (1967) Large Commercial Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors, pp 352–372 in Fast Breeder Reactors (BNES Conference proceedings), Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Whittingham, A.C. (1976) An Equilibrium and Kinetic Study of the Liquid Sodium-Hydrogen Reaction and Its Relevance to Sodium-Water Leak Detection in LMFBR Systems, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 60, 119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Coolant Circuits and Steam Plant
  • Anthony M. Judd, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
  • Book: An Introduction to the Engineering of Fast Nuclear Reactors
  • Online publication: 05 February 2014
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139540858.006
Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

  • Coolant Circuits and Steam Plant
  • Anthony M. Judd, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
  • Book: An Introduction to the Engineering of Fast Nuclear Reactors
  • Online publication: 05 February 2014
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139540858.006
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Coolant Circuits and Steam Plant
  • Anthony M. Judd, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
  • Book: An Introduction to the Engineering of Fast Nuclear Reactors
  • Online publication: 05 February 2014
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139540858.006
Available formats
×