Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-vl2kb Total loading time: 0.413 Render date: 2021-12-05T06:41:41.268Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

6 - Martí’s Liberal Anti-Positivism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 October 2020

Susana Nuccetelli
St Cloud State University, Minnesota
Get access


Chapter 6 looks closely at the work of José Martí (Cuban, 1853-1895) who was among the first in Latin America to react against positivism. This chapter argues that Martí’s doctrines must be understood in the context of his endorsement of Hispano-Krausism, a philosophical outlook fashionable in academic circles in Spain at the time Martí was exiled there. Armed with a Krausist theoretical framework, Martí argued for a mestizaje view of racial and ethnic identity in Latin America, defended the unity and sovereignty of the region, especially in light of the rising threat of US imperialism, and advocated for the freedom of his beloved country, Cuba, from Spanish colonialism. On the proposed interpretation, appeals to a Marxist Martí are unhelpful to understanding his actual claims concerning race, Latin American unity, and an individual’s happiness – which for him requires not only material well-being but also harmony with other individuals and nature.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Dierksmeier, Claus. 2009. “Krausism,” pp. 110127 in Nuccetelli et al. 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández Retamar, Roberto. 1976. “La crítica de Martí,” pp. 1129 in Para una teoría de la literatura hispanoamericana. Mexico City: Editorial Nuestro Tiempo.Google Scholar
Fornet-Betancourt, Raúl. 1997–2015. “El pensamiento de José Martí. Estudio introductorio: Vida y líneas generales de su pensamiento,” in Gómez-Martínez, José Luis, ed., Proyecto Ensayo Hispánico. Scholar
Horan, Elizabeth. 2010. “Whose José Martí?American Quarterly 62(1): 181189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jimėnez García, Antonio and Orringer, Nelson R.. 2009. “Del krausismo al krausopositivismo,” pp. 6778 in Garrido et al. 2009.Google Scholar
Krause, C. Chr. F. 1871. Ideal de la Humanidad para la vida, con introducción y comentarios por Julián Sanz del Río. Madrid: Imprenta de F. Martínez García, (2nd ed. available online at–0/).Google Scholar
López-Morillas, Juan. 1981. The Krausist Movement and Ideological Change in Spain, 1854–1874. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mañach, Jorge. 1950. Martí: Apostle of Freedom. New York: Devin-Adair. Scholar
Martí, José. 1999/1889. “Mother America,” El Partido Liberal, December 19, 1889, pp. 101110 in Martí 1999.Google Scholar
Martí, José 1999/1891b. “Our America,” La Revista Illustrada, January 1, 1891, pp. 111121 in Martí 1999.Google Scholar
Martí, José 1999/1893. “My Race,” Patria, April 16, 1893, pp. 160162 in Martí 1999 (references to “Mi raza,” in Gómez-Martínez 1997–2015).Google Scholar
Martí, José 1997–2015/1894a. “El plato de lentejas,” Patria, January 2, 1894a, in Gómez-Martínez 1997–2015, Scholar
Martí, José 1999/1894b. “The Truth about the United States,” Patria, March 23, 1894b, pp. 172176 in Martí 1999.Google Scholar
Ripoll, Carlos. 1984. José Martí, the United States, and Marxist Interpretation of Cuban History. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Roig, Arturo Andrés . 1998. “Etica y liberación: José Martí y el ‘hombre natural,’” in Etica del poder y moralidad de la protesta: La moral latinoamericana de la emergencia. Mendoza, Argentina. (References to reprint in Gómez-Martínez 1997–2015, Scholar
Schutte, Ofelia. 2011b. “Undoing ‘Race’: Martí’s Historical Perspective,” pp. 99123 in Gracia 2011.Google Scholar
Vales, José Francisco. 1996. “La influencia de la cultura alemana en la formación del pensamiento de José Martí,” Iberoamericana 20(1): 525.Google Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats