Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-hb754 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-04T18:21:58.871Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

4 - Action Ascription, Accountability and Inference

from Part I - Constituents of Action Ascription

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 February 2022

Arnulf Deppermann
Affiliation:
Universität Mannheim, Germany
Michael Haugh
Affiliation:
University of Queensland
Get access

Summary

It is increasingly recognised that action ascription is not just a matter of inference, but is a form of social action in its own right. This chapter explores two key implications of this finding. First, in treating action ascription as a social action we have formal grounds for the claim that analyses of action ascription must necessarily include inspection of third positioned actions, as ascribing action is an account-able action in its own right. Second, we have procedural grounds for examining the suppression or avoidance of inferences about the action(s) in question by participants. A collection of instances of ‘offers’ that are occasioned or ‘touched off’ by some prior action, and are variously designed to be heard as such, are analysed in the course of this chapter to provide an empirical anchor for these two theoretical claims.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Arundale, R. B. (1999). An alternative model and ideology of communication for an alternative to politeness theory. Pragmatics, 9(1), 119–54.Google Scholar
Arundale, R. B. (2008). Against (Gricean) intentions at the heart of human interaction. Intercultural Pragmatics, 5(2), 229–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arundale, R. B. (2010). Constituting face in conversation: Face, facework and interactional achievement. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2078–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arundale, R. B. (2020). Communicating and Relating: Constituting Face in Everyday Interacting. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Austin, J. L. (1962). How to Do Things with Words, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Clayman, S. & Heritage, J. (2014). Benefactors and beneficiaries: Benefactive status and stance in the management of offers and requests. In Drew, P. & Couper-Kuhlen, E., eds., Requesting in Social Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 5586.Google Scholar
Clift, R. (2001). Meaning in interaction: The case of “actually.” Language, 77(2), 245–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coulter, J. (1983). Contingent and a priori structures in sequential analysis. Human Studies, 6, 361–76.Google Scholar
Couper-Kuhlen, E. & Drew, P., eds. (2014). Requesting in Social Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Curl, T. (2006). Offers of assistance: Constraints on syntactic design. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 1257–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, J. (1984). Subsequent versions of invitations, offers, requests and proposals dealing with potential or actual rejection. In Atkinson, J. M. & Heritage, J., eds., Structures of Social Action. Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–28.Google Scholar
Deppermann, A. (2012). How does “cognition” matter to the analysis of talk-in-interaction? Language Sciences, 34(6), 746–67.Google Scholar
Deppermann, A. (2015). Retrospection and understanding in interaction. In Deppermann, A. & Günthner, S., eds., Temporality in Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 5794.Google Scholar
Deppermann, A. (2018). Inferential practices in social interaction: A conversation-analytic account. Open Linguistics, 4(1), 3555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deppermann, A. (2021). Social actions. In Haugh, M., Kádár, D. & Terkourafi, M., eds., Cambridge Handbook of Sociopragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 6994.Google Scholar
Drew, P. (1984). Speakers’ reportings in invitation sequences. In Atkinson, J. M. & Heritage, J., eds., Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 129–51.Google Scholar
Drew, P. (1995). Interaction sequences and anticipatory interactive planning. In Goody, E., ed., Social Intelligence and Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–38.Google Scholar
Drew, P. (2011). Reflections on the micro-politics of social action, in interaction. Paper presented at the 12th International Pragmatics Association Conference, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
Drew, P. (2013). Turn design. In Sidnell, J. & Stivers, T., eds., Handbook of Conversation Analysis. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 103–30.Google Scholar
Drew, P. (2018a). Equivocal invitations (in English). Journal of Pragmatics, 125, 6275.Google Scholar
Drew, P. (2018b). Inferences and indirectness in interaction. Open Linguistics, 4(1), 241–59.Google Scholar
Drew, P., Walker, T. & Ogden, R. (2013). Self-repair and action construction. In Hayashi, M., Raymond, G. & Sidnell, J., eds., Conversational Repair and Human Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 7194.Google Scholar
Elder, C.-H. & Haugh, M. (2018). The interactional achievement of speaker meaning: Toward a formal account of conversational inference. Intercultural Pragmatics, 15, 593625.Google Scholar
Enfield, N. J. & Sidnell, J. (2017a). The Concept of Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enfield, N. J. & Sidnell, J. (2017b). On the concept of action in the study of interaction. Discourse Studies, 19, 515–35.Google Scholar
Floyd, S., Rossi, G. & Enfield, N. J., eds. (2020). Getting Others to Do Things: A Pragmatic Typology of Recruitments. Berlin: Language Science Press.Google Scholar
Gardner, R. (2001). When Listeners Talk: Response Tokens and Listener Stance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H. (1963). A conception of, and experiments with, “trust” as a condition of stable concerted actions. In Harvey, O. J., ed., Motivation and Social Interaction: Cognitive Determinants. New York, NY: Ronald Press, pp. 187238.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H. ([1948]2006). Seeing Sociologically: The Routine Grounds of Social Action, Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H. & Sacks, H. (1970). On formal structures of practical action. In McKinney, J. C. & Tiraykian, E. A., eds., Theoretical Sociology. Perspectives and Developments. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. 338–66.Google Scholar
Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organisation of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 823.Google Scholar
Goodwin, C. (2017). Co-operative Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Goodwin, C. & Goodwin, M. H. (1987). Concurrent operations on talk: Notes on the interactive organization of assessments. IPrA Papers in Pragmatics, 1, 154.Google Scholar
Haakana, M. (2007). Reported thought in complaint stories. In Holt, E. & Clift, R., eds., Reporting Talk. Reported Speech in Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 150–78.Google Scholar
Haugh, M. (2009). Intention(ality) and the conceptualisation of communication in pragmatics. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 29, 91113.Google Scholar
Haugh, M. (2013). Speaker meaning and accountability in interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 48(1), 4156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haugh, M. (2017a). Implicature and the inferential substrate. In Cap, P. & Dynel, M., eds., Implicitness: From Lexis to Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 281304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haugh, M. (2017b). Prompting offers of assistance in interaction. Pragmatics and Society, 8(2), 183207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heritage, J. (1984a). Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Heritage, J. (1984b). A change of state token and aspects of its sequential placement. In Atkinson, J. M. & Heritage, J., eds., Structures of Social Action. Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 299345.Google Scholar
Heritage, J. (1988). Explanations as accounts: A conversation analytic perspective. In Antaki, C., ed., Analysing Everyday Explanation: A Casebook of Methods. London: Sage, pp. 127–44.Google Scholar
Heritage, J. (2012a). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 45(1), 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heritage, J. (2012b). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 45(1), 3052.Google Scholar
Heritage, J. (2013). Action formation and its epistemic (and other) backgrounds. Discourse Studies, 15, 551–78.Google Scholar
Heritage, J. (2015). Well-prefaced turns in English conversation: A conversation analytic perspective. Journal of Pragmatics, 88, 88104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heritage, J. (2018). The ubiquity of epistemics: A rebuttal to the ‘epistemics of epistemics’ group. Discourse Studies, 20, 1456.Google Scholar
Heritage, J. & Atkinson, J. M. (1984). Introduction. In Atkinson, J. M. & Heritage, J., eds., Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 115.Google Scholar
Hofstetter, E. & Stokoe, E. (2015). Offers of assistance in politician–constituent interaction. Discourse Studies, 17, 724–51.Google Scholar
Holt, E. (2016). Laughter at last: Playfulness and laughter in interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 100, 89102.Google Scholar
Jefferson, G. (1986). Notes on “latency” in overlap onset. Human Studies, 9, 153–83.Google Scholar
Keevallik, L. (2017). Negotiating deontic rights in second position: Young adult daughters’ imperatively formatted responses to mothers’ offers in Estonian. In Sorjonen, M.-L., Raevaara, L. & Couper-Kuhlen, E., eds., Imperative Turns at Talk: The Design of Directives in Action. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 271–95.Google Scholar
Kendrick, K. & Drew, P. (2014). The putative preference for offers over requests. In Drew, P. & Couper-Kuhlen, E., eds., Requesting in Social Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 87114.Google Scholar
Kendrick, K. & Drew, P. (2016). Recruitments: Offers, requests, and the organization of assistance in interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 49(1), 119.Google Scholar
Levinson, S. C. (1995). Interactional biases in human thinking. In Goody, E., ed., Social Intelligence and Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 221–60.Google Scholar
Levinson, S. C. (2013a). Action formation and ascription. In Sidnell, J. & Stivers, T., eds., Handbook of Conversation Analysis. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 103–30.Google Scholar
Levinson, S. C. (2013b). Recursion in pragmatics. Language, 89, 149–62.Google Scholar
Levinson, S. C. (2017). Speech acts. In Huang, Y., ed., Oxford Handbook of Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 199216.Google Scholar
Lynch, M. (2011). On understanding understanding. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 553–55.Google Scholar
Macbeth, D. & Wong, J. (2016). The story of “oh,” Part 2: Animating transcript. Discourse Studies, 18, 574–96.Google Scholar
Maynard, D. (2013). Defensive mechanisms: I-mean-prefaced utterances in complaint and other conversational sequences. In Hayashi, M., Raymond, G. & Sidnell, J., eds., Conversational Repair and Human Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 198233.Google Scholar
Melden, A. I. (1961). Free Action, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Mills, C. W. (1940). Situated actions and vocabularies of motive. American Sociological Review, 5(6), 904–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomerantz, A. (2017). Inferring the purpose of a prior query and responding accordingly. In Raymond, G., Lerner, G. & Heritage, J., eds., Enabling Human Conduct: Studies of Talk-in-Interaction in Honour of Emanuel A. Schegloff. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 6176.Google Scholar
Pomerantz, A. & Heritage, J. (2013). Preference. In Sidnell, J. & Stivers, T., eds., Handbook of Conversation Analysis. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 210–28.Google Scholar
Rawls, A. W. (2005). Garfinkel’s conception of time. Time & Society, 14, 163–90.Google Scholar
Raymond, G. (2003). Grammar and social organization: Yes/no interrogatives and the structure of responding. American Sociological Review, 68(6), 939–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, J. D. (2016). Accountability in social interaction. In Robinson, J. D., ed., Accountability in Social Interaction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 144.Google Scholar
Sacks, H. ([1964/1965]1989). The inference making machine. Human Studies, 12, 379–93.Google Scholar
Sacks, H. (1992). Lectures on Conversation. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A. & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organisation of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50(4), 696735.Google Scholar
Schegloff, E. A. (1987). Some sources of misunderstanding in talk-in-interaction. Linguistics, 25, 201–18.Google Scholar
Schegloff, E. A. (1992). Repair after next turn: The last structurally provided defense of intersubjectivity in conversation. American Journal of Sociology, 97(5), 1295–345.Google Scholar
Schegloff, E. A. (2000). On granularity. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 715–20.Google Scholar
Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence Organization in Interaction: A Primer in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schegloff, E. A. & Lerner, G. H. (2009). Beginning to respond: Well-prefaced responses to wh-questions. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 42, 91115.Google Scholar
Schegloff, E. A. & Sacks, H. (1973). Opening up closings. Semiotica, 8(4), 289327.Google Scholar
Searle, J. (1969). Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Shaw, C. & Hepburn, A. (2013). Managing the moral implications of advice in informal settings. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 46(4), 344–62.Google Scholar
Sidnell, J. (2014). The architecture of intersubjectivity revisited. In Enfield, N. J., Kockelman, P. & Sidnell, J., eds., Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 364–99.Google Scholar
Sidnell, J. (2017a). Distributed agency and action under the radar of accountability. In Enfield, N. J. & Kockelman, P., eds., Distributed Agency. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 8796.Google Scholar
Sidnell, J. (2017b). Action in interaction is conduct under a description. Language in Society, 46(3), 313–37.Google Scholar
Stevanovic, M. & Peräkylä, A. (2014). Three orders in the organization of human action: On the interface between knowledge, power, and emotion in interaction and social relations. Language in Society, 43(2), 185207.Google Scholar
Thompson, S., Fox, B. & Couper-Kuhlen, E. (2015). Grammar in Everyday Talk: Building Responsive Actions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tsui, A. (1989). Beyond the adjacency pair. Language in Society, 18, 545–64.Google Scholar
Turk, M. (2007) Self-referential gestures in conversation. Discourse Studies, 9, 558–66.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×