Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-dc8c957cd-6mxsq Total loading time: 0.402 Render date: 2022-01-27T20:18:07.900Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

1 - Introduction

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2016

Afif Osseiran
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Jose F. Monserrat
Affiliation:
Universitat Politècnica de València
Patrick Marsch
Affiliation:
Nokia
Olav Queseth
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Afif Osseiran
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Jose F. Monserrat
Affiliation:
Universitat Politècnica de València
Patrick Marsch
Affiliation:
Nokia
Mischa Dohler
Affiliation:
King's College London
Takehiro Nakamura
Affiliation:
NTT DoCoMo Inc.
Get access

Summary

Historical background

The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector was born in the twenty-first century out of a consolidation of two major industry sectors of the last century, the telecommunications industry and the computing industry. This book is designated to harness the momentum of the mobile telecommunications industry to a fifth generation of technologies. These technologies will allow completing the consolidation of services, content distribution, communications and computing into a complex distributed environment for connectivity, processing, storage, knowledge and intelligence. This consolidation is responsible for a blurring of roles across the board, with computing and storage being embedded in communication infrastructure, process control being distributed across the Internet and communication functions moving into centralized cloud environments.

Industrial and technological revolution: from steam engines to the Internet

The ICT sector arose out of a natural marriage of telecommunications with the Internet, and is presiding over a tremendous change in the way information and communications services are provisioned and distributed. The massive and widespread adoption of mobile connected devices is further driving deep societal changes with tremendous economic, cultural and technological impact to a society that is becoming more networked and connected. Humanity is going through a phase of a technological revolution that originated with the development of semiconductors and the integrated circuit and continued with the maturing of Information Technology (IT) sector and the development of modern electronic communication in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively. The next frontier in the maturation of the ICT sector is to create an indistinguishable framework for service delivery across a variety of scenarios that span huge variations in demand, including the delivery of personalized media to and from the Internet, incorporating the Internet of Things (IoT) or the Internet of everything into the connected paradigm, and the introduction of security and mobility functions as configurable features for any communication scenario. Some would call it the fourth stage of the Industrial Revolution [1].

The four stages of the Industrial Revolution are illustrated in Figure 1.1. The first stage of the Industrial Revolution (approximately 1760–1840) started in England with the introduction of the power loom and the steam engine. As a consequence, the agrarian economy of the eighteenth century underwent rapid transformation within decades to an industrial one, dominated by machinery for manufacturing goods.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

[1] BITKOM e.V., VDMA e.V. and ZVEI e.V, “Umsetzungsstrategie Industrie 4.0,” April 2015, www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/I/industrie-40-verbaendeplattform-bericht,property=pdf
[2] Farley, T., “Mobile telephone history,” Telektronikk Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 22–34, 2005, www.telenor.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/T05_3–4.pdf Google Scholar
[3] Hillebrand, F., GSM and UMTS: The Creation of Global Mobile Communication. Chichester: John Wiley, 2002.
[4] Viterbi, A.J., CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication. Redwood City: Addison Wesley Longman, 1995.
[5] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Detailed specifications of the terrestrial radio interfaces of International Mobile Telecommunications-2000,” Recommendation ITU-R M.1457-12, February 2015.
[6] Holma, H. and Toskala, A., HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS. Chichester: John Wiley, 2007.
[7] Dahlman, E., Parkvall, S., Sköld, J., and Beming, P., 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, ed. New York: Academic Press, 2008.
[8] Sesia, S., Baker, M., and Toufik, I., LTE – The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice, ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
[9] Ericsson, Nokia Networks, “Further LTE physical layer enhancements for MTC,” Work Item RP-141660, 3GPP TSG RAN Meeting #65, September 2014.
[10] Qualcomm Incorporated, “New work item: Narrowband IOT (NB-IOT),” Work Item RP-151621, 3GPP TSG RAN Meeting #69, September 2015.
[11] GSMA, Definitive data and analysis for the mobile industry [Online] https://gsmaintelligence.com/
[12] Ericsson, Ericsson Mobility Report, Report No. EAB-15:037849, November 2015, www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015/mobility-report/ericsson-mobility-report-nov-2015.pdf
[13] Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016. [Online] www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Internet-of-things
[14] Khaitan, K S. and McCalley, J.D., “Design techniques and applications of cyberphysical systems: A survey,” IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 350–365, June 2015.Google Scholar
[15] Cisco, “Global mobile data traffic forecast update,” 2010–2015 White Paper, February 2011.
[16] Ericsson, , Ericsson Mobility Report, no. EAB-15:010920, February 2015, www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015/ericsson-mobility-report-feb-2015-interim.pdf
[17] Ericsson, , More than 50 billion connected devices, White Paper, February 2011, www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/wp-50-billions.pdf
[18] International Telecommunications Union Telecomm (ITU-T), “The Tactile Internet,” Technology Watch Report, August 2014, www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/23/01/T23010000230001PDFE.pdf
[19] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond,” Recommendation ITU-R M.2083, September 2015, www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.2083
[20] Yu, D. and Wen, W., “Non-access-stratum request attack in E-UTRAN,” in Computing, Communications and Applications Conference, Hong Kong, January 2012, pp. 48–53.
[21] Ferguson, N., Schneier, B., and Kohno, T., Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications. John Wiley, Indianapolis, Indiana 2010.
[22] Ikram, W. and Thornhill, N. F., “Wireless communication in process automation: A survey of opportunities, requirements, concerns and challenges,” in UKACC International Conference on Control 2010, Coventry, September 2010, pp. 1–6.
[23] European Commission, “Mobile communications: Fresh €50 million EU research grants in 2013 to develop ‘5G’ technology,” Press Release, February 2013, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-159_en.htm
[24] METIS, Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society, EU 7th Framework Programme project, www.metis2020.com
[25] 5G-PPP. 2016. [Online] https://5g-ppp.eu/
[26] IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion group. 2016. [Online] www.imt-2020.cn/en
[27] IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion group, 5G Vision and Requirements, white paper, May 2014.
[28] 5G Forum. 2016. [Online] www.5gforum.org/eng/main/
[29] ARIB, 2020 and Beyond Ad Hoc (20B AH), “Mobile Communications Systems for 2020 and beyond.” October 2014, www.arib.or.jp/english/20bah-wp-100.pdf
[30] IIC Consortium. 2016. [Online] www.iiconsortium.org/
[31] Industrie 4.0 Working Group, “Recommendations for Implementing the Strategic Initiative Industrie 4.0. Final Report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group.” 2013 www.acatech.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Baumstruktur_nach_Website/Acatech/root/de/Material_fuer_Sonderseiten/Industrie_4.0/Final_report__Industrie_4.0_accessible.pdf
[32] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Future technology trends of terrestrial IMT systems,” Report ITU-R M.2320, November 2014, www.itu.int/pub/R-REP-M.2320
[33] International Telecommunications Union Radio (ITU-R), “Technical feasibility of IMT in bands above 6 GHz,” Report ITU-R M.2376, July 2015, www.itu.int/pub/R-REP-M.2376
[34] 3GPP, “Tentative 3GPP timeline for 5G,” March 2015, http://www.3gpp.org/news-events/3gpp-news/1674-timeline_5g
[35] 3GPP TR 36.888, “Study on provision of low-cost Machine-Type Communications (MTC) User Equipments (UEs) based on LTE,” Technical Report TR 36.888 V12.0.0, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network, June, 2013.
[36] 3GPP TR 45.820, “Cellular system support for ultra-low complexity and low throughput internet of things (CIoT) (Release 13),” Technical Report, TR 45.820 V13.0.0, Technical Specification Group GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network, August 2015.
[37] Ericsson, et al., “New Work Item on Extended DRX (eDRX) for GSM,” Work Item GPC150624, 3GPP TSG GERAN, July 2015.
[38] IEEE 802.15 Working Group for WPAN. [Online] www.ieee802.org/15/
[39] IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks. [Online] www.ieee802.org/11/

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×