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This chapter acknowledges that Paul’s gospel of divine self-sacrifice may seem too good to be true, even a fairy tale, to some people. We need a reality check for it, and Paul’s injunction to “test everything,” including ourselves (2 Cor. 13:5), lends support to this cause. This chapter identifies Paul’s approach to the needed testing, and thereby clarifies the foundations of his perspective on human knowledge of God. Paul’s message of divine self-sacrifice rests on resources needed to commend that message as not just helpful but also true. According to this chapter, Paul’s message of self-sacrifice in Romans 12:1–2 itself holds the key to suitable assessment of his good news. A key consideration is that suitably apprehending divine righteousness in self-sacrifice will confirm God’s reality and redemptive will. Such apprehending enables one to experience firsthand the divine self-sacrifice in one’s own life, with its distinctive power to obey God. There is no circularity here, because the relevant experience is not the same as a message of divine self-sacrifice, but it can be a truth indicator, and thus evidence, for such a message. The chapter explains why Paul does not rely on arguments of natural theology.
One very important kind of love in Plato is love of wisdom, or philosophy (philosophia). Philo-sophia is, literally, ‘friendship for wisdom’, not erōs, which is love in the sense of passionate desire, often with a sexual component. Nevertheless, I argue that philosophia in Plato often has close connections with erōs. For example, philosophia is portrayed as the object of erōs, or as a passionate desire to attain wisdom, or as the search for wisdom together with another person who is the object of erōs. Moreover, throughout the dialogues, Socrates the philosopher is characterized by his close association with both philosophia and erōs. Socrates says that he has erōs for two objects, Alcibiades and philosophia (Gorgias), and he is himself the object of erōs (Symposium, Alcibiades I). He claims to know nothing except erotic matters, and he resembles the daimōn Eros in desiring the wisdom he recognizes that he lacks (Symposium). He invents an ideal state in which the rulers are philosophers, those who have erōs for learning (Republic). In the Phaedrus, Socrates prays to Eros not to take away the erotic art that Eros has given him. Just before drinking the hemlock (Phaedo), Socrates, who has chosen to philosophize all his life, says that he does not regret that this practice has led to his execution, because after death philosophers hope to attain the wisdom that was the object of their erōs in life.
The presentation considers the peculiarities of late adulthood, different views on the periodization of older ages (World health organization, I. Burnside, H.S. Pryazhnikov).
The research is aimed at studying the peculiarities of late adulthood.
The method of work is a bibliographic analysis.
Reveals the structure of psychological age (concept by L.S.Vygotsky), the specificity of the development in late adulthood and features of the social situation of development. Reveals modern ideas of ageing as a process not only of involution and loss, but also a process of continued development. The greatest attention is paid to the peculiarities of development tasks at older ages and the difficulties faced by older people trying to cope with them. There are the brief overview of the positions of C.G.Jung, A.Adler, E.Erikson, R.Peck, G.M.Bryugman, A.G.Liders, N.S.Pryazhnikov, E.E.Sapogova, I.V.Shapovalenko, V.I.Slobodchikov, G.A.Zuckerman, etc. regarding the development tasks in late adulthood. The comparison of the development tasks of early and late age periods by G.M. Bryugman, which shows that the tasks of aging worse defined, at least sequentially ordered, and the results of solution of development tasks is less predictable than in earlier ages.
We can say that in old age is important not only the task of adjusting to different changes of pace of life, quality of life, social circle, etc., and overcome the negative aspects of aging but also issues of self-development. As the primary development task in late adulthood is considered an achievement of his own integrity and finding the meaning of life.
This chapter addresses Plato’s conception of philosophy by examining how the Apology of Socrates represents Socrates as a model lover of wisdom. This Socrates loves expertise about how to live well, and he does so in three ways: (i) by examining others to test them for this expertise and to confirm that only the gods possess it, (ii) by pursuing the expertise, nonetheless, to improve his beliefs about how to live well, and (iii) by exhorting others to examine themselves and to pursue wisdom. The chapter pays special attention to Socrates’ conceptions of knowledge, living well, and teaching, and it suggests briefly how Plato tweaks or transforms this Socratic model in other dialogues.
This chapter is basically a review of a collection of poems mirroring the Yoruba cultural ethos, drawn from Etches on Fresh Waters, Scoundrels of Deferral, A Mouth Sweeter than Salt, and Counting the Tiger’s Teeth. Believing the core of a nation to be its people, the poetry collections seek to present a narration of the nation through poems about the cultural practices, values, and beliefs of the people. Clearly, the chapter depicts poetry as a creative mode of expression, performing a “dialectic function of narrating a group’s culture,” and as a means of “documenting” and “teaching” culture. The chapter launches into the cultural significance of poetry and how poetry reflects the past and present cultural realities of the Yoruba people especially. The cultural ethos include salutations to the revered, celebration of ethnic identity, sermons on moderation, unrestrained freedom, and hospitality, amongst others, while some were used to show women’s sociocultural position.
It has been suggested that cognitive behavioural therapy for older adults be augmented with age-appropriate methods to enhance outcomes for depression treatment.
This study investigated whether a CBT wisdom enhancement timeline technique for older adults reduced depression, as well as increase self-compassion and self-assessed wisdom.
An N-of-1 series trial with non-concurrent multiple-baseline AB design was conducted. Older adults experiencing depression, recruited from mental health service waiting lists, were randomly assigned to baseline conditions. Participants received five individual sessions of the examined intervention, offering a structured way of utilising one’s life experiences to evolve the psychological resource of wisdom within a cognitive behavioural framework, in order to improve mood. Participants completed idiographic daily measures and self-report standardised measures of depression, anxiety, self-compassion and wisdom during baseline and intervention phases, and at 1 month follow-up.
Six participants competed the study and were subject to standardised and single-case data analyses. Four participants were deemed responders with reliable changes in depression post-intervention with idiographic changes coinciding with intervention onset. Two participants saw clinically significant changes in depression scores at follow-up. One responder saw significant changes in measures of self-compassion and self-assessed wisdom.
The examined technique shows promise as an effective technique for reducing depression in older adults. There is insufficient evidence to implicate wisdom and/or self-compassion as significant mechanisms of change. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.
By pooling together exhaustive analyses of certain philosophical paradoxes, we can prove a series of fascinating results regarding philosophical progress, agreement on substantive philosophical claims, knockdown arguments in philosophy, the wisdom of philosophical belief (quite rare, because the knockdown arguments show that we philosophers have been wildly wrong about language, logic, truth, or ordinary empirical matters), the epistemic status of metaphysics, and the power of philosophy to refute common sense. As examples, this Element examines the Sorites Paradox, the Liar Paradox, and the Problem of the Many – although many other paradoxes can do the trick too.
In this ground-breaking study, Robin Baker investigates the contribution ancient Mesopotamian theology made to the origins of Christianity. Drawing on a formidable range of primary sources, Baker's conclusions challenge the widely held opinion that the theological imprint of Babylonia and Assyria on the New Testament is minimal, and what Mesopotamian legacy it contains was mediated by the Hebrew Bible and ancient Jewish sources. After evaluating and substantially supplementing previous research on this mediation, Baker demonstrates significant direct Mesopotamian influence on the New Testament presentation of Jesus and particularly the character of his kingship. He also identifies likely channels of transmission. Baker documents substantial differences among New Testament authors in borrowing Mesopotamian conceptions to formulate their Christology. This monograph is an essential resource for specialists and students of the New Testament as well as for scholars interested in religious transmission in the ancient Near East and the afterlife of Mesopotamian culture.
This chapter discusses why wisdom is so important. It opens with a discussion of why wisdom is so crucial in today’s world. The chapter points out that the world faces enormous problems, such as global climate change and threats of, and actual pandemics. Wisdom is needed more than ever, but often is not to be found. The chapter then discuss why intelligence, at least as usually defined, is not enough. Many people are smart, but they use their smarts only for their own benefit, or for the benefit of people like themselves rather than for a common good. The chapter next discusses why creativity is not enough. People can be creative but use their creativity for selfish or even destructive ends. Finally, the chapter discusses why wisdom is so hard to find. Many people appear, on the surface, to be wise, but then prove not to be. The chapter ends with some brief conclusions.
Chapter abstract (Philosophical Foundations for the Study of Wisdom): A person with practical wisdom reliably grasps how to live and conduct themselves. But what is practical wisdom, how can we get it, and how can we study it? This chapter will introduce some prominent philosophical arguments and answers to these questions. After distinguishing practical wisdom from other types of wisdom, the chapter explains why studying wisdom requires combining both philosophy and empirical science. To illustrate the contribution of philosophy, the chapter motivates a core philosophical conception of wisdom and invites the reader to think through some philosophical puzzles it gives rise to.
The complexity of 21st-century problems requires citizens and political and economic leaders to think more deeply and expansively so they can develop the wisdom necessary for humanity to survive and perhaps thrive in the decades to come. This chapter explores the nature of some 21st-century issues, including the causes of some of the most pressing, large-scale problems in today's world. It describes the ethical insight and higher-order thinking necessary for understanding and addressing these problems. It also provides brief overviews of some new creative and critical thinking strategies that can be applied to social policy issues. In essence, it makes the case for humanity to make a significant leap upward in ethical awareness.
In this chapter, we examine how creativity, intelligence, and wisdom are related in theoretical frameworks and empirical studies. First, definitions of the three constructs are discussed. Although all of them are complex and multifaceted, the relationship between creativity and intelligence has been extensively studied based on their working definitions and models. However, wisdom research remains sparse, and there is a gap between people’s common beliefs and explicit theories of how wisdom is related to intelligence and creativity. Regardless, some common elements of wisdom have been distilled. These include self-awareness, knowledge, and strategies to cope with uncertainty, which can lead to contributions to social goodness. Second, several empirical studies are reviewed. They show some relationships among the three constructs, but the results have been inconsistent. Third, the WICS model, as a cognitive framework, is used to understand the relationships among the three constructs. The model integrated intelligence, creativity, and wisdom, and has also been tested in some fields. Finally, we argue that wisdom, as a distinguishable component of ability, can help determine whether our intelligence and creativity will be harnessed toward benevolence or malevolence.
This chapter explores folk conceptions of wisdom around the world. The chapter begins by introducing the reader to the rich line of scientific inquiry into folk conceptions of wisdom, delineating this field of study from formal theories of wisdom. Next, the reader is introduced to three families of methodological approaches to studying folk conceptions of wisdom—descriptor-rating studies, real-life approaches, and experimental designs. With this knowledge, the reader is then presented with a review of the current state of research into folk conceptions, addressing core questions that have guided scientific agendas in this area: What is wisdom? Who is wise? In which situations is wisdom expressed? How does wisdom develop? The last section of this chapter explores how the answers to these questions differ according to individual, professional, and cultural contexts. Through this review, the reader will appreciate how the investigation of folk conceptions has shaped the psychological study of wisdom and will continue to drive innovative ways of thinking about wisdom and its development.
This chapter outlines two basic ways to measure wisdom. Self-report measures are quick and easy to administer. Their main disadvantage is that they assess people’s own views of their own wisdom, which may or may not be an accurate representation of their actual wisdom. In fact, highly wise individuals may view themselves as less wise than highly self-confident but not-quite-as-wise individuals! Self-report measures are more useful for assessing attitudes or feelings than for assessing competencies and abilities. Open-ended, problem-based measures of wisdom do not require people to judge themselves. They directly show how wisely participants think about difficult problems. Obviously, the effort and time required to administer, transcribe, and code open-ended wisdom measures is much higher than for self-report measures. Also, when we present people with fictitious problems of fictitious people, emotional involvement will be low and their responses will represent theoretical wisdom that they might not be able to access in a stressful situation. If we interview them about problems from their own life, however, different people may end up talking about very different problems. Currently, researchers are working on measures that involve participants emotionally but remain somewhat standardized with respect to content.
Chapter Abstract: This chapter explores how to cultivate wisdom through public education. To educate for wisdom, we need to be clear about our target outcome. We suggest a wise student is one who is healthy and well-integrated physically, personally, intellectually and socially—what Rogers called “a fully functioning person.” Educational programs need specific indicators of progress, so we propose six connections to being, feeling, and thinking. These connections are established and strengthened by curricula that include: studying inspirational exemplars; teaching strategies to become like those exemplars (e.g., journaling); teaching concepts related to wisdom (e.g., critical thinking); and building real and virtual educational environments. Although the best teachers already teach for wisdom, many (perhaps most) teachers in public education do not. Making teaching for wisdom more common requires changes to current teacher education, student assessment and educational policy.
Katharine Dell’s contribution explores the question whether there is a distinctive set of theological ideas for the three key wisdom books – Proverbs, Job and Ecclesiastes. After a brief survey of scholarship on this debate over the last century and a half, key themes that the books have in common are explored, with salient examples – the doctrine of retribution; the fear of the Lord; the figure of Wisdom and the attainment of wisdom; the theme of creation; communication and life and death. Although considerable commonality is found, there is also a discovery of difference and of interlinking with other books in the canon. The themes themselves are not confined to these ‘wisdom’ books, even though they characterize them accompanied by an essential didactic approach.
This chapter reviews psychological theories of wisdom. At a global level, the chapter is divided into two main parts. The first part of the chapter reviews the major theories. The chapter opens with a brief consideration of work on implicit theories of wisdom that may have motivated some of the work on explicit theories. The chapter then reviews explicit psychological theories, in particular, the Berlin wisdom model, Sternberg’s balance theory, Ardelt’s three-dimensional model, Webster H.E.R.O.(E) model, Levenson and Aldwin’s self-transcendence model, Karami and colleagues’ polyhedron model, and Grossmann and colleagues’ common-denominator model. The second part of the chapter seeks to place the various theories into a general theoretical framework, which Sternberg and Karami referred to as a 6P framework, expanding upon Rhodes’s 4P framework for creativity. The 6Ps are purpose, press, problem, person, process, and product. All of the wisdom theories can be viewed as dealing with some, but not all of the 6Ps. The final part of the chapter draws brief conclusions, pointing out that wisdom is extremely important to society today and that psychological theories can help us understand what wisdom is and what its place in society can and should be.
This chapter summarized the theoretical and empirical relationships between wisdom and morality. Wise individuals are able to think carefully and rationally about moral dilemmas, recognizing their own intuitive impulses but not necessarily following them in making decisions. As they think about complex moral dilemmas, they aim to balance the different perspectives, interests, and needs optimally. Their value orientations are focused on a greater good that does not just include members of their own family or group but humanity and the world at large. Because they are good at thinking about moral issues and at dealing with the emotional and social aspects of complex situations, they are likely to also act ethically in difficult situations. Many of the great wisdom exemplars in history stood up for a just cause and accomplished major societal changes by peaceful means. We believe that the ethical aspect of wisdom is particularly important in a time where the world needs good decisions that do not focus on the needs of any particular nation or group. If we want to overcome serious world problems, such as climate change, global pandemics, and rising inequality, we need ethical and wise leaders.
Care-giving to older adults with disabilities could lead to relatively high levels of care-giving burden and low levels of life satisfaction among their family care-givers. However, there is a lack of research examining the role of care-giver wisdom in the above stress process model. This study examined the moderator role of wisdom in the relationship between care-giver burden and life satisfaction among family care-givers of disabled older adults in urban China. A multi-stage quota sampling method was used to recruit 789 disabled older adult–family care-giver dyads in Shanghai in 2013. The average age of older adults and their family care-givers was 84 and 63 years old, respectively. Multiple-group path analysis was conducted to examine the proposed hypotheses. The results showed that care-giver wisdom played a moderator role in the association between care-giver burden and life satisfaction. Care-giver burden was found to only negatively affect life satisfaction among care-givers with relatively low wisdom levels. The findings highlight the influences of care-giver wisdom on the relationship between burden and life satisfaction in Chinese contexts. The concept of wisdom should be used in needs assessment among family care-givers of older adults with disabilities. Future social interventions should focus on promoting care-givers' capacities of reflective thinking, their understandings of reality and their feelings of compassion.
Wisdom researchers acknowledge the complex nature of this ancient construct, although they are yet to agree on its core components. A key question in the literature is whether Openness and Humour are aspects of wisdom or whether Openness is an antecedent of wisdom with Humour as a consequence.
Using structural equation modelling, we evaluated data from 457 online respondents aged 16–87 years (Mage = 35.19, SD = 17.45). We analyzed a model with Openness as a precursor to Wisdom (conceptualised as a latent mediator variable using parcels of the SAWS Experience, Reminiscence/Reflection, and Emotional Regulation items), with Humor as outcome. We compared this model with a model using Wisdom as a latent mediator variable using parcels of the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale-12 (3D-WS-12).
A model using Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS)-9 latent mediator variable with Openness as precursor to wisdom and Humour as a consequence was good fit for the data and displayed full mediation. Similarly, a model using the 3D-WS-12 as latent mediator variable to measure wisdom and with Openness as a precursor to wisdom and Humour as a consequence also fits the data with full mediation.
These findings provide empirical support for theoretical suggestions in the literature that Openness is a precursor to wisdom and that Humour is a consequence of wisdom using two of the most common self-report measures of wisdom. An improved understanding of the nature of wisdom and especially of its potential precursors can also be of use in future efforts to facilitate the development of wisdom.