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The USA delegation to the July 1919 International Research Council meeting in Brussels included Joel Stebbins, then professor of astronomy and observatory director at the University of Illinois, as secretary of the executive committee appointed by the National Research Council. Stebbins, an avid photographer, documented the travels of their party as the American astronomers attended the meeting and later toured devastated towns, scarred countryside, and battlefields only recently abandoned. Published reports of the meeting afterward attest to the impression left on the American visitors, and the photographs by Stebbins give us a glimpse through their own eyes. Selected photographs, recently discovered in the University of Wisconsin Archives and never before publicly seen, will be presented along with some commentary on their significance for the International Astronomical Union, which took shape at that 1919 meeting.
We investigated whether bilingual language experience over the lifespan impacts women and men in a manner that differentially buffers against age-related declines in executive control. To this end, we investigated whether executive control performance in a lifespan sample of adult women and men were differentially impacted by individual differences in bilingual language experience, assessed using an unspeeded measure of executive control: the Wisconsin Card Sort Test. The results suggested that women showed both the greatest degree of age-related decline across WCST measures, and a greater likelihood than men to express improved performance as a function of increased bilingual experience. We consider implications of this finding for advancing our understanding of the relation between bilingualism and cognition, and also the effects of biological sex on cognitive aging.
Paleosols occur in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin because this area escaped direct Pleistocene glaciation, allowing long-term loess and colluvium accumulation in selected settings. The most complete known depositional sequence at Oil City, Wisconsin, contains eight lithologic units with five paleosols, all with normal remanent magnetism (i.e., <780 ka). Previous work characterized the stratigraphy, pedology, micromorphology, and clay mineralogy of the section. We investigate chemical weathering of the 8–63 µm silt fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental geochemistry by portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF). Elemental ratios TiO2/CaO, Zr/Sr, and Rb/Sr generally align with the pedological evidence of weathering. Mineral ratios plagioclase/quartz and K-feldspar/quartz display greater scatter and less certainty in interpretation. The paleosols with Bt horizons have ratios indicating greater weathering than the modern soil. The most weathered paleosol is formed in the unnamed fourth loess unit stratigraphically below the Loveland Member. The stratigraphic position and higher degree of weathering support correlation of the fourth loess with the Yarmouth Geosol and Crowley’s Ridge Silt of the Middle Mississippi valley. Geochemical indices by pXRF are more consistent with established lithologic breaks than mineralogy by XRD. Our results support the use of pXRF for stratigraphic and weathering studies of Quaternary sediments.
The hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig provides a model to study maternal vitamin D (D) carryover on gross and molecular characteristics of bone abnormalities in offspring. Excess maternal D is proposed to protect offspring under nutritional challenges from developing bone abnormalities. Relationships between D sufficiency parameters and bone abnormalities were characterised. Sows (n 37) were fed diets with 0 (−D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning (3 weeks) pigs were fed diets with 0 (−D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 75 and 95 % (LCaP) or 150 and 120 % (HCaP) of the Ca and P requirements. Pigs were euthanised before colostrum consumption at birth (n 27), 3 weeks (n 27) or after the nursery period (7 weeks, n 71) for tissue analysis. At 7 weeks, differences due to maternal D were detected (P≤0·05) in pig growth, serum parameters and mRNA expression regardless of nursery diet. Prevalence of kyphosis in pigs at 13 weeks was affected by maternal D, but not prevented by only HCaP or +D nursery diets. Increased (P≤0·05) serum 25-OH-D3 concentrations in sows fed +D or ++D diets were not reflected by similar magnitudes of 25-OH-D3 in colostrum, 18-d milk, or serum and tissue concentrations in pigs. The mode of action by which maternal dietary D influences development of skeletal abnormalities warrants further investigation.
Inland dune fields have recently emerged as a source of data for reconstructing paleoenvironments and climate in the western Great Lakes region of North America during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. We employ optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods, radiocarbon ages, soils, and landform relationships to determine the age of inland dunes in Ottawa County, Michigan. These dunes rest on the abandoned bed of Glacial Lake Chicago, which is thought to have been exposed after ~13.6 ka. OSL analyses from two inland dunes yield ages ranging from 13.3±1.1 to 11.6±0.9 ka (uncertainty=2σ). Fine sand in the parabolic dunes suggests deflation of exposed glaciolacustrine nearshore sand by northwesterly and westerly winds. These new data add to a growing number of studies that demonstrate widespread eolian activity in the western Great Lakes region during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. OSL ages from dune fields in the western Great Lakes indicate peak eolian activity and dune stabilization occurred during or following the Younger Dryas and Preboreal events. Northwesterly and westerly winds suggest the limited effect of hypothesized easterly anticyclonic winds during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Rapidly changing climate and newly deglaciated surfaces provided an ideal environment for dune formation.
Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over effects were assessed in young pigs to characterise skeletal abnormalities in a diet-induced model of kyphosis. Bone abnormalities were previously induced and bone mineral density (BMD) reduced in offspring from sows fed diets with inadequate vitamin D3. In a nested design, pigs from sows (n 23) fed diets with 0 (−D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg from breeding through lactation were weaned and, within litter, fed nursery diets arranged as a 2×2 factorial design with 0 (−D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 95 % (95P) or 120 % (120P) of P requirements. Selected pigs were euthanised before colostrum consumption at birth (0 weeks, n 23), weaning (3 weeks, n 22) and after a growth period (8 weeks, n 185) for BMD, bone mechanical tests and tissue mRNA analysis. Pigs produced by +D or ++D sows had increased gain at 3 weeks (P<0·05), and at 8 weeks had increased BMD and improved femur mechanical properties. However, responses to nursery diets depended on maternal diets (P<0·05). Relative mRNA expressions of genes revealed a maternal dietary influence at birth in bone osteocalcin and at weaning in kidney 24-hydroxylase (P<0·05). Nursery treatments affected mRNA expressions at 8 weeks. Detection of a maternal and nursery diet interaction (P<0·05) provided insights into the long-term effects of maternal nutritional inputs. Characterising early stages of bone abnormalities provided inferences for humans and animals about maternal dietary influence on offspring skeletal health.
Objectives Although primary dystonia is typically characterized as a movement disorder, it is also associated with cognitive alterations in the domain of executive functioning which may arise from changes in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, patients with dystonia show deficits in neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility. However, it is unclear whether cognitive inflexibility is caused by the pathomechanisms underlying primary dystonia or by confounding factors such as depression or symptom-related distraction.Methods The present study aimed to eliminate these confounds by examining cognitive flexibility in dystonia patients and in patients with similar motor symptoms but without a comparable central pathophysiology. Eighteen patients with primary blepharospasm, a common form of dystonia affecting the muscles around the eyes, and 19 patients with hemifacial spasm, a facial nerve disorder causing similar eyelid spasms, completed a computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (cWCST). The two groups were further compared on tests of global cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, health status, and impulsiveness. Results Blepharospasm patients committed significantly more errors on the cWCST than patients with hemifacial spasm. Group differences were most pronounced with regard to integration errors, a measure of rule-inference processes on the cWCST. Integration errors were also associated with impulsiveness in patients with blepharospasm. Conclusions Primary blepharospasm is related to deficits in cognitive flexibility, even when blepharospasm patients are compared with patients who suffer from motor symptoms of non-dystonic origin. Our results support the possibility that cognitive inflexibility results from the specific pathophysiological processes underlying primary dystonia. (JINS, 2016, 22, 662–670)
Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.81, p ⩽ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36–0.68, p ⩽ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation.
Disaster-related interventions are actions or responses undertaken during any phase of a disaster to change the current status of an affected community or a Societal System. Interventional disaster research aims to evaluate the results of such interventions in order to develop standards and best practices in Disaster Health that can be applied to disaster risk reduction. Considering interventions as production functions (transformation processes) structures the analyses and cataloguing of interventions/responses that are implemented prior to, during, or following a disaster or other emergency. Since currently it is not possible to do randomized, controlled studies of disasters, in order to validate the derived standards and best practices, the results of the studies must be compared and synthesized with results from other studies (ie, systematic reviews). Such reviews will be facilitated by the selected studies being structured using accepted frameworks. A logic model is a graphic representation of the transformation processes of a program [project] that shows the intended relationships between investments and results. Logic models are used to describe a program and its theory of change, and they provide a method for the analyzing and evaluating interventions. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is an adaptation of a logic model used for the evaluation of educational programs and provides the structure required for the analysis of disaster-related interventions. It incorporates a(n): definition of the current functional status of a community or Societal System, identification of needs, definition of goals, selection of objectives, implementation of the intervention(s), and evaluation of the effects, outcomes, costs, and impacts of the interventions. It is useful for determining the value of an intervention and it also provides the structure for analyzing the processes used in providing the intervention according to the Relief/Recovery and Risk-Reduction Frameworks.
BirnbaumML, DailyEK, O’RourkeAP, KushnerJ. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VI: Interventional Research and the Disaster Logic Model. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(2):181–194.
We describe the first complete sediment core to bedrock in southwestern Michigan of a radiocarbon defined sequence of Michigan Subepisode (Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage [MIS] 2) glacial sediments, Athens Subepisode (MIS 3) non-glacial sediments, and two older tills using sedimentological, lithological, and radiocarbon analyses. Organics from Athens Subepisode lacustrine and palustrine sediments yield radiocarbon ages of 41,920–42,950 and 43,630–45,340, and > 43,500 14C yr BP. We propose the name Port Sheldon Formation for these organic-bearing sediments. We interpret the underlying diamictons as two basal tills separated by glaciolacustrine fines. The youngest till (Hemlock Crossing till) lying below the Port Sheldon Formation is a dark gray, gravel-poor clay loam to loam with a mean kaolinite–illite ratio of 0.98 ± 0.04. The oldest till (Glenn Shores till) is a dark grayish brown, gravel-rich, clay loam to sandy loam with mean kaolinite–illite ratio of 1.22 ± 0.08. About 130 water-well records demonstrate that organic sediments and underlying diamictons are common in the subsurface of Ottawa County. These tills are likely Illinois Episode (MIS 6) or older, but an Ontario Subepisode (MIS 4) age cannot be ruled out. Deep bedrock basins in Lower Michigan provide an untapped archive of pre-Michigan Subepisode history.
In many areas, wildlife managers are turning to hunting programmes to increase public acceptance of predators. This study examines attitudes measured before and after a hunting and trapping season (wolf hunt) in Wisconsin (WI), USA, and casts some doubt on whether such programmes actually promote public acceptance. In Wisconsin, attitudes toward wolves (Canis lupus) were recorded before and after the inaugural regulated wolf hunt. Measuring longitudinal changes is particularly important in assessing management interventions. The attitudes of 736 previous respondents were resampled in 2013. Changes in individual responses to statements about emotions, behavioural intentions, beliefs, and attitudes toward wolves and wolf management between 2009 and 2013 were assessed using a nine-item scaled variable called ‘tolerance’. Although the majority (66%) of wolf range respondents approved of the decision to hold the hunt, the results indicate a negative trend in attitudes toward wolves among male respondents and hunters living in wolf range, both before and after the state's first legal hunt, suggesting that hunting was not associated with an increase in tolerance for the species after one year. Tolerance levels among female respondents remained stable throughout the study period.
We present textural and thickness data on loess from 125 upland sites in west-central Wisconsin, which confirm that most of this loess was derived from the sandy outwash surfaces of the Chippewa River and its tributaries, which drained the Chippewa Lobe of the Laurentide front during the Wisconsin glaciation (MIS 2). On bedrock uplands southeast of the widest outwash surfaces in the Chippewa River valley, this loess attains thicknesses > 5 m. OSL ages on this loess constrain the advance of the Laurentide ice from the Lake Superior basin and into west-central Wisconsin, at which time its meltwater started flowing down the Chippewa drainage. The oldest MAR OSL age, 23.8 ka, from basal loess on bedrock, agrees with the established, but otherwise weakly constrained, regional glacial chronology. Basal ages from four other sites range from 13.2 to 18.5 ka, pointing to the likelihood that these sites remained geomorphically unstable and did not accumulate loess until considerably later in the loess depositional interval. Other OSL ages from this loess, taken higher in the stratigraphic column but below the depth of pedoturbation, range to nearly 13 ka, suggesting that the Chippewa River valley may have remained a loess source for several millennia.
The immunomodulatory effects of live or non-viable lactic acid bacteria have been extensively investigated. We reported that oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK L-137) augmented innate and acquired immunity in mice and human subjects. To examine the effects of HK L-137 intake on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms and immune functions in human subjects, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted in subjects with high psychological stress levels. A total of seventy-eight healthy subjects (thirty-three men and forty-five women; mean age 50·6 years) with scores of >41 on eighteen-item subscales of psychological distress in the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire were randomly assigned to receive a tablet containing HK L-137 (10 mg) or a placebo tablet daily for 12 weeks. The URTI symptoms were rated once daily on the validated twenty-one-item Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21. Immune functions, such as concanavalin A-induced proliferation and percentages of interferon (IFN)-γ- and IL-4-producing CD4 T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and serum IFN-β concentrations were measured every 4 weeks. URTI incidence was significantly lower in the HK L-137 group than in the control group. URTI incidence, duration and severity, and duration of medication showed significant negative correlations with duration of HK L-137 intake. The percentage change from baseline of concanavalin A-induced proliferation of PBMC was significantly greater in the HK L-137 group than in the control group. These findings suggest that daily HK L-137 intake can decrease URTI incidence in healthy subjects, possibly through augmentation of immune functions.
Areal mapping of the middle Wisconsin varved clay site along Sixmile Creek near Ithaca, New York, has revealed a much more widespread and varied array of sediments than previously thought. Lacustrine clays, some varved, are interbedded with sands and gravels interpreted as sub-aqueous fan deposits, and both are overlain by a deformation till. Nine radiocarbon dates indicate a 34–37 14C ka BP age for the lacustrine sediment, with the deformation till less than a few thousand years younger. Beneath this sequence is a deposit dated at ± 42 14C ka BP. Both strata represent a tundra climate with a mean July temperature of about 10°C. The Sixmile Creek deformation till must correlate with the 35 14C ka BP till along the Genesee River, 125 km to the NW, and defines a Cherrytree stade glacial advance into the Appalachian Plateau, much further south than what has generally been accepted. Such an advance would require drainage from a proglacial lake in the western Ontario basin to flow westward instead of northeastward. The Sixmile strata suggest a colder than accepted middle Wisconsin stage. Recent data indicate that this stage is one of progressive cooling, with large climatic fluctuations.
The interactive effects of herbivory, exotic species, and other human-mediated changes to the biosphere are reducing species diversity and altering ecosystem services globally. In this study, we tested whether facilitation could be used as a management technique to restore a degraded northeast Wisconsin forest understory facing high white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browse pressure and high abundance of the exotic herb garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande]. Specifically, we attempted to facilitate native understory restoration by planting or seeding native herbs into three different matrix densities of the native, browse-tolerant grass Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus L.), which were either protected from (fenced), or accessible to, deer browsing. Deer had minimal impacts on E. virginicus but significantly reduced the cover, survival, and flower production of white snakeroot [Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H.E. Robins.] transplants, largely independent of the density of E. virginicus plantings in open-access plots. In contrast, the richness and abundance of native-seeded species were not affected by deer access but were reduced by increasing E. virginicus densities. Alliaria petiolata cover was significantly higher in plots accessible to deer but declined significantly with increasing E. virginicus planting density in both open-access and fenced plots. These results were largely corroborated by results from an associated observational study, with the exception that natural E. virginicus stands supported slightly higher native-species richness than did adjacent areas lacking E. virginicus. Thus, although we found little support that establishing E. virginicus facilitated browse-susceptible native understory herbs during our short-term experimental study, restored E. virginicus successfully established, thereby increasing native species cover and significantly reducing the cover of the exotic A. petiolata. We suggest the planting of browse-tolerant native species, such as E. virginicus, as a viable restoration technique in heavily browsed, A. petiolata–invaded woodlands.
We present the first study of the distribution, genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of late Pleistocene loess in northeastern Wisconsin and adjacent parts of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Loess here is commonly 25–70 cm thick. Upland areas that were deglaciated early and remained geomorphically stable preferentially accumulated loess by providing sites that were efficient at trapping and retaining eolian sediment. Data from 419 such sites indicate that the loess was mainly derived from proglacial outwash plains and to a lesser extent, hummocky end moraines within and near the region, particularly those toward the east of the loess deposits. Most of the loess was transported on katabatic winds coming off the ice sheet, which entrained and transported both silt and fine sands. The loess fines markedly, and is better sorted, distal to these source regions. Only minimal amounts of loess were deposited in this area via westerly winds. This research (1) reinforces the observation that outwash plains and end moraines can be significant loess sources, (2) provides evidence for katabatic winds as significant eolian transport vectors, and (3) demonstrates that the loess record may be variously preserved across landscapes, depending on where and when geomorphically stable sites became available for loess accumulation.
We used a combination of radiocarbon and OSL dating in ice-proximal lacustrine silt and clay and outwash sand to estimate when ice of the Green Bay Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet began retreating from its maximum position in south-central Wisconsin. The radiocarbon ages indicate that lakes had formed in the two tributary valleys by ~ 17.2 and 20.1 ka, respectively. The OSL ages indicate that the Green Bay Lobe was at its maximum position from about 26.4 ± 5.1 ka to 21.4 ± 3.3 ka. These data provide entirely new chronologic control on late Wisconsin (Marine Isotope Stage 2) glacial event in the upper Midwest, as well as the opportunity to directly compare radiocarbon and OSL ages in this setting.
The vertebrate fossil record of Cement Creek Cave, Colorado, spans from ≫ 45,000 yr ago to the present and represents the richest stratified series of high-elevation (≫ 2900 m) mammal remains known from the late Quaternary of North America. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of tooth enamel were used to assess potential ecological responses of two species found commonly throughout the cave, Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and Bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea), to late Quaternary climate and environmental changes of the Southern Rocky Mountains. Results indicate that despite such perturbations, the dietary ecologies of both species were maintained across this period. Neither taxon shifted to consuming C4 taxa or different C3 functional groups; similarly, no significant shifts in surface water use were detected. Variations in enamel δ13C were observed, however, that represent the physiological responses of high-elevation plants to changing levels of late Quaternary atmospheric CO2. While our findings extend both the geographic and elevational record of this plant CO2 response, they simultaneously highlight the ecological stability of high-elevation M. flaviventris and N. cinerea during climate changes of late Quaternary magnitude.
Research has demonstrated impairments in executive functions in Bipolar Mood Disorder patients. Evidence shows that this impairment is present in both periods of active symptoms of the disorder, as well as euthymic stages, and is compounded by mood episodes, especially manic phases. The purpose of this study was to compare the executive performance of a sample of Brazilian bipolar patients in depressive episodes, (44 participants), euthymia (37 participants), and in controls (43 participants). The main instrument for evaluation was the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Significant differences were found in performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test between Bipolar subjects (Type I) (both in depression and euthymia) and the controls. No significant correlations were found between the number of manic episodes and the performance on execute measurement variables. The findings suggest that the executive dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder may be related to both transitory and permanent deficits.
Background: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has long been used to investigate deficits in executive function in humans. The majority of studies investigating deficient WCST performance focused on the number of categories achieved (CA) and the number of perseverative errors of the Nelson type (PEN). However, there is insufficient evidence that these two measures reflect the same neural deficits.
Methods: Twenty AD patients with high PEN scores, and 20 age- and sex-matched AD patients with low PEN scores were selected. All 40 subjects underwent brain SPECT, and the SPECT images were analyzed by Statistical Parametric Mapping.
Results: No significant differences were found between high and low PEN score groups with respect to years of education, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination scores, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. However, higher z scores for hypoperfusion in the bilateral rectal and orbital gyri were observed in the high PEN score group compared with the low PEN score group.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that functional activity of the bilateral rectal and orbital gyri is closely related to PEN scores on a modified WCST (mWCST). The PEN score on a mWCST might be a promising index of dysfunction of the orbitofrontal area among patients with mild AD.