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To investigate the accuracy of arm-associated height estimation methods in the calculation of true height compared with stretch stature in a sample of young South African adults.
A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed.
Pietermaritzburg, Westville and Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2015.
Convenience sample (N 900) aged 18–24 years, which included an equal number of participants from both genders (150 per gender) stratified across race (Caucasian, Black African and Indian).
Continuous variables that were investigated included: (i) stretch stature; (ii) total armspan; (iii) half-armspan; (iv) half-armspan ×2; (v) demi-span; (vi) demi-span gender-specific equation; (vii) WHO equation; and (viii) WHO-adjusted equations; as well as categorization according to gender and race. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 21.0. Significant correlations were identified between gender and height estimation measurements, with males being anatomically larger than females (P<0·001). Significant differences were documented when study participants were stratified according to race and gender (P<0·001). Anatomical similarities were noted between Indians and Black Africans, whereas Caucasians were anatomically different from the other race groups. Arm-associated height estimation methods were able to estimate true height; however, each method was specific to each gender and race group.
Height can be calculated by using arm-associated measurements. Although universal equations for estimating true height exist, for the enhancement of accuracy, the use of equations that are race-, gender- and population-specific should be considered.
This chapter discusses the literary form Appendix Vergiliana and other minor forms especially epigram and elegy. It also describes didactic, mythological epic and tragedy, other drama, and historical epic. Virgilian authorship is claimed by external sources for the whole Catalepton, a title used, incidentally, by Aratus for a collection of short poems. A group of poems directly addressed to three of Virgil's associates: Octavius Musa, a historian who was involved in the land disputes around Mantua, and Varius and Tucca, Virgil's later editors. Antiquity had no specialized scientific or technological idiom, and writers of textbooks and tracts were for the most part at the mercy of rhetoric. Vitruvius, the author of books on architecture, left style to the experts and schools. Celsus is more stylistically accomplished than Vitruvius but now of greater interest to historians of medicine than students of literature.
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