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There are only a handful of repositories in the United States that hold archival resources relating to the author, Cormac McCarthy, and even fewer containing original correspondence. This chapter identifies key collections of letters available to researchers, and provides a guide for navigating these archives. With emphases on personal and professional correspondence, I provide an overview of McCarthy material in the Albert Erskine Papers at the University of Virginia; the Cormac McCarthy Papers at The Wittliff Collections at Texas State University; and the Random House Archive at Columbia University, as well as a few smaller collections.
Fully randomized conjoint analysis can mitigate many of the shortcomings of traditional survey methods in estimating attitudes on controversial topics. This chapter explains how we applied conjoint analysis at seven universities and describes the population of participants in our experiments.
The concluding chapter provides a summary of the results reported in the previous chapters, emphasizing the overall preferences in favor of racial/ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic diversity and the broad consensus around these preferences across groups of participants. The chapter then reviews scholarship on how diversity affects campus communities and individual students and faculty, emphasizing that effects at the community level are widely regarded to be positive whereas deeper debates surround impact at the individual level. The chapter concludes by considering current challenges to affirmative action in college admissions in the courts and from those arguing for diversity of viewpoints rather than demographics.
This chapter reports on results from conjoint experiments on undergraduate admissions conducted at the University of New Mexico and the University of Nevada that included both faculty and student participants. It shows that pro-diversity preferences among faculty are substantially stronger even than those among students. We conjecture that the source of these differences could be generational, or could reflect that students interact primarily with junior and contingent faculty who are likely drawn from more demographically diverse backgrounds than permanent faculty.
The university was a medieval invention and therefore a very medieval institution. Its very name, as Hastings Rashdall explained, grew out of the word universitas, which denoted both “an aggregate of persons,” and a “legal corporation.”1 The University of Paris, like the other early university, the University of Bologna, emerged at the end of the twelfth century and reflected the flowering of culture and learning of the 12th Century Renaissance.2 While Bologna came to be known for its Faculty of Law, Paris emerged as the “archetypal” University in the Faculties of Arts and Theology.
Chapter three tracks the geographical expansion of the legal reform, exploring the debates and negotiations around its implementation in Crimea and Kazan. In order to better contextualize this implementation, it first discusses the changing political climate after the Great Reforms and the limited politicization of the emerging public sphere, which also affected provincial cities such as Kazan. Pragmatic concerns over resources and infrastructure came to play as important a role as political and ideological concerns over power and authority. The chapter shows that the reform had to be negotiated carefully at the provincial and local levels, with occasional clashes disrupting the process, as a range of individuals and institutions advanced their positions and defended specific interests. In charting these negotiations and controversies, the chapter also paints a detailed ethnographic portrait of communication and administrative interaction in post-reform Russia.
In 1954 the first issue of New Testament Studies (NTS) was released under the auspices of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas (SNTS), which was founded on 16 September 1938 in Birmingham. The journal aimed to interlink (European) NT scholarship and to ensure its quality and standards by the society's members. Why did it take so long to release the journal, even though the Dutch NT scholar Johannes de Zwaan (1883–1957), who initially came up with the idea, intended the publication of an international quarterly right from the beginning? In 1953 he was not considered for election to the Editorial Board and therefore decided to publish another New Testament journal whose first issue appeared in 1956: Novum Testamentum. De Zwaan's correspondence with some of SNTS's first members and other so far unknown sources can elucidate these circumstances.
An increase in reported psychological distress, particularly among adolescent girls, is observed across a range of countries. Whether a similar trend exists among students in higher education remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to describe trends in self-reported psychological distress among Norwegian college and university students from 2010 to 2018.
We employed data from the Students' Health and Wellbeing Study (SHoT), a nationwide survey for higher education in Norway including full-time students aged 18–34. Numbers of participants (participation rates) were n = 6065 (23%) in 2010, n = 13 663 (29%) in 2014 and n = 49 321 (31%) in 2018. Psychological distress was measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25).
Overall, a statistically significant increase in self-reported psychological distress was observed over time across gender and age-groups. HSCL-25 scores were markedly higher for women than for men at all time-points. Effect-size of the mean change was also stronger for women (time-by-gender interaction: χ2 = 70.02, df = 2, p < 0.001): in women, mean HSCL-25 score increased from 1.62 in 2010 to 1.82 in 2018, yielding a mean change effect-size of 0.40. The corresponding change in men was from 1.42 in 2010 to 1.53 in 2018, giving an effect-size of 0.26.
Both the level and increase in self-reported psychological distress among Norwegian students in higher education are potentially worrying. Several mechanisms may contribute to the observed trend, including changes in response style and actual increase in distress. The relative low response rates in SHoT warrant caution when interpreting and generalising the findings.
To date, there are no published data on the association of patient-centered outcomes and accurate public-safety answering point (PSAP) dispatch in an American population. The goal of this study is to determine if PSAP dispatcher recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge.
This retrospective cohort study is an analysis of prospectively collected Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) data from the San Antonio Fire Department (SAFD; San Antonio, Texas USA) OHCA registry from January 2013 through December 2015. Exclusion criteria were: Emergency Medical Services (EMS)-witnessed arrest, traumatic arrest, age <18 years old, no dispatch type recorded, and missing outcome data. The primary exposure was dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was neurologically intact survival (defined as Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] 1 or 2) to hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes were: bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), automated external defibrillator (AED) use, and prehospital return of spontaneous return of circulation (ROSC).
Of 3,469 consecutive OHCA cases, 2,569 cases were included in this analysis. The PSAP dispatched 1,964/2,569 (76.4%) of confirmed OHCA cases correctly. The PSAP dispatched 605/2,569 (23.6%) of confirmed OHCA cases as another chief complaint. Neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge occurred in 99/1,964 (5.0%) of the recognized cardiac arrest group and 28/605 (4.6%) of the unrecognized cardiac arrest group (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.71–1.70). Bystander CPR occurred in 975/1,964 (49.6%) of the recognized cardiac arrest group versus 138/605 (22.8%) of the unrecognized cardiac arrest group (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 2.70–4.11).
This study found no association between PSAP dispatcher identification of OHCA and neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge. Dispatcher identification of OHCA remains an important, but not singularly decisive link in the OHCA chain of survival.
In this chapter we set out to consider what is needed to ensure that Africa’s infrastructure remains financially sustainable throughout its life cycle. Managing the operational phase is at least, if not more, crucial than ensuring a project is constructed in the first place, but evaluation, particularly in relation to affordability, is weak even at the global level. We identify that in Africa there are frequently weak systems of governance, fragile and risky political institutions and lack of financial management capacity. We empirically examine five Ghanaian projects in electricity generation, water desalination, and the use of private finance to deliver and operate university buildings, to demonstrate financial and accountability shortcomings. We identify four methods that could improve financial sustainability for African infrastructure projects: namely, the establishment of independent infrastructure agencies; training and salary support of competent government technical staff; a move to more transparent decision-making; and the introduction of project monitoring and contingency planning.
Chapter 9 describes the revolt at the University Institute of Social Sciences at Trento. It demonstrates the importance of protest about Vietnam in the first closure of the Institute. I argue that in the course of the revolt, the students discovered themselves as passive subjects of the university system and sought to reinvent themselves as active subjects via protest. In the third occupation at the Faculty of Sociology at Trento, they developed a charter of demands that sought to create structural spaces within the university and perpetuate the student movement without integrating it within the university. The protest movement successfully paralysed the Institute of Sociology without managing to impose itself, until the contestation spread to the Catholic Church in the Anti-Lent of 1968 which, although it culminated in the successful transformation of the institute, nonetheless left the protest movement with a question of what direction it should take.
Chapter 1 analyses the meaning of higher education expansion in the 1960s. It describes how the university came to be perceived as an engine of economic growth, democratisation and social mobility. These aspirations proved disappointing. The underlying tension between technocratic, liberal and egalitarian rationales for university expansion transformed into an open conflict in the mid-1960s. I argue that, instead of understanding the student revolts of the late 1960s as a response to university overcrowding, the most important cause of revolt was the narrowing of the promise of educational reform.
Chapter 11 traces the history of the 'critical universities' created in the wake of the peak of student mobilisation around 1968 – in particular, the Kritische Universität of West Berlin and the Università Critica of Trento. Plans for a université critique at Nanterre failed as conflict escalated rapidly and the French government moved most quickly to enact reform within higher education. These experiments attempted to draw on the mobilisation created by confrontations with police and society to transform the university. However, they were beset by problems of poor attendance, inequalities and divergences within the protest movements over the purpose and value of university reform. I argue that the internal contradictions of the movement and the politicising drive of events ultimately led to the collapse of these experiments.
Chapter 8 describes the protest movement at the Free University of Berlin, and in particular a series of conflicts over free speech. I argue that two versions of autonomy confronted each other in the Kuby Affair and the Krippendorff Affair at the FU, pitting a democratic self-conception of the student body versus administrative power. Speech provided the ostensible rationale for a struggle over student self-government, autonomy and democracy. The public use of criticism demanded by the protest movement sapped the FU rector’s authority in a cycle of provocation, overreaction and protest.
Chapter 2 analyses the meaning of sociology in the 1960s. It traces the creation of the sociology degree in France, West Germany and Italy, and describes in detail the origins of the University Institute of Social Sciences in Trento. The chapter describes the first occupations in Trento over the discipline of sociology. The chapter shows how technocrats and modernisers envisaged in sociology a discipline that would provide managerial staff to administer and control social change. Students, however, most frequently chose sociology as a discipline that embodied a critical vision of contemporary society, personal emancipation and political change. I argue that this conflict explains the centrality of sociology to the revolts of 1968.
Lateral neck radiographs are commonly used in the investigation and management of patients presenting with suspected fish bone impaction. The effectiveness of these is questioned, as many fish do not have radio-opaque bones.
This study evaluated the utility of lateral neck radiographs in the management of patients presenting with fish bones retained in the upper aerodigestive tract, with the creation of a treatment algorithm to guide further management.
An audit of practice was undertaken at the University Hospital of Southampton, identifying all patients admitted with potential fish bone impaction in the upper aerodigestive tract. Following analysis, a treatment algorithm was constructed for use by junior doctors.
In total, 34 per cent of patients with a normal radiograph were subsequently found to have a fish bone present under local or general anaesthetic assessment. The sensitivity of radiographs in the detection of fish bones was found to be 51.6 per cent.
Lateral neck radiographs have limited value in the management of suspected fish bone impaction, and should only be used following detailed clinical examination of the upper aerodigestive tract.