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To evaluate the impact of multiannual, seasonal unconditional cash transfers (UCT) provided within the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM’Out) research project on households’ food security and children’s and caregivers’ dietary diversity.
A two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial with sixteen villages in the intervention group and sixteen others in the control group. A monthly allowance of 10 000 XOF was transferred to caregivers of eligible children via a personal mobile phone account from July to November 2013 and 2014.
Tapoa province in the eastern region of Burkina Faso.
Data on household food access (monthly adequate household food provisioning (MAHFP); household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS)) and maternal and child dietary diversity were analysed for 1143 households, 1219 caregivers of reproductive age (15–49 years) and 1247 under-5 children from both intervention and control groups.
The mean women dietary diversity score in intervention caregivers and the mean dietary diversity score (DDS) in intervention children with inadequate minimum DDS at baseline were respectively 7 % (95 % CI 2, 11 %; P = 0·002) and 17 % (95 % CI 11, 23 %; P <0·001) higher compared with the control group. However, no difference was found in the intervention effect on household food security measured with HFIAS (relative risk = 1·03; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·15; P = 0·565) and MAHFP (relative risk = 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·01; P = 0·426).
Multiannual, seasonalUCT increased dietary diversity in children and their caregivers. They can be recommended in actions aiming to improve maternal and child diet diversity.
To evaluate the predictive ability of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for detecting severe wasting (weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <−3) among children aged 6–59 months.
Rural Uttar Pradesh, India.
Children (n 18 456) for whom both WHZ (n 18 463) and MUAC were available.
The diagnostic test accuracy of MUAC for severe wasting was excellent (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0·933). Across the lower range of MUAC cut-offs (110–120 mm), specificity was excellent (99·1–99·9 %) but sensitivity was poor (13·4–37·2 %); with higher cut-offs (140–150 mm), sensitivity increased substantially (94·9–98·8 %) but at the expense of specificity (37·6–71·9 %). The optimal MUAC cut-off to detect severe wasting was 135 mm. Although the prevalence of severe wasting was constant at 2·2 %, the burden of severe acute malnutrition, defined as either severe wasting or low MUAC, increased from 2·46 to 17·26 % with cut-offs of <115 and <135 mm, respectively. An MUAC cut-off <115 mm preferentially selected children aged ≤12 months (OR=11·8; 95 % CI 8·4, 16·6) or ≤24 months (OR=23·4; 95 % CI 12·7, 43·4) and girls (OR=2·2; 95 % CI 1·6, 3·2).
Based on important considerations for screening and case detection in the community, modification of the current WHO definition of severe acute malnutrition may not be warranted, especially in the Indian context.
The present study determined trends in malnutrition among under-5 children in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.
The study was conducted in the urban Dhaka and the rural Matlab hospitals of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, where every fiftieth patient and all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System were enrolled.
A total of 28 816 under-5 children were enrolled at Dhaka from 1993 to 2012 and 11 533 at Matlab between 2000 and 2012.
In Dhaka, 46 % of the children were underweight, 39 % were stunted and 28 % were wasted. In Matlab, the corresponding figures were 39 %, 31 % and 26 %, respectively. At Dhaka, 0·5 % of the children were overweight and obese when assessed by weight-for-age Z-score >+2·00, 1·4 % by BMI-for-age Z-score >+2·00 and 1·4 % by weight-for-height Z-score >+2·00; in Matlab the corresponding figures were 0·5 %, 1·4 % and 1·4 %, respectively. In Dhaka, the proportion of underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59 % to 28 % (a 53 % reduction), from 54 % to 22 % (59 % reduction) and from 33 % to 21 % (36 % reduction), respectively, between 1993 and 2012. In Matlab, these indicators decreased from 51 % to 27 % (a 47 % reduction), from 36 % to 25 % (31 % reduction) and from 34 % to 14 % (59 % reduction), respectively, from 2000 to 2012. On the other hand, the proportion of overweight (as assessed by BMI-for-age Z-score) increased significantly over the study period in both Dhaka (from 0·6 % to 2·6 %) and Matlab (from 0·8 % to 2·2 %).
The proportion of malnourished under-5 children has decreased gradually in both urban and rural Bangladesh; however, the reduction rates are not in line with meeting Millennium Development Goal 1. Trends for increasing childhood obesity have been noted during the study period as well.
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