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This chapter first provides a framework for understanding recent local government approaches to aligning Uber and Lyft operations with urban transportation policy goals—including improving street safety, improving transportation access, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Many of these approaches to setting policy and designing streets are not regulatory per se, though they can and have been used as de facto regulatory strategies. This “implicit” regulatory approach has arisen in part because most local governments in the U.S. lack the formal authority to regulate Uber and Lyft. Furthermore, most local governments also lack the data necessary to develop and/or enforce appropriate regulations of the app-enabled for-hire vehicle industry.
The chapter continues with a case study of how the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, in partnership with researchers at Northeastern University, developed a creative and partnership-driven approach to policy-making in the face of a severe data deficit. Agency staff and University researchers scraped data from the Uber and Lyft application programming interfaces and used those data to better understand how people move in San Francisco County. This work demonstrates the importance of innovative, goal-oriented problem-solving approaches to inform the regulation of increasingly complex city streets.
Utilizing the information recorded in the mid-tenth century Byzantine document known as De Ceremoniis, this paper will examine labour requirements for armament production in the context of a naval expedition to Crete launched by the Byzantines in AD 949. A series of interviews was conducted with experienced blacksmiths with the intention of exploring time requirements for equipment manufacture. The information provided by the De Ceremoniis, as well as that produced through the interviews, has allowed for the assessment of overall trends in the tenth century arms production industry, including labour investments, thematic and imperial production capabilities, and transportation logistics.
This introduction sets up this book’s analysis in terms of the Irish female convict prison’s history, structure and space, the historiography of Irish punishment and imprisonment, and the sources and methods. It outlines how the Irish Convict System developed in the wake of the end of transportation. It explores the aims and motivations of the convict directors who headed the system, and demonstrates how the approach won immediate praise and had widespread international influence. Optimism that the Irish Convict System had solved recidivism, however, was not to last and in the 1870s the establishment of the General Prisons Board initiated further changes. This chapter also explores the establishment of a singularly female prison managed mostly by female staff. It demonstrates, using quantitative and qualitative evidence, that a stay in Ireland’s female convict prison was statistically unusual, even though the women housed therein were in other respects ‘ordinary’ women.
Narrative fiction is a major component of entertainment and culture, comprising books, television, movies, and video games. Our comprehension of these narratives is predicated in part on the imagination, which allows us to simulate fictional events, characters, and worlds. Beyond basic comprehension, the imagination also enables us to generate personalized and unique interpretations of a narrative, effectively allowing us to co-create narratives alongside the author. In this chapter, we discuss the ways in which imagination is used to understand fictional stories across a variety of mediums. We begin with a discussion of mental models, exploring how we use the imagination to translate narrative cues, such as words on a page, into complex and elaborate mental representations. Next, we discuss how the imagination encourages narrative engagement, by allowing us to feel physically transported into fictional worlds. Following that, we examine how the imagination is used to personalize narrative comprehension, through interpreting ambiguous or auxiliary narrative content and through incorporating past personal experiences and current beliefs into the narrative. Finally, we close with a discussion of how modern interactive media may uniquely engage our imagination by providing audiences with the freedom to create their own narratives.
Although cattle can synthesize vitamin C (VC) endogenously, stress may increase VC requirements above the biosynthetic threshold and warrant supplementation. This study investigated the effects of a VC injection delivered before or after a long-distance transit event on blood parameters and feedlot performance of beef steers. Fifty-two days prior to trial initiation, 90 newly weaned, Angus-based steers from a single source were transported to Ames, IA, USA. On day 0, 72 steers (356 ± 17 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to intramuscular injection treatments (24 steers/treatment): saline injection pre- and post-transit (CON), VC (Vet One, Boise, ID, USA; 5 g sodium ascorbate/steer) injection pre-transit and saline injection post-transit (PRE) or saline injection pre-transit and VC injection post-transit (POST). Following pre-transit treatment injections, steers were transported on a commercial livestock trailer for approximately 18 h (1675 km). Post-transit (day 1), steers were sorted into pens with one GrowSafe bunk/pen (4 pens/treatment; 6 steers/pen). Steers were weighed on day 0, 1, 7, 30, 31, 56 and 57. Blood was collected from 3 steers/pen on day 0, 1, 2 and 7; liver biopsies were performed on the same 3 steers/pen on day 2. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design (experimental unit = steer; fixed effects = treatment and block) and blood parameters were analyzed as repeated measures. A pre-transit VC injection improved steer average daily gain from day 7 to 31 (P = 0.05) and overall (day 1 to 57; P = 0.02), resulting in greater BW for PRE-steers on day 30/31 (P = 0.03) and a tendency for greater final BW (day 56/57; P = 0.07). Steers that received VC pre- or post-transit had greater DM intake from day 31 to 57 (P = 0.01) and overall (P = 0.02) v. CON-steers. Plasma ascorbate concentrations were greatest for PRE-steers on day 1 and POST-steers on day 2 (treatment × day; P < 0.01). No interaction or treatment effects were observed for other blood parameters (P ≥ 0.21). Plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant potential and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased post-transit (day; P < 0.01), while serum non-esterified fatty acids and haptoglobin concentrations increased post-transit (day; P < 0.01). In general, blood parameters returned to pre-transit values by day 7. Pre-transit administration of injectable VC to beef steers mitigated the decline in plasma ascorbate concentrations and resulted in superior feedlot performance compared to post-transit administration.
By examining a constellation of writings originating in the years 1822 to 1824, this chapter brings together various forms of mobility and speculation. Galt’s Sir Andrew Wylie, of that Ilk depicts an enterprising protagonist’s move from rural Scotland to London and back again, once he has undergone a performative process of identity construction in a series of socio–economic fields. Published first in periodicals and then collected into volumes entitled Our Village, Mitford’s prose sketches about life in rural Berkshire document changes caused by speculation on property and new modes of transportation that increase both voluntary and involuntary mobility. Saint Ronan’s Well, Scott’s only novel set in the nineteenth century, presents the related but contrasting scenario of a Scottish village disrupted by the speculative development of a fashionable spa; it interweaves themes of gambling and identity theft with a critique of contemporary print culture and reading habits. Recurring motifs in these works show how authors and characters respond to changes in socio-economic relations as increased mobility affects their capacity to control literary, personal, and real property.
The low-level nuclear wastes such as decontamination waste from Fukushima are disposed in near-surface underground, where the intermittent recharge of rain and groundwater causes spatial distribution of water content. Therefore, pores of soils are not filled with water, that is, an unsaturated zone will be formed. In such a condition, since the water flow path are detoured by clogged gas in pores of soil in the unsaturated zone, the migration path of radionuclide would be different from the saturated zone. So far, the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) model has been widely used in order to explain experimental results under an unsaturated condition. However, the detouring of local flow-paths remarkably affects the mass transfer. The one-dimensional ADE evaluates such a detouring effect by using Peclet number and retardation coefficient as fitting parameters. In other words, the one-dimensional ADE model is difficult to explain mass transfer under an unsaturated condition. Therefore, the purpose of this study is explaining such complicated transport of radionuclides using a multi-path model based on phenomena in underground. The proposed multi-path model considering both water saturation and permeability distributions showed good agreement with the experimental data under an unsaturated condition.
Can Spent Nuclear Fuel withstand the shocks and vibrations experienced during normal conditions of transport? This question was the motivation for the multi-modal transportation test (MMTT) (Summer 2017), 1/3-scale cask 30 cm drop test (December 2018), and full-scale assembly 30 cm drop tests (June 2019). The full-scale ENSA ENUN 32P cask with 3 surrogate 17x17 PWR assemblies was used in the MMTT. The 1/3-scale cask was a mockup of this cask. The 30 cm drop tests provided the accelerations on the 1/3-scale dummy assemblies. These data were used to design full-scale assembly drop tests with the goal to quantify the strain fuel rods experience inside a cask when dropped from a height of 30 cm. The drop tests were first done with the dummy and then with the surrogate assembly. This paper presents the preliminary results of the tests.
Looking across the long twentieth century, this article tracks the rise and fall of one form of anti-competition regulation: the certificate of public convenience. Designed to curb “destructive competition” in certain industries, such as transportation and banking, certificate laws prevented firms from entering those industries unless they could convince regulators that they would satisfy an unmet public demand for goods or services. This history highlights how lawmakers used similar techniques in governing infrastructure and finance—two fields that are not often studied together. It also shows that state regulation both prefigured legal change at the federal level and then lagged behind it, suggesting that different dynamics have been in play at each level of governance in devising competition policy over the last century.
Wire-shaped supercapacitors (WSSCs) hold great promise in portable and wearable electronics. Herein, a novel kind of high-performance coaxial WSSCs has been demonstrated and realized by scrolling porous carbon dodecahedrons/Al foil film electrode on vertical FeOOH nanosheets wrapping carbon fiber tows (FeOOH NSs/CFTs) yarn electrode. Remarkably, ionogel is utilized as solid-state electrolyte and exhibits a high thermal/electrochemical stability, which effectively ensures the great reliability and high operating voltage of coaxial WSSCs. Benefiting from the intriguing configuration, the coaxial WSSCs with superior flexibility act as efficient energy storage devices and exhibit low resistance, high volumetric energy density (3.2 mW h/cm3), and strong durability (82% after 10,000 cycles). Importantly, the coaxial WSSCs can be effectively recharged by harvesting sustainable wind source and repeatedly supply power to the lamp without a decline of electrochemical performance. Considering the facile fabrication technology with an outstanding performance, this work has paved the way for the integration of sustainable energy harvesting and wearable energy storage units.
The transportation sector is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. One method being used to reduce greenhouse emissions related to the transportation sector is improving vehicle fuel efficiency through mass reduction. Reducing the mass of on-highway passenger vehicles by 10% can result in vehicle fuel economy improvements of as much as 6–8% if the powertrain is downsized to maintain equivalent performance. Some of the materials being investigated and implemented to reduce passenger vehicle mass include advanced high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites. Additionally, multimaterial structures that allow for optimal combinations of lightweight materials to achieve maximum weight reduction with lowest cost and best structural performance have recently become of particular interest. However, assembling multimaterial structures can be challenging due to differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion of different materials, as well as formation of intermetallic compounds and galvanic corrosion potential. Joining technologies for lightweight multimaterial structures must address these challenges to be successful. This article highlights advances made in five different joining techniques: nondestructive evaluation of resistance spot-welded aluminum to steel, modeling of structural adhesives, temperature control of friction stir welds, ultrasonic welding of magnesium, and vapor foil actuation welding.
Although federal regulation of vehicle fuel economy is often seen as environmental policy, over 70% of the estimated benefits of the 2017–2025 federal standards are savings in consumer expenditures on gasoline. Rational-choice economists question the counting of these benefits since studies show that the fuel efficiency of a car is reflected in its price at sale and resale. We contribute to this debate by exploring why most consumers in the United States do not purchase a proven fuel-saving innovation: the hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV). A database of 110 vehicle pairs is assembled where a consumer can choose a hybrid or gasoline version of virtually the same vehicle. Few choose the HEV. A total cost of ownership model is used to estimate payback periods for the price premiums associated with the HEV choice. In a majority of cases, a rational-choice explanation is sufficient to understand consumer disinterest in the HEV. However, in a significant minority of cases, a rational-choice explanation is not readily apparent, even when non-pecuniary attributes (e.g., performance and cargo space) are considered. Future research should examine, from a behavioral economics perspective, why consumers do not choose HEVs when pricing and payback periods appear to be favorable.
Valuing changes in time use is often a critical element of economic analyses of development projects. In this paper we review the literature on the monetary value of time in low- and middle-income countries and find support for a commonly used benchmark of 50% of after-tax wages for time changes in activities in the informal sector, such as collecting water or traveling to health clinics. We offer recommendations to analysts who are conducting benefit-cost analyses in these settings about what methods they can use to estimate the value of time. These include a benefits transfer approach and also a relatively simple stated preference approach that might be deployed in a specific context if the project recommendation is sensitive to the assumption of the value of time or if the distribution of the benefits of time savings is especially important.
This paper compares the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) ex ante compliance cost estimates for the 2004 Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Surface Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants to ex post evidence on the actual costs of compliance based on ex post cost data gathered from a subset of the industry via pilot survey and follow-up interviews. Unlike many prior retrospective studies on the cost of regulatory compliance, we use this newly gathered information to identify the key drivers of any differences between the ex ante and ex post estimates. We find that the U.S. EPA overestimated the cost of compliance for the plants in our sample and that overestimation was driven primarily by differences in the method of compliance rather than differences in the per-unit cost associated with a given compliance approach. In particular, the U.S. EPA expected facilities to install pollution abatement control technologies in their paint shops to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants, but instead these plants complied by reformulating coatings.
General Motors (GM) became the world's dominant automaker in the 1920s and 1930s thanks in part to a dynamic, centralized public relations operation. The intended audience of this marketing included GM's own overseas employees. As the company opened new plants in foreign countries, it used media such as General Motors World, an employee newspaper, to communicate that it understood the needs of different foreign consumers and to advocate against protectionist economic policies that hindered its ability to sell cars. The messages of General Motors World shaped global perceptions of GM's corporate structure and brand, and were a core element of the automaker's overseas activity.
Although benefit-cost analysis (BCA) can be traced back to European thinkers, its first practical applications were in the United States. Recent years have witnessed a growing demand for economic appraisals of policies in different sectors in Europe, but the implementation rate is still low compared to that in the United States. This article introduces a symposium that includes four articles that present current examples of how BCA is being applied in different sectors and in different institutional settings in Europe. They deal with environmental valuation in the United Kingdom, economic analysis for investment in Sweden’s transport sector, economic versus financial returns in European Union investment project appraisal, and BCA in EU chemicals legislation. The goal is to stimulate continuing discussion on the implementation of BCA, not only in Europe but also worldwide.
Aircraft that take off and land verticallywith rotors or horizontal propellers like drones use more energy than conventional aircraft whose lift is provided by wings. Drones with propellers are less efficient than helicopters with large rotors. The poor energy density of batteries compared to hydrocarbon fuels limits the range and endurance of the electrically powered aircraft. Although the ratio of the mass of payload and fuel (or battery) to the total aircraft mass for the proposed Amazon drone is not that different from the same ratio for a Boeing 747, the range and time in the air is very much less. In principle, a conventional aircraft powered by photovoltaic panels covering a wing with a span of 6 m could match the performance of the proposed Amazon drone.
Amazon has proposed delivering packages by an electrically powered drone capable of vertical take off and landing. By comparison with helicopters, the energy needed to move a 2.5 kg package is estimated to be more than 130 times the energy used in delivering the same package in a small delivery truck. By comparison, a conventional airplane with the same mass could, in principle, be powered by photovoltaic panels, covering the wings, and it would use an energy equivalent to about 3 times the energy used by a small delivery truck. Based on the performance of existing small helicopters, the analysis shows that an electrically powered air taxi would only be able to make journeys of 10 min or less. Vertical take-off and landing add to energy requirements, and drones using a large number of propellers are less efficient than helicopters. The major limitation, not surprisingly, is the poor energy density of batteries compared to liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
We present some recently acquired results corresponding to the nature of the electron transport that occurs within bulk alloys of zinc-magnesium-oxide. These results are obtained using three-valley ensemble semi-classical Monte Carlo electron transport simulations. The impact that the magnesium content plays in shaping the form of the electron transport related characteristics associated with this alloy system is explored. Both steady-state and transient electron transport results are examined. The device implications of these results are then commented upon.
This article offers a conceptual understanding and easily applicable guidelines for sustainable urban infrastructure design by focusing on the demand for and supply of the services provided by seven urban infrastructure systems.
For more than 10,000 years, cities have evolved continuously, often shaped by the challenges they had to face. Similarly, we can imagine that cities will have to evolve again in the future to address their current challenges. Specifically, urban infrastructure will need to adapt and use less energy and fewer resources while becoming more resilient. In this article, starting with a definition of sustainability, two urban infrastructure sustainability principles (SP) are introduced: (i) controlling the demand and (ii) increasing the supply within reason, which are then applied to seven urban infrastructure systems: water, electricity, district heating and cooling and natural gas, telecommunications, transport, solid waste, and buildings. From these principles, a four-step urban infrastructure design (UID) process is compiled that can be applied to any infrastructure project: (i) controlling the demand to reduce the need for new infrastructure, (ii) integrating a needed service within the current infrastructure, (iii) making new infrastructure multifunctional to provide for other infrastructure systems, and (iv) designing for specific interdependencies and decentralizing infrastructure if possible. Overall, by first recognizing that urban infrastructure systems are inherently integrated and interdependent, this article offers several strategies and guidelines to help design sustainable urban infrastructure systems.