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With the ever-increasing importance of nanoscale deformation phenomena in contemporary technologies, basic understanding of material behavior at the nanoscale has become of critical importance. Especially, nanomechanical testing that provides the capability to study fundamental nanoscale deformation and phase change phenomena in real time and under controlled loading conditions is essential for nanomaterial research. In this study, acoustic emission (AE) was used in situ to characterize nanoindentation-induced deformation, microfracture, and phase transformation processes intrinsic of bulk single-crystal MgO and polycrystalline Al, thin films of polycrystalline SiC, and thick films of austenitic TiNi shape-memory alloy. Scale-dependent plastic deformation and microfracture affected by the indenter tip radius and the applied normal load are interpreted in terms of the type and intensity of AE events revealed by abrupt displacement excursions in the loading response of the indented materials. The amplitudes of AE waveforms are used to examine characteristic deformation, microfracture, and phase change mechanisms in the time domain. Fast Fourier transformation and short-time Fourier transformation analyses provide further insight into the material behavior and structural changes due to indentation loading in the frequency and time-frequency domain, respectively. The methodology developed in this study represents an effective approach for nanomechanical testing and in situ characterization of nanoscale deformation, microfracture, and phase transformation phenomena.
Chapter 6 addresses two ways in which our minds can be constructive: either by making inferences on the basis of what’s already there – filling in gaps of information, or by transforming what’s there into something new. This twofold ability of the human mind to construct is basic to our existence, enabling us to go beyond what we encounter around us. The way we talk reflects both inference and transformation processes systematically. Inference involves taking observable facts and combining them with further knowledge or assumptions, in order to come to new insights or conclusions that aren’t directly observable. Transformation, on the other hand, involves taking observable facts or objects and turning them into something different, something that isn’t yet there but that can be accomplished using available tools and operators. Chapter 6 looks at each of these processes of cognitive constructiveness in turn.
The influences of Chinese traditional culture, especially the traditional Three Teachings and folk religion, on the Mandarin Union Version of the Chinese Bible (first edition, 1919) and the resulting complications are explicit in some contexts but implicit and subtle in other contexts. Some influences are helpful for Chinese people's proper understanding of biblical truth and theology in a Chinese context, but other influences can be misleading. In this paper, I will examine three translated Chinese phrases in the Mandarin Union Version that show evidence of Ruist influences: (1) “xūxīn de rén” “虛心的人”, in Matthew 5:3, (2) “tiānguó shì nǔlì jìnrù de﹐nǔlì de rén jiù dézháole” “天國是努力進入的﹐努力的人就得著了”, Matthew 11:12, and (3) “lǎoliàn” “老練”in Romans 5:4. Ruist influences is explicit in the first two cases but implicit in the third case, I will first analyze the verses and argue that they reflect the dominant Ruist ideology of moral self-cultivation instead of the biblical vision of transformation by “gracious moral cultivation”. Then I will demonstrate how Chinese readers might respond based on the context of each verse: Some Chinese readers might detect the inconsistenices between the Ruist emphasis on moral self-cultivation and a more general biblical theology, especially in an intertextual context of other Bible passages that explicitly teach the total depravity of human beings (e.g. Romans), as well as reconciliation and redemption by the free gift of Christ's grace for salvation and sanctification (e.g. Ephesians). Other Chinese readers might be misled by Ruist suggestions that they pursue sanctification and transformation only by means of moral self-cultivation that relies solely on their willpower. I will conclude by arguing how mistranslating and misinterpreting these verses can cause possible complications, especially negatively masking behaviour, in the personal and interpersonal spiritual transformation and ecclesiological development among Chinese Christians.
In this study, precipitate phase transformation behavior, microstructure, and properties of the Cu–1Cr–1Co–0.4Si (wt%) alloy were investigated. Precipitate phase transformation kinetic equations of the alloy under room temperature rolling (RTR) 90% deformation and aging at different temperatures (440–520 °C) were established. The alloy yielded excellent mechanical and electrical properties under RTR 90% deformation and aging at 440 °C for 1 h, and the corresponding hardness, yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation, and electrical conductivity were 181.6 HV, 573.6 MPa, 653.7 MPa, 7.3%, and 51.6% International Annealed Copper Standard, respectively. The precipitate phase transformation behavior determined the size and volume fraction of the precipitate phase fv, which played a key role in improving the YS. Impurity scattering caused by surplus Si atoms was mainly responsible for decreasing the electrical conductivity. Therefore, these results can provide a reliable theoretical guidance to prepare Cu–Cr–based alloys with high strength and high electrical conductivity.
Phase change materials (PCMs) are getting increasing interest due to their capacity to absorb, store and release heat energy. Their effectiveness is characterized by quantities of absorbed/released heat energy, expressed as enthalpy. Specifically, the larger is the enthalpy, the more efficient thermoregulation effect is achieved. With this in mind, PCMs can be used in the manufacture of thermally regulated clothing in order to minimize heat strain and simultaneously improve thermal comfort. Moreover, such materials also modify their infrared radiation emission during phase transition, thus they can be envisioned to exploit thermal shielding applications. The aim of the present research was to investigate the infrared emissivity of textiles composed by cotton yarns with dispersed PCMs. The organic microcapsules of phase change materials, having different binding to the fibre mechanisms, were padded onto the fabric surface by pad-dry-cure method. The thermal properties and stabilities were measured using differential scanning calorimetry, while infrared emissivity was characterized using infrared thermographic technique. The obtained experimental results show a dynamic tuning of IR emissivity during heating/cooling process which can be correlated to the type and properties (enthalpy of fusion) of the corresponding PCM.
Promoting student access in higher education institutions in South Africa remains a challenge given the limitations and resources that institutions face. The chapter presents a brief history of schooling in South Africa, describes the transition towards fair and equal higher education admissions, and details the policies, practices, and criteria associated with admissions. A discussion of the National Benchmark Tests is also provided. Finally, the chapter discusses issues related to ensuring access, success, and sustainability of the higher education system in South Africa.
The discussions and debate we had around the “Toward a Greater Eurasia: How to Build a Common Future” in the fourth Astana Club Meeting (12–13 November 2018), held while I was working on Systemic Earthquake, contained significant clues with respect to understanding the psychology of the international environment and bringing out the main focus of this book’s methodological approach. The prevailing intellectual currents among participants emerged right from the opening session of this wide-ranging roundtable gathering hosted by the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, and attended by a number of former presidents, prime ministers, and ministers together with a host of academics distinguished for their work on the issue of international order.
Melting, solidification and solid-state transformation of the intermetallic Ni3Sn compound were investigated in situ using synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction. It was observed that the compound undergoes a hexagonal to cubic transition before melting. In solidification, a disordered cubic phase crystallizes from the liquid at a large undercooling but it is reordered prior to bulk solidification. In melting and solidification, forced or natural flows are active bringing about significant changes of crystal orientations. These in situ observations provided insights into phase transformations of Ni3Sn at elevated temperatures and their roles in formation of metastable microstructure consisting of coarse grains and subgrains.
Much scholarly attention has been given to the potentially disruptive distributional implications of new technologies in labor markets. Less explored is the way citizens as socially embedded individuals perceive and respond to technological transformation. This study fills this gap by exploring how welfare state institutions shape and are shaped by citizens’ perceptions of technological transformation. My analysis covering over 50 developed and developing countries finds that welfare state generosity is associated with a greater acceptance of technological change. I also provide evidence consistent with the expectation that labor market interventions of the welfare state have the potential to reduce the skill cleavage over technological transformation by mitigating the insecurity faced by the low-skilled. Additionally, citizens embracing technological transformation are more supportive of the welfare state than techno-skeptics are.
The paper interrogates the argument put forward by Acemoglu and Robinson or North et al. that capitalism and democracy are supportive to each other. It analyzes the development of political and economic institutions in Germany before and after World War I. It is shown that the lack of democracy in Imperial Germany furthered a liberal economic order and gives reasons why the transition to full-scale parliamentarianism would have impaired the quality of economic institutions. This also explains why such a transition was not completed. The Weimar Republic established a modern democracy but was unable to secure the quality of economic institutions achieved before. Not only in Germany did the politicization of the economy impair the economic order. This empirical outcome helps to explain why Eucken and other liberals identified democracy as part of the economic problem during the interwar period. It also gives reasons to rethink the complex relationship between capitalism and democracy.
Two projections commute if and only if their images are compatible. Using combinatorial methods we describe compatibility preserving bijective transformations of Grassmannians. In some cases, these transformations form a class greater than the class of transformations induced by unitary and anti-unitary operators.
Seismic applications of digital filtering theory are presented in this chapter. 1-D FIR and/or IIR digital filters, such as low-pass or band-pass, are used heavily to enhance the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of acquired seismic data. Furthermore, 2-D digital filters like fan filters have become standard in removal of surface waves accompanying seismic data records. Solving the wave equation numerically may also require using FIR or IIR digital filters such as the explicit depth wavefield extrapolation filters.
The unique properties of graphene have led to the use of this allotrope of carbon in a wide range of applications, including semiconductors, energy devices, diffusion barriers, heat spreaders, and protective overcoats. The synthesis of graphene by process methods that either directly or indirectly rely on physical vapor deposition, thermal annealing, laser irradiation, and ion/electron beam irradiation has drawn significant attention in recent years, mainly because they can provide high purity, low temperature, high throughput, and controllable growth of graphene on various substrates. This article provides a comprehensive assessment of these methods by grouping them into two main categories, i.e., indirect methods in which a carbon layer is first deposited on a substrate and then converted to graphene by some type of energetic post-treatment process and direct methods in which graphene is directly synthesized on a substrate surface by a process that uses a solid carbon source. The underlying growth mechanisms of these processes and the challenging issues that need to be overcome before further advances in graphene synthesis can occur are interpreted in the context of published results.
This chapter provides a sense of the rupture that characterised the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on a series of political, technological and scholarly developments which contributed to creating a widespread atmosphere and experience of fundamental social change. I argue that crowds were seen as embodiments of these broader social transformations. Focusing on Gustave Le Bon’s crowd psychology, I discuss how theorisation on crowds was analytically indebted to late-nineteenth-century debates about hypnotic suggestion as these played out within psychotherapy. I argue that fin-de-siècle discussions of hypnotic suggestion did not simply propose that individuals are completely plastic creatures, always malleable in the hands of a powerful hypnotist. Rather, at the heart of the psychotherapy discussions at this time was the proposition that suggestion need not entail de-individualisation: the mimesis generated through suggestion may well depend on anti-mimetic individuals who must voluntarily let go of themselves in order for the mimetic suggestion to work. I discuss this in terms of tensional individuality.
We study the long-standing problem of the existence of non-Berwaldian Landsberg spaces from the perspective of conformal transformations. We calculate the Berwald and Landsberg tensors in terms of the T-tensor and show that there are Landsberg spaces with nonvanishing T-tensor. We give a necessary condition for a Landsberg space to be Berwaldian. We find conditions under which the Landsberg spaces cannot be Berwaldian and give examples of (
-local) non-Berwaldian Landsberg spaces.
The chapter explores the collapse of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 in the Contested Region. The overland Underground Railroad networks in the region were quickly being bypassed by the railroad transportation in the 1850s. Nevertheless, the high-profile fugitive rescues in the Free Soil Region convinced slave catchers that their efforts were better focused farther south, and as a result slave catching accelerated in the Contested Region in the middle and late 1850s. This led to a series of confrontations in which the behavior of the slave catchers and accompanying US Marshals was egregiously violent. Attempts by local and state authorities to bring the assailants to justice were frustrated by federal judges who fully sanctioned their recourse to the violence of mastery. These cases rendered the region’s conditional toleration of slave catching untenable. The result was a striking shift in the culture of violence as the region embraced the outright defiance that had long characterized Free Soil communities. As a consequence, in the late 1850s, the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act collapsed outside the narrow strip of territory that comprised the Borderland.
Cormac McCarthy is the foremost American novelist to have simultaneously inspired and crafted screenplays which are successful in their own right. Beginning with his early script for The Gardener’s Son (1977) and continuing through both the Coen brothers’ film adaptation of No Country for Old Men (2007) and his own screenplay for The Counselor (2013), McCarthy has emerged as a formidable figure on both the page and on screen. Yet the intriguing aspect of this dual career is how fully his cinematic efforts have altered the trajectory of his novelistic creations, with an early verbal style that culminated in the famously baroque Blood Meridian honed decades later into a more elliptical, streamlined novelistic strain. And this becomes most clearly apparent in reviewing the successes (and failures) involved in adapting McCarthy’s astringent novelistic vision for the cinema. The review of seven distinct original screenplays and adaptations suggests that the arc of McCarthy’s novels cannot be adequately understood independent of his strong, developing commitment to cinematic possibilities, which have progressively altered a vision initiated as exclusively verbal and become increasingly tempered by visual and filmic considerations.
− ESG–Agency scholarship reveals that diverse forms of agency are crucial to cultivating adaptiveness of governance systems within complex and changing contexts. − ESG–Agency scholars are well-positioned to apply extensive insights to major emerging questions in the social sciences about adaptiveness and renewal of political and governance systems across many spheres of society. − Greater focus is required concerning the effects of agency on adaptiveness of environmental governance systems in several ways: materially, normatively, and temporally.
This chapter provides an analysis of the transformation of the corporate landscape in Central Eastern Europe after 1989, by reference to the sustainable development goals. The argument is that the neoliberal prescriptions to transform the socialist corporate landscape were so antithetical to sustainability goals that the corporations resulting from that transformation have actually pushed the reach of sustainability goals further away. The corporations resulting from the transformation will not pursue any sustainability goals without tremendous international pressure, as national corporate cultures and social realities developed during this transformation hinder the pursuit of sustainable development.