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This chapter lists the factors that differentiate pharmacogenomics from conventional biomarker research on a strategic, operational, and technical level. The "-omics" technologies and conventional methods are mutually complementary approaches in the search for biomarkers. The genetic component of multiple sclerosis (MS) risk has been the focus of study for a long time, and beyond the classic association with the MHC locus, seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported in recent years have helped identify other candidate genes, such as the IL-7 and IL-2 receptors. Compared with DNA- and RNA-based analyses, proteomics and metabolomics are less advanced techniques. The requirements for establishing a comprehensive and integrated matrix of genotype/phenotype interaction are: development of technologies for proteomics and metabolomics to the same level as genotyping and trancriptomics, development of bioinformatic tools, and development of longitudinally studied cohorts characterized using standardized, high-quality clinical and paraclinical methods.
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