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Is phonological form perceived, understood, stored, and accessed in the same way and with the same neural mapping in signed and spoken languages? This is the complex and multifaceted question that the work on sign language processing has addressed since the beginning. The methodologies and technologies used to address this question have become more sophisticated over the last sixty years. Since the beginning, a psycholinguistic tradition was at the center of the work on sign languages, and we trace the trajectory of this work in this chapter.
This chapter argues that disciplining of bilingual education as a scholarly field served to divorce discussions of bilingual education from broader political and economic struggles in favor of the seemingly objective pursuit of the benefits of bilingual education. This disciplining of bilingual education was part of a larger discursive shift that reframed discussions of racial inequality from a focus on unequal access and the need for structural change to a focus on the deficiencies of racialized communities and the need for modifying these deficiencies. The chapter ends with a call for bilingual education scholars to situate issues of language inequality within the broader white supremacist and capitalist relations of power. This will offer bilingual education scholars tools for rejecting deficit perspectives of language-minoritized children and pointing to the broader racial stratification that makes these deficit perspectives possible to begin with.
Since their widespread adoption in the nineteenth century, censuses have played both bureaucratic and ideological roles, as the classification of the population according to social and cultural characteristics facilitated the development of the administrative infrastructure required by emergent nation-states and the definition of national and group identity categories officialized particular ways of understanding difference. This chapter critically analyzes the questions about language asked by Statistics Canada and the US Census Bureau. I examine the relationship of language data to various policies in the two countries, as well as the ways that those policies, and specific ways of asking about language, reflect and reproduce particular ideologies of language. In addition to revealing differing perspectives on individual and societal multilingualism, this analysis demonstrates that census language statistics do not simply serve as "facts" undergirding policy, but instead produce particular representations of linguistic diversity and, thus, constitute official discourses on multilingualism.
The final chapter goes beyond the set time frame of 1940-98 and into the present. Analyzing news coverage since the postwar period, in this chapter we identify a recurring Canadian news coverage on Canadian English, presenting the concept of "Canadian English" as either new or weird. In the light of the evidence presented throughout the book, the readers are in the position to decide for themselves whether there is a Canadian English. Canadian intellectuals are shown as often taking a rather negative stance, treating expressions of national identity as more or less akin to national jingoism, which is surprising given their generally international orientation. Attitude data are used to show that a "Canadian way of speaking" is firmly entrenched in the minds of today's Canadian residents, with 80 per cent of Canadians across all age groups positively confirming the concept. This is a radical change from only a generation or two ago, when especially younger Canadians were often sceptical. News coverage has since also seen a shift, being today exclusively positive. Such data should encourage educators to teach about Canadian English expressly, starting in elementary school. Using examples from www.dchp.ca/dchp2, it is shown that much remains to be explored about Canadian English.
This study compared the complications and functional outcomes of patients with oral tongue cancer who had undergone reconstruction using a submental island flap or a radial forearm free flap.
Of the 54 patients, 29 underwent reconstruction with a submental island flap and 25 patients with a radial forearm free flap. The complications and outcomes of speech and swallowing were evaluated.
In the submental island flap group, all the flaps were successfully transferred with no donor site complications. In the radial forearm free flap group, partial skin graft loss and arm function restriction were recorded. Mean operative time and duration of hospital stay were significantly shorter in the submental island flap group. Speech and swallowing function were comparable between the two groups. There was no significant difference in locoregional recurrence between the groups.
The submental island flap is reliable and is suitable for oral tongue reconstruction. It has a lower complication incidence when compared to the radial forearm free flap, while maintaining speech and swallowing function.
Ideas and opinions about communication and intellectual exchange underwent significant changes during the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. The rediscovery of parrhesia by the humanists of the Quattrocento is one of the least studied of these changes, and at the same time, paradoxically, one of the most fascinating. My main argument in these pages is that the recovery of Hellenistic “freedom of speech” was a process that took place from the thirteenth century through the first decade of the sixteenth century; thus it began well before the term παρρησία was common currency among humanists. This is the most important and counterituitive aspect of the present analysis of early modern parrhesia, because it means that the concept did not develop at the expense of classical and biblical tradition so much as at the expense of late-medieval scholastic speculation about the sins of the tongue and the legitimation of anger as an intellectual emotion. To illustrate this longue durée process, I have focused on three stages: (i) the creation, transformation, and assimilation by fourteenth-century humanism of the systems of sins of the tongue, and especially the sin of contentio; (ii) the synthesis carried out by Lorenzo Valla between the scholastic tradition, the communicative presumptions of early humanism, and the classical and New Testament ideas of parrhesia; and (iii) the systematization and transformation of this synthesis in Raffaele Maffei's Commentariorum rerum urbanorum libri XXXVIII. In closing, I propose a hypothesis. The theoretical framework behind Maffei's encyclopaedic approach is not only that he was attempting to synthesize the Quattrocento's heritage through the prism of classical sources; it was also that he was crystallizing the communicative “rules of the game” that all of Christianitas implicitly accepted at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Taking the three ways of manifesting the truth considered by Maffei and fleshing them out in the figures of Erasmus of Rotterdam, Celio Calcagnini, and Martin Luther just before the emergence of the Protestant Reformation could help to explain from a communicative perspective the success and pan-European impact of the Reformation.
Appropriate selection of tongue cancer patients considering surgery is critical in ensuring optimal outcomes. The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (‘ACS-NSQIP’) risk calculator was developed to assess patients' 30-day post-operative risk, providing surgeons with information to guide decision making.
A retrospective review of 30-day actual mortality and morbidity of tongue cancer patients was undertaken to investigate the validity of this tool for South Australian patients treated from 2005 to 2015.
One hundred and twenty patients had undergone glossectomy. Predicted length of stay using the risk calculator was significantly different from actual length of stay. Predicted mortality and other complications were found to be similar to actual outcomes.
The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program risk calculator was found to be effective in predicting post-operative complication rates in South Australian tongue cancer patients. However, significant discrepancies in predicted and actual length of stay may limit its use in this population.
This study aimed to evaluate the role of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tongue tumour thickness via direct and reconstructed measures, and their correlations with corresponding histological measures, nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread.
A prospective study was conducted of 25 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and pre-operative 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 2009 to 2012.
Correlations between 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histological measures of tongue tumour thickness were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient: r values were 0.84 (p < 0.0001) and 0.81 (p < 0.0001) for direct and reconstructed measurements, respectively. For magnetic resonance imaging, direct measures of tumour thickness (mean ± standard deviation, 18.2 ± 7.3 mm) did not significantly differ from the reconstructed measures (mean ± standard deviation, 17.9 ± 7.2 mm; r = 0.879). Moreover, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging had 83 per cent sensitivity, 82 per cent specificity, 82 per cent accuracy and a 90 per cent negative predictive value for detecting cervical lymph node metastasis.
In this cohort, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging measures of tumour thickness correlated highly with the corresponding histological measures. Further, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was an effective method of detecting malignant adenopathy with extracapsular spread.
To search for studies on tongue–lip adhesion and tongue repositioning used as isolated treatments for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Pierre Robin sequence.
A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and three additional databases, from inception through to 8 July 2016, was performed by two authors.
Seven studies with 90 patients (59 tongue–lip adhesion and 31 tongue repositioning patients) met the inclusion criteria. Tongue–lip adhesion reduced the mean (± standard deviation) apnoea/hypopnoea index from 30.8 ± 22.3 to 15.4 ± 18.9 events per hour (50 per cent reduction). The apnoea/hypopnoea index mean difference for tongue–lip adhesion was −15.28 events per hour (95 per cent confidence interval = −30.70 to 0.15; p = 0.05). Tongue–lip adhesion improved the lowest oxygen saturation from 75.8 ± 6.8 to 84.4 ± 7.3 per cent. Tongue repositioning reduced the apnoea/hypopnoea index from 46.5 to 17.4 events per hour (62.6 per cent reduction). Tongue repositioning improved the mean oxygen saturation from 90.8 ± 1.2 to 95.0 ± 0.5 per cent.
Tongue–lip adhesion and tongue repositioning can improve apnoea/hypopnoea index and oxygenation parameters in children with Pierre Robin sequence and obstructive sleep apnoea.
Hound’s-tongue is an invasive, biennial weed that thrives in dry rangelands of British Columbia. Rosette formation in the first year of growth and a deep root system offer this weed a competitive advantage against associated grasses under dry conditions. To study effects of water stress on seedling growth and mycorrhizal colonization in hound’s-tongue, seedlings of this weed were grown in pots in a greenhouse and subjected to four (100, 80, 60, and 40% of field capacity) soil moisture treatments. Effects of soil moisture stress (SMS) on several growth parameters as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots were studied. The total biomass, shoot and root fresh and dry weights, leaf number, petiole length, leaf area, and specific leaf weight (leaf dry weight per unit leaf area) decreased with increasing SMS; shoot and root water content was not affected. Because of a greater effect of SMS on root compared with the shoot biomass, shoot:root ratio increased as the moisture stress increased. Water stress decreased mycorrhizal colonization and arbuscule and vesicle abundance. A reduction in total biomass, leaf number and leaf area per plant, petiole length, and mycorrhizal colonization may reduce the competitive advantage of hound’s-tongue over its neighbors under drought conditions. The effect on plant size may also influence herbivory, by biocontrol agents and other herbivores, and fecundity of this weed.
This study evaluated the longitudinal and long-term effects of radiotherapy on swallowing function after tongue reconstruction.
The study comprised 16 patients who had: undergone glossectomy and tongue reconstruction with free flap transfer, received adjuvant radiotherapy, and survived without recurrence for at least 1 year. Swallowing function, as indicated by tolerance of oral intake, was evaluated before radiotherapy, at radiotherapy completion, and at 6 and 12 months after radiotherapy completion.
Before radiotherapy, all patients could tolerate oral intake. At radiotherapy completion, only three patients could consume all nutrition orally. However, swallowing function improved over time, and by 12 months after radiotherapy completion it had returned nearly to that before radiotherapy.
Acute dysphagia due to radiotherapy after tongue reconstruction is severe, but can improve gradually. Multidisciplinary support of patients during percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy dependence is important to improve long-term functional outcomes.
The present study was conducted to determine the rate of level IV lymph node involvement among node-negative (N0) necks in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.
The study comprised 32 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, with tumour–node–metastasis staging of T1–3N0M0, who were admitted to the Otolaryngology Department at Tehran University of Medical Sciences from March 2012 to March 2014. After a complete diagnostic evaluation, wide primary tumour excision (with 1.5–2 cm margins) and extended supraomohyoid neck dissection (levels I–IV) were accomplished.
Occult metastasis was found in 28 per cent of the patients. Level I, II and III metastases were the most common (18.75, 18.75 and 15.62 per cent, respectively). Level IV metastasis was found in 6.25 per cent of patients.
Supraomohyoid neck dissection appears to be an appropriate treatment for N0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma and there is no need for level IV lymph node dissection in a N0 patient.
Ever since the first mosasaur restorations were published, these extinct marine reptiles have been pictured with either notched, forked or undivided tongues. Here, we present an overview of existing iconography, a review of the previous literature, and we discuss how best to reconstruct tongue form in mosasaurs. Despite disagreement about their precise phylogenetic position, most authors consider mosasaurs members of the Varanoidea, derived anguimorphans including Helodermatidae, Varanidae, Lanthanotus and probably snakes. All anguimorphans share a diploglossan (two-part) tongue, in which the foretongue is derived and modified into a highly protrusible chemosensor, while the hindtongue is plesiomorphic, retaining well-developed papillae, mucocytes and robust posterior lobes. We suggest that mosasaurs had a diploglossan tongue that remained in a relatively underived state. The form of the tongue would probably have been most like modern Heloderma or Lanthanotus with a protrusible chemosensory foretongue and a plesiomorphic, papillose hindtongue. Such a tongue is consistent with well-developed vomeronasal chemoreception through tongue-flicking, with the retention of the ancestral function of hyolingual food transport and swallowing following jaw-prehension of prey. The presence of paired fenestrae in the palate associated with the vomers, as well as the presence of pterygoid teeth are in accordance with such a tongue form in mosasaurs.
To assess the benefits of frenotomy on breastfeeding in infants, and determine the influence of age.
A telephone questionnaire of all patients diagnosed with tongue-tie over 12 months was conducted pre-intervention and 1-month post-intervention. The Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool was used to assess breastfeeding.
Of 54 infants diagnosed with tongue-tie, 78 per cent of mothers participated in the survey. Eighty-six per cent of patients underwent frenotomy, with no surgical complications. In the frenotomy group, 81 per cent of mothers reported improvement in breastfeeding, versus 17 per cent in the non-surgical group (p = 0.0074). In the frenotomy group, the mean (±standard deviation) Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool score was 3.33 ± 1.51 pre-intervention, versus 9.19 ± 2.44 post-intervention (p = 0.0001). In the non-surgical intervention group, the mean score (±standard deviation) was 4.17 ± 0.75 pre-intervention, versus 6.00 ± 1.73 post-intervention (p = 0.16). For infants who underwent frenotomy, there was a reported improvement in 94 per cent of those aged less than 30 days, versus 68 per cent in infants aged over 30 days (p = 0.092).
Frenotomy is a safe, short procedure that improves breastfeeding outcomes, and is best performed at an early age.
This study explores the role of cognate status, syllable position, and word length in Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) states induction and resolution for European Portuguese (EP; L1) – English (L2) bilinguals (and EP monolinguals as control). TOTs were induced using a picture naming task in L1 and L2 followed by a lexical decision task. Here, the first or the last syllable of the target word (or none for control) was embedded in pseudowords (syllabic pseudohomophones) in order to test its effect in TOT resolution. Bilinguals presented more TOTs in L2 than in L1, especially for noncognate words. Longer words showed more TOTs than shorter words, though only in L1. TOT resolution was higher for cognates in L2 and higher when primed by the first than by the last syllable. Finally, longer cognates showed more TOT resolution than shorter cognates, irrespective of the language. Results are discussed in light of TOT's main hypothesis.
Previously unpublished Roman pottery from the Thames Estuary was studied by the author in 1985 and 1986 for the voluntary body Marine Archaeological Surveys (MAS) and is presented as a contribution to wider initiatives on the Roman archaeology of this important social and economic artery between South-East England and the wider world. The purpose of this paper is to complement the ongoing review by Michael Walsh of Roman wrecks in UK waters (a research partnership between Southampton University and the British Museum) and that of the ‘Pudding Pan’ assemblage, much of which is in private collections.
Panendoscopy is routinely used for the identification of occult second primary tumours in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role in low risk subgroups, particularly non-smoking, non-drinking patients and patients presenting with early stage oral cavity lesions, is debatable.
The records of 112 patients with T1 or T2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, disease characteristics and survival data were collected.
Average follow-up duration was 71.7 months (range, 3.6–238.3 months). Thirty-five patients died within this period. Thirteen second primary events were identified in 11 patients, with all but 2 tumours in the oral cavity or oropharynx. There was a single synchronous primary – a lung adenocarcinoma; all other events were metachronous. No non-smoking, non-drinking patients re-presented with a second primary tumour; tobacco and alcohol use are clearly risk factors for development of a second primary tumour.
The role of panendoscopy for identifying synchronous primary tumours in patients with early stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma should be re-evaluated, particularly in non-smoking, non-drinking patients who are at low risk of second primary development. Close follow up with regular clinical examination including flexible fibre-optic endoscopy may be sufficient in this subgroup.
This study examined whether the occurrence of late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma can be predicted by evaluating HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) expression in the primary lesion.
A case–control study was conducted. The cases comprised 10 patients with late neck metastasis. The controls consisted of 16 patients without recurrence. All were examined immunohistochemically for HMGB1 protein expression. The odds ratio for late neck metastasis in relation to HMGB1 was estimated.
Results for HMGB1 were dichotomised into positive staining scores (score, 5–7) and negative scores (0–4). Six cases (60 per cent) and four controls (25 per cent) were HMGB1-positive. Although no significant result was seen, compared with HMGB1-negative patients the odds ratio for late neck metastasis in HMGB1-positive patients was 3.8 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.6–26.5) after adjusting for other factors.
In the present study, immunohistochemical study of HMGB1 in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma did not appear to be very useful for predicting occult neck metastasis. Further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between HMGB1 expression and late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
To determine the patterns of lymph node metastases in oral tongue carcinomas, and examine the implications for elective and therapeutic neck dissection.
The study entailed a retrospective analysis of 67 patients with previously untreated oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone simultaneous glossectomy and neck dissection.
Of the 40 clinically node-negative patients, 7 patients had metastatic lymph nodes on pathological examination. No occult metastasis was found at level IV. Of the 27 clinically node-positive patients, the incidence rate of level IV metastasis was 11.1 per cent (3 out of 27 patients). No ‘skip metastases’ were found at level IV. Level IV metastases were significantly related to clinically staged nodes categorised as over 2a (p = 0.03) and metastasis to level III (p = 0.01).
Routine inclusion of level IV in elective neck dissection is not necessary for clinically node-negative patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, extended supraomohyoid neck dissection with adjuvant radiotherapy can be sufficient in the treatment of selected patients with clinically node-positive necks.