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Drawing from the work of Miller and Seller, this chapter traces the roots and flowering of the transformative movement and its relationship to the educational philosophies of transmission and transaction, essentially but not exclusively predecessors to the educational philosophy of transformation. The shaping of the ways in which teachers and students have gone about the language acquisition process for centuries is examined within a paradigmatic history of foreign language teaching methods. The influence of Vygotsky, Rogers, and Mezirow has been markedly noticeable in classroom methodologies heading toward such transformative aspects as learner-centered learning (zone of proximal development, understanding the whole student, adapting for learner differences, assisting learners in self-identification and learning adaptation), student-directed instruction, student contracts, open architecture curricular design, reframing in the development of biculturalism, interactive immersion, diagnostically oriented instruction, and formative assessment.
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