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To investigate pelvis evolution and to understand the sources of its variation, we must comprehend its development. We review developmental processes that form the pelvis from three perspectives: cell layers and tissues, genomic information and overall growth. At tissue level, the pelvis forms largely from lateral plate mesoderm as well as from somites. The os coxa forms from cartilaginous precursor tissues that grow and ossify, especially in two major regions that become the ischiopubis and the ilium. The sacrum and coccyx form from multiple ossification centres. Numerous secondary ossification centres form, with the last fusing by the mid-twenties. The importance of multiple genes and molecular factors are discussed, including interactions among and differences in timing and locations of expression, emphasising Islet1, Emx2, Pbx and Hox. We review the importance of differences in timing of ossification among skeletal elements, their interactions with mechanical loading and sex hormones, and environmental factors affecting individual growth. These processes are linked to morphological integration and are the origins of the morphological variation on which evolutionary forces act.
Giant miscanthus has the potential to move beyond cultivated fields and invade non-crop areas, but this can be overshadowed by aesthetic appeal and monetary value as a biofuel crop. Most research on giant miscanthus has focused on herbicide tolerance for establishment and production, rather than terminating an existing stand. This study was conducted to evaluate herbicide options for control or terminating a stand of giant miscanthus. In 2013 and 2014, field experiments were conducted on established stands of the giant miscanthus cultivars ‘Nagara’ and ‘Freedom’. Herbicides evaluated both years included glyphosate, hexazinone, imazapic, imazapyr, clethodim, fluazifop, and glyphosate + fluazifop. All treatments were applied in summer (June or July) and September. For both years, biomass reduction ranged from 85 to 100% when glyphosate was applied June/July at 4.5 or 7.3 kg ae ha-1. No other treatment applied at this timing provided more than 50% giant miscanthus biomass reduction one year after application. September applications of glyphosate were not consistent, with treatments in 2013 reducing biomass by 40% or less, while in 2014 at all rates provided ≥78% biomass reduction. Glyphosate applications in June/July was the only treatment to provide effective and consistent control of giant miscanthus one year after treatment.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station (RRS) near Crowley, Louisiana to evaluate the interactions of quizalofop and a mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb applied sequentially or mixed for weedy rice and barnyardgrass control. Visual weed control evaluations occurred at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT). Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha-1 at 7, 3, and 1 days before and after propanil plus thiobencarb were each applied at 3360 g ai ha-1. In addition, quizalofop was applied alone and in a mixture with propanil plus thiobencarb at d 0. Control of red rice, ‘CL-111’, and ‘CLXL-745’ was greater than 91% for quizalofop applied alone at d 0, similar to control for quizalofop applied 7, 3, and 1 d prior to propanil plus thiobencarb at all evaluation dates. Control for the same weeds treated with quizalofop plus propanil plus thiobencarb applied in a mixture at d 0 was 70% to 76% at each evaluation date, similar to quizalofop applied 1 or 3 d after propanil plus thiobencarb. A similar trend occurred for barnyardgrass control with 88% to 97% control for quizalofop applied alone and 48% to 53% control for the mixture at 14, 28, and 42 DAT. ‘PVL01’ rough rice yield was 4060 kg ha-1 when treated with quizalofop alone; however yield was reduced to 3180 kg ha-1 when treated with quizalofop mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at d 0, similar to PVL01 rice treated with quizalofop 1 or 3 d following the propanil plus thiobencarb application.
Studies have suggested that meal timing plays a role in nutritional health, but this subject has not been sufficiently studied in pregnant women. We analysed the effect that timing of food intake has on eating patterns, diet quality and weight gain in a prospective cohort study with 100 pregnant women. Data were collected once per trimester: 4th to 12th; 20th to 26th; 30th to 37th weeks. Food intake was evaluated using three 24-Hour Dietary Recalls, which was used to assess eating patterns and diet quality. Distribution of energy and macronutrient intake throughout the day was considered eating patterns. Diet quality was assessed using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised. Weight gain was evaluated during each trimester. Women were classified as early or late timing of the first and last eating episodes if these values were below or above the median of the population, respectively (first eating episode=8:38h; last eating episode=20:20h). Generalised Estimating Equation models adjusted for confounders were used to determine the effects of timing of the first and last eating episodes (groups) and gestational trimesters (time) (independent variable) on eating patterns, diet quality and weight gain (dependent variables). Early eaters of the first eating episode have a higher percentage of energy and carbohydrate intake in morning and a lower at evening meals. They also have a better diet quality for fruit components when compared to late eaters of the first eating episode. Our results emphasize the importance of considering meal timing in the nutritional antenatal guidelines to promote maternal-foetal health.
Rice with enhanced tolerance to herbicides that inhibit acetyl coA carboxylase (ACCase) allows POST applications of quizalofop, an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide. Two concurrent field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Stoneville, MS, to evaluate control of grass (Grass Study) and broadleaf (Broadleaf Study) weeds with sequential applications of quizalofop alone and in mixtures with auxinic herbicides applied in the first or second application. Sequential treatments of quizalofop were applied at 119 g ai ha-1 alone and in mixtures with labeled rates of auxinic herbicides to rice at the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) or four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) growth stages. In the Grass Study, no differences in rice injury or control of volunteer rice (‘CL151’ and ‘Rex’) were detected 14 and 28 d after last application (DA-LPOST). Barnyardgrass control at 14 and 28 DA-LPOST with quizalofop applied alone or with auxinic herbicides EPOST was ≥93% for all auxinic herbicide treatments except penoxsulam plus triclopyr. Barnyardgrass control was ≥96% with quizalofop applied alone and with auxinic herbicides LPOST. In the Broadleaf Study, quizalofop plus florpyrauxifen-benzyl controlled more Palmer amaranth 14 DA-LPOST than other mixtures with auxinic herbicides, and control with this treatment was greater EPOST compared with LPOST. Hemp sesbania control 14 DA-LPOST was ≤90% with quizalofop plus quinclorac LPOST, orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST, and triclopyr EPOST or LPOST. All mixtures controlled ivyleaf morningglory ≥ 91% 14 DA-LPOST except quinclorac and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl or triclopyr were required for volunteer soybean control >63% 14 DA-LPOST. To optimize barnyardgrass control and rice yield, penoxsulam plus triclopyr and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac should not be mixed with quizalofop. Quizalofop mixtures with auxinic herbicides are safe and effective for control of barnyardgrass, volunteer rice, and broadleaf weeds in ACCase-resistant rice, and the choice of herbicide mixture could be adjusted based on weed spectrum in the treated field.
To investigate changes in socio-economic inequalities in growth in height, weight, BMI and grip strength in children born during 1955–1993 in Guatemala, a period of marked socio-economic-political change.
We modelled longitudinal data on height, weight, BMI and hand grip strength using Super-Imposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR). Internal Z-scores summarising growth size, timing and intensity (peak growth velocity, e.g. cm/year) were created to investigate inequalities by socio-economic position (SEP; measured by school attended). Interactions of SEP with date of birth were investigated to capture secular changes in inequalities.
Urban and peri-urban schools in the region of Guatemala City, Guatemala.
Participants were 40 484 children and adolescents aged 3–19 years of Ladino and Maya ancestry (nobservations 157 067).
The difference in height (SITAR size) between lowest and highest SEP decreased from −2·0 (95 % CI −2·2, −1·9) sd to −1·4 (95 % CI −1·5, −1·3) sd in males, and from −2·0 (95 % CI −2·1, −1·9) sd to −1·2 (95 % CI −1·3, −1·2) sd in females over the study period. Inequalities also reduced for weight, BMI and grip strength, due to greater secular increases in lowest-SEP groups. The puberty period was earlier and shorter in higher-SEP individuals (earlier SITAR timing and higher SITAR intensity). All SEP groups showed increases in BMI intensity over time.
Inequality narrowed between the 1960s and 1990s. The lowest-SEP groups were still >1 sd shorter than the highest. Risks remain for reduced human capital and poorer population health for urban Guatemalans.
Pubertal timing matters for psychological development. Early maturation in girls is linked to risk for depression and externalizing problems in adolescence and possibly adulthood, and early and late maturation in boys are linked to depression. It is unclear whether pubertal timing uniquely predicts problems; it might instead mediate the continuity of behavior problems from childhood to adolescence or create psychological risk specifically in youth with existing problems, thus moderating the link. We investigated these issues in 534 girls and 550 boys, measuring pubertal timing by a logistic model fit to annual self-report measures of development and, in girls, age at menarche. Prepuberty internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were reported by parents. Adolescent behavior problems were reported by parents and youth. As expected, behavior problems were moderately stable. Pubertal timing was not predicted by childhood problems, so it did not mediate the continuity of behavior problems from childhood to adolescence. Pubertal timing did not moderate links between early and later problems for girls. For boys, early maturation accentuated the link between childhood problems and adolescent substance use. Overall, the replicated links between puberty and behavior problems appear to reflect the unique effects of puberty and child behavior problems on the development of adolescent behavior problems.
Environmental toxicants are pervasive in nature, but sub-lethal effects on non-target organisms and their parasites are often overlooked. Particularly, studies on terrestrial hosts and their parasites exposed to agricultural toxicants are lacking. Here, we studied the effect of sequence and timing of sub-lethal exposures of the pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin on parasite establishment using the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and its intermediate insect host Tenebrio molitor as a model system. We exposed T. molitor to alpha-cypermethrin (LD20) before and after experimental H. diminuta infection and measured the establishment success of larval tapeworms. Also, we conducted in vitro studies quantifying the direct effect of the insecticide on parasite viability. Our results showed that there was no direct lethal effect of alpha-cypermethrin on H. diminuta cysticercoids at relevant concentrations (LD10 to LD90 of the intermediate host). However, we observed a significantly increased establishment of H. diminuta in beetles exposed to alpha-cypermethrin (LD20) after parasite infection. In contrast, parasite establishment was significantly lower in beetles exposed to the insecticide before parasite infection. Thus, our results indicate that environmental toxicants potentially impact host-parasite interactions in terrestrial systems, but that the outcome is context-dependent by enhancing or reducing parasite establishment depending on timing and sequence of exposure.
Chapter 2 examines how and why the United States chose to deliver the EITC in one annual payment as a tax refund, and how this is a stark contrast to how other social benefits are administered. One reason is administrative cost – it is relatively inexpensive to allow taxpayers to self-declare eligibility and receive benefits as a tax refund. Because other social benefit programs have direct contact with their recipients prior to payment, those programs have far higher administrative costs and far smaller overpayment rates. Delivery of social benefits through the tax system also avoids the stigma associated with applying for benefits through social welfare workers. This chapter cites empirical studies about taxpayer preferences as to delivery method and timing of refund and evidence as to how EITC recipients spend their refund. It also describes experiments with periodic payment, including the Advance Earned Income Tax Credit.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.
dedicate sufficient forces and use them decisively. In the Korean War, the US failed to grasp opportunities to decisively defeat the enemy and failed to commit forces sufficient to bring about a quick conclusion to the struggle. The result was an attritional stalemate. In both the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the US overestimated and misunderstood the effectiveness of airpower. Moreover, the US has also too often failed to understand that winning in a counterinsurgency struggle hinges upon three key factors: gaining the support of the people, eliminating insurgent sanctuaries, and isolating the insurgents from outside support.
A wide margin of crop safety is a desirable trait of POST herbicides, and investigation of crop tolerance is a key step in evaluation of new herbicides. Six field experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada, from 2017 to 2018 to examine the influence of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrid (DKC42-60RIB, DKC43-47RIB, P0094AM, and P9840AM), application rate (1X and 2X), and application timing (PRE, V1, V3, and V5) on the tolerance of field corn to tolpyralate, a new 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor, co-applied with atrazine. Two corn hybrids (DKC42-60RIB and DKC43-47RIB) exhibited slightly greater visible injury from tolpyralate + atrazine, applied POST, than P0094AM and P9840AM at 1 to 2 wk after application (WAA); hybrids responded similarly with respect to height, grain moisture, and yield. Applications of tolpyralate + atrazine at a 2X rate (80 + 2,000 g ai ha−1) induced greater injury (≤31.6%) than the field rate (40 + 1,000 g ha−1) (≤11.6%); the 2X rate applied at V1 or V3 decreased corn height and slightly increased grain moisture at harvest. On average, field rates resulted in marginally higher grain yields than 2X rates. Based on mixed-model multiple stepwise regression analysis, the air temperature at application, time of day, temperature range in the 24 h before application, and precipitation following application were useful predictor variables in estimating crop injury with tolpyralate + atrazine; however, additional environmental variables also affected crop injury. These results demonstrate the margin of corn tolerance with tolpyralate + atrazine, which provides a basis for optimization of application timing, rate, and corn hybrid selection to mitigate the risk of crop injury with this herbicide tank mixture.
Successful pigweed management requires an integrated strategy to delay the development of resistance to any single control tactic. Field trials were implemented during 2017 and 2018 in three counties in Kansas on dryland (limited rainfall, nonirrigated), glufosinate-resistant soybean. The objective was to assess pigweed control with combinations of a winter wheat cover crop (CC), three soybean row widths (76, 38, and 19 cm), row-crop cultivation 2.5 weeks after planting (WAP), and an herbicide program to develop integrated pigweed management recommendations. All combinations of the four components were assessed by 16 treatments. All treatments with the herbicide program resulted in excellent (>97%) pigweed control and were analyzed separately from the other components. Treatments containing row-crop cultivation reduced pigweed density and biomass 3 and 8 WAP in all locations compared with the 76-cm row width plus no CC treatment. CC impacts were mixed. In Riley County, Palmer amaranth density and biomass were reduced; in Reno County, no additional Palmer amaranth control was observed; in Franklin County, the CC had greater waterhemp density and biomass compared with the treatments containing no CC. Narrow row widths achieved the most consistent results of all cultural components when data were pooled across locations: Decreasing row widths from 76 to 38 cm resulted in a 23% reduction in pigweed biomass 8 WAP and decreasing row width from 38 to 19 cm achieved a 15% reduction. Row-crop cultivation should be incorporated where possible as a mechanical option to manage pigweed, and narrow row widths should be used to suppress late-season pigweed growth when feasible. Inconsistent pigweed control from CC was achieved and should be given special consideration before implementation. The integral use of these components with an herbicide program as a system should be recommended to achieve the best pigweed control and reduce the risk of developing herbicide resistance.
A survey of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) was conducted in the northern Ross Sea region during the winter of 2016 to document the timing and location of spawning activity, to collect biological information about reproductive status during the spawning season and to look for temporal signals in biological data from D. mawsoni that may indicate a spawning migration of mature toothfish from the continental slope region to the northern Ross Sea region. The 58 day survey showed that spawning of D. mawsoni began on some seamounts by early July. No changes were detected between winter and summer in length, age, sex ratio or condition factor distributions for D. mawsoni in the northern Ross Sea as hypothesized following a spawning migration from the slope to the northern Ross Sea region. These results suggest that the distribution of D. mawsoni in the Ross Sea is mainly accomplished through ontogenetic migration and not annual return spawning migrations.
An oriented Woodford Shale core from the eastern Ardmore Basin was sampled to test if the shale was an open or closed system to hydrothermal fluids, and to determine the timing of alteration. Mineralized fractures are ubiquitous in the core, and the shale exhibits a complex paragenesis with multiple hydrothermal minerals, including biotite, magnesite, norsethite, gorceixite and potassium feldspar present in and around the fractures. These minerals suggest that the Woodford Shale was an open system during part of its diagenetic history. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) measurements indicate values of ∼1.81 % (∼230 °C). Palaeomagnetic analysis reveals a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with south-southeasterly declinations and shallow inclinations that resides in magnetite. This ChRM is interpreted to be either a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) or a thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM) that was acquired at 245 ± 10 Ma during Late Permian time based on the pole position (51.0° N, 115.6° E). Because the palaeomagnetic specimens show evidence of extensive hydrothermal alteration, the CRM/TCRM is interpreted to date the migration of hydrothermal fluids through the shale. The agreement in timing with other studies that report hydrothermal alteration in southern Oklahoma and the Ouachita Mountains in Late Permian time, suggest that there were post-collisional fluid-flow events which accessed reservoirs of warm fluids.
Sugarbeet growers only recently have combined ethofumesate, S-metolachlor, and dimethenamid-P in a weed control system for waterhemp control. Sugarbeet plant density, visible stature reduction, root yield, percent sucrose content, and recoverable sucrose were measured in field experiments at five environments between 2014 and 2016. Sugarbeet stand density and stature reduction occurred in some but not all environments. Stand density was reduced with PRE application of S-metolachlor at 1.60 kg ai ha–1 and S-metolachlor at 0.80 kg ha–1 + ethofumesate at 1.68 kg ai ha–1 alone or followed by POST applications of dimethenamid-P at 0.95 kg ai ha–1. Sugarbeet visible stature was reduced when dimethenamid-P followed PRE treatments. Stature reduction was greatest with ethofumesate at 1.68 or 4.37 kg ha–1 PRE and S-metolachlor at 0.80 kg ha–1 + ethofumesate at 1.68 kg ha–1 PRE followed by dimethenamid-P at 0.95 kg ha–1 POST. Stature reduction ranged from 0 to 32% 10 d after treatment (DAT), but sugarbeet recovered quickly and visible injury was negligible 23 DAT. Although root yield and recoverable sucrose were similar across herbicide treatments and environments, we caution against the use of S-metolachlor at 0.80 kg ha–1 + ethofumesate at 1.68 kg ai ha–1 PRE followed by dimethenamid-P at 0.95 kg ha–1 in sugarbeet.
The study explores the effect of deviations from native speech rhythm and rate norms on the assessement of pronunciation mastery of a second language (L2) when the native language of the learner is either rhythmically similar to or different from the target language. Using the concatenative speech synthesis technique, different versions of the same sentence were created in order to produce segmentally and intonationally identical utterances that differed only in rhythmic patterns and/or speaking rate. Speech rhythm and tempo patterns modeled those from the speech of French or German native learners of English at different proficiency levels. Native British English speakers rated the original sentences and the synthesized utterances for accentedness. The analysis shows that (a) differences in speech rhythm and speaking tempo influence the perception of accentedness; (b) idiosyncratic differences in speech rhythm and speech rate are sufficient to differentiate between the proficiency levels of L2 learners; (c) the relative salience of rhythm and rate on perceived accentedness in L2 speech is modulated by the native language of the learners; and (d) intonation facilitates the perception of finer differences in speech rhythm between otherwise identical utterances. These results emphasize the importance of prosodic timing patterns for the perception of speech delivered by L2 learners.
Recent commercialization of auxin herbicide–based weed control systems has led to increased off-target exposure of susceptible cotton cultivars to auxin herbicides. Off-target deposition of dilute concentrations of auxin herbicides can occur on cotton at any stage of growth. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Mississippi from 2014 to 2016 to assess the response of cotton at various growth stages after exposure to a sublethal 2,4-D concentration of 8.3 g ae ha−1. Herbicide applications occurred weekly from 0 to 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). Cotton exposure to 2,4-D at 2 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 64% visible injury, whereas 2,4-D exposure 5 to 6 WAE resulted in machine-harvested yield reductions of 18% to 21%. Cotton maturity was delayed after exposure 2 to 10 WAE, and height was increased from exposure 6 to 9 WAE due to decreased fruit set after exposure. Total hand-harvested yield was reduced from 2,4-D exposure 3, 5 to 8, and 13 WAE. Growth stage at time of exposure influenced the distribution of yield by node and position. Yield on lower and inner fruiting sites generally decreased from exposure, and yield partitioned to vegetative or aborted positions and upper fruiting sites increased. Reductions in gin turnout, micronaire, fiber length, fiber-length uniformity, and fiber elongation were observed after exposure at certain growth stages, but the overall effects on fiber properties were small. These results indicate that cotton is most sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4-D during late vegetative and squaring growth stages.
Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015 at the University of Wyoming to evaluate the response of Beta vulgaris (L.) to reflected-light quality. Large-pail field studies included a factorial arrangement of three varieties of B. vulgaris (sugar beet, table beet, and Swiss chard) and reflected-light treatments (using either colored plastic mulch, grass, or bare-soil controls). Greenhouse studies included sugar beet as influenced by either grass or soil surroundings. In all studies, grass was grown in separate containers from B. vulgaris, so there was no root interaction. Grass was clipped regularly to prevent shading and competition for sunlight. Reflected light from different-colored plastic mulches (red, blue, green, black, clear) did not affect B. vulgaris growth. However, reflected light from the grass reduced the number of leaves in all B. vulgaris varieties such that there were 10 to 14 fewer leaves in B. vulgaris surrounded by grass compared with the soil treatment at 90 d after planting in the field study. Shade avoidance cues from surrounding grass reduced B. vulgaris total leaf area by 49% to 66%, leaf biomass by 21% to 30%, and root biomass by 70% to 72%. Similar results were observed in greenhouse experiments, where the grass treatment reduced sugar beet leaf biomass by 48% to 57% and root biomass by 35% to 64%. Shade avoidance cues have the potential to significantly reduce B. vulgaris yield, even in the absence of direct resource competition from weeds.
Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) has recently shown great potential as a feedstock for the bioenergy industry. However, before A. donax can be grown commercially, due to its invasive nature, management strategies must be developed to reduce the risk of unintended spread. This research was conducted in northeastern Oregon (USA) during two growing seasons. Nine control strategies were evaluated in a field that previously had A. donax as a crop. The control strategies included mechanical practices (stem cutting and rhizome digging), physical practices (covering with an opaque tarp), chemical practices (glyphosate applications at different rates and timings), and a combination of these practices. Spring samplings of A. donax regrowth in the season following treatments indicated that stem cutting in the spring without follow-up control practices provided no control. Covering plants with a tarp after cutting them (either with or without a glyphosate treatment after cutting) resulted in 96% control. Application of glyphosate alone also resulted in excellent control, although timing of application was an important factor for maximizing efficacy. The best results were found when the maximum dose (10.2 L ai ha−1) was split among two or three applications (>99% of control) compared with the maximum dose applied once (75% to 94%). Control was lower (73% to 89%) for two of the strategies that included mechanical practices, stem cutting + glyphosate and rhizome digging, in comparison to other strategies involving tarps and/or glyphosate applications (88% to 100%). Results indicated that it is very difficult to eradicate volunteer A. donax in 1 yr, but very good control can be achieved with several of the strategies tested.