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This chapter develops my theory of regime-contingent sovereign default by focusing on two strategies of mass politics: voting and revolt. I argue that partitioning citizens into urban versus rural agents aligns closely with traditional accounts of groups with advantages in these two strategies: specifically, urban citizens are generally considered to enjoy advantages for protest activity, whereas rural citizens have frequently been identified as crucial swing voters. After noting that these groups differ in their preferences for food price policy, I link the pressure from urban revolt to sovereign default in autocracies, particularly those that import a great deal of food. Conversely, rural electoral pressure often leads to large farm price supports which can be difficult to remove during fiscal crisis, suggesting that more rural democracies (especially those that export a great deal of costly food) should be more likely to default. The chapter concludes by also considering variation within regimes: electoral autocracies are argued to dilute the sole focus of autocrats on urban areas, whereas contentious democracies should lead to reduced emphasis on rural voters.
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss research in motivation, self-regulation, and emotion that includes gender as a variable. Specifically, we propose using an intersectionality perspective and a culturally situated understanding of women’s motivational and emotional experiences, and describe data from our labs in Germany and Singapore in order to illustrate this position. Our findings indicate that women’s motivational experience in achievement domains is tied to avoidant motivation and their lower ability to self-regulate negative emotion in the face of goal difficulties or goal failure. Compared to men, women’s more fearful enactment of the implicit achievement motives is related to their adoption of a lower self-attributed achievement motive, which, in turn, lowers women’s well-being. We discuss how cultural norms and gender socialization lead to a complex interplay of parenting, social-normative, and personality systems and processes that contribute to a different motivational and emotional experience for men versus women.
The theory of Baranger is discussed, relating it to the approach taken by Anderson in the last chapter and that taken by Fano in the one to follow. Baranger is concerned to describe pressure broadening in a band of close, overlapping lines. His original concern was with line broadening by fast-moving electrons in a plasma, which allowed him to use the impact approximation, but not to assume that collisions may be associated with classical paths. For this reason, although matter here is in the form of neutral molecules, the use of Baranger’s theory in its most general form requires that collisions be treated in terms of quantum scattering theory. In forming the correlation function, Baranger sets the algebra in a product space where line vectors take the place of the energy states used by Anderson, and the optical cross-section that governs line broadening is replaced by the matrix of an operator in line space, with line widths and shifts on the diagonal and line coupling parameters for the other elements. In the case of isolated lines, Anderson’s theory may be regained, but the introduction of line space paved the way, later on, for a much more general viewpoint.
This chapter provides an overview of qualitative research methods in substance and behavioral addictions research and practice. It discusses the nature and importance of qualitative methodologies in iterating how individual perspectives, social meanings, and lived experiences impact the nature of substance and behavioral addictions. Methods addressed include ethnography, participant and nonparticipant observation, qualitative interviews, focus groups, and participatory action research (PAR), and empirical evidence in the context of addictions is provided. Additionally, a brief summary of each method and generally understood advantages and disadvantages of each are given. Data analysis techniques covered include grounded theory, narrative and discourse analysis, and thematic analysis. Lastly, major contributions to the field of addictions regarding research on hard-to-reach and marginalized populations, evaluating treatment and intervention services, measuring risk behaviors, investigating barriers to treatment programs, conceptualizing motivational and emotional components of addiction, and aiding in the formation of diagnostic criterion are reviewed.
Poverty and social exclusion are a gendered phenomenon. They are rooted deeply in the stereotypes, biases, prejudices, and discriminations against women, especially those suffering from poor living conditions. Unfortunately, gender inequality is manifested in most, if not all, major life domains. It is therefore important to understand the gender aspect of poverty and social exclusion through a psychological lens. We begin this chapter by introducing the concepts of multi-dimensional poverty and social exclusion with a sketch of the gender disparities displayed in these areas. We turn next to several mainstream psychological theories which have attempted to investigate and interpret the relationship between poverty and gender inequality from the dispositional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioural perspectives. Finally, we evaluate the reliability, objectivity, and generalisability of the reviewed theories and studies and offer suggestions for future research.
Starting from the very general Fano theory of pressure broadening, ways are sought to express the shape of a band of lines in a form that is more amenable to calculation. Initially, the far-wing is considered, and care is taken to ensure, by an adjustment, that the fluctuation–dissipation theorem is satisfied, despite Fano’s neglect of the initial correlations between the states of the radiator and the bath of its perturbers. The far-wing also requires, in a Fourier sense, the use of a very fine time scale, which allows the approach taken by Rosenkranz and Ma & Tipping, described first, to adopt the quasi-static approximation. In obtaining the overall line shape, the average over collisions may then be run across an ensemble of essentially static binary configurations. In the line core, the initial correlations may be ignored anyway, and, because a much coarser time scale is appropriate, the impact approximation may be invoked. Here, Fano’s theory is shown to reduce to that of Baranger, yielding expressions for fixed line shifts and widths, and allowing, through a perturbative approximation due to Rosenkranz, a simple expression to be derived to take account of line coupling.
The focus here is on the approach taken by Anderson, which extends previous work by including the possibility that collisions will cause transitions in the radiator. Anderson confines himself to spectral lines that may be considered isolated from one another, and will, therefore, be broadened independently, and the start point is the correlation function of the radiatively active dipole, a quantum mechanical average formed from the states and operators of the gas system. This is treated as an ensemble average, in line with later chapters, and Anderson’s use of a time average is relegated to an appendix. However, the two approaches eventually converge, and both lead to a concern for the average effect on the lines as the radiator encounters an ensemble of single binary collisions on classical trajectories. Under the impact approximation, the correlation function may be greatly simplified, and expressions arise for the shift and width of a spectral line in terms of an optical cross-section that may be approached through a low order perturbative approximation. Within this, contributions due to phase shifts, elastic reorientations and inelastic transfers may all be distinguished.
The Fano theory, described here, does not adopt the impact approximation, and is not confined to the line core. The main concession, implicit in an impact theory like that of Baranger or Anderson, is the neglect of initial correlations between the states of radiator and bath, allowing a separate average to be taken over the bath variables at the initial time. For Fano, the correlation function describes the linear response to the driving field and is governed dynamically by the Liouville operator, which, in Baranger’s line space, has a role similar to that of the Hamiltonian in the original state space. The response, in its Fourier transform, provides the line shape, and this is governed here by a relaxation operator that looks, formally, like a transition operator in quantum scattering. This is a very general theory that will, nevertheless, reduce to that of Baranger as soon as the impact approximation is imposed. Although the neglect of initial correlations will invalidate the fluctuation–dissipation theorem, this will only affect the line far-wing, where, unless remedied, it will cause an imbalance between the radiative processes induced by the field.
To test whether perception of insufficient milk (PIM) supply in the breast-feeding relationship of one child predicts how long mothers breast-feed subsequent children, and whether this association differs for first-time mothers v. mothers with previous children.
Secondary analysis of Infant Feeding Practices Study II (ordinary least squares regression) and Year 6 follow-up.
Mailed, self-report survey of US mother–infant dyads, 2005–2012.
Women pregnant with a singleton were recruited from a consumer opinion panel. Exclusion criteria included: mother age <18; infant born <5 lbs, born before 35 weeks or with extended NICU stay, and mother or infant diagnosed with condition that impacts feeding. A subsample with PIM data (n 1460) was analysed.
We found that women who weaned because of PIM with the index child stopped breast-feeding 5·7 weeks earlier than those who weaned due to other reasons (4·9 weeks earlier for multiparas, P < 0·001; 7·1 weeks earlier for primiparas, P < 0·001). Using Year 6 follow-up data (n 350), we found subsequent child 1 weaned 9·2 weeks earlier if the mother experiences PIM as a multipara (P = 0·020) and 10·6 weeks earlier if the mother experiences PIM as a primipara (P = 0·019). For subsequent child 2 (n 78), the magnitude of association was even larger, although insignificant due to low power.
These findings indicate that PIM may carry forward in the reproductive life course, especially for first-time mothers. Perceptions of breast milk insufficiency and contributors to actual inadequate milk supply with the first child should be targeted, rather than intervening later in the reproductive life course.
This paper deals with design of an alternative secure Blockchain network framework to prevent damages from an attacker. The alliance concept from the strategic management perspectives is applied on the top of a general stochastic game framework. This new enhanced hybrid theoretical model is designed to find the best strategies toward preparation for preventing a network malfunction from an attacker through strategic alliances with other genuine nodes and it is developed based on the combination of a strategic management framework and a conventional stochastic model based on the Blockchain Governance Game. Analytically, tractable results for decision-making parameters are fully obtained to predict of the moment for operations and also to provide the optimal number of allegiance nodes to protect a Blockchain network. This research helps those whom are considering initial coin offering or launching new Blockchain-based services by enhancing security features through strategic alliances in a decentralized network.
We extend the resolvent-based estimation approach recently introduced by Towne etal. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 883, 2020, A17) to obtain optimal, non-causal estimates of time-varying flow quantities from low-rank measurements. We derive optimal transfer functions between the measurements and certain nonlinear terms that act as a forcing on the linearised Navier–Stokes equations, and show that the resulting transfer function to the flow state is equivalent to a multiple-input, multiple-output Wiener filter if the colour of the forcing statistics is known. A matrix-free implementation is developed based on integration of the direct and adjoint linearised Navier–Stokes operators, enabling application to the large systems encountered for transitional and turbulent flows without the need for a priori model reduction. Using a linearised Ginzburg–Landau problem, we show that the non-casual resolvent-based method outperforms a casual Kalman filter for general sensor configurations and recovers the Kalman filter transfer function in specific cases, leading to causal estimates at a significantly reduced computational cost. Additionally, our method is shown to be more accurate and robust than popular approaches based on truncation of the resolvent operator to its leading modes. The applicability of the method to transitional and turbulent flows is demonstrated via application to a (linearised) transitional boundary layer and a (nonlinear) turbulent channel flow. Errors on the order of 2 % are achieved for the boundary layer, and the channel flow case highlights the need to account for the forcing colour to achieve accurate flow estimates. In practice, our method can be used as a post-processing tool to reconstruct unmeasured quantities from limited experimental data, and, in cases where the transfer function can be accurately truncated to its causal components, as a low-cost estimator for flow control.
Chapter 3 addresses the question: How do ideas about gender, namely femininity and masculinity, affect what it means, from the voter’s perspective, to be qualified for political office? I apply social role theory to the development of political leadership in the United States to show how masculinity determines the expectations voters have for what a qualified political candidate looks like. Ideas about femininity and masculinity shape the expectations individuals hold for the different types of roles and occupations women and men hold. Caregiving roles are bound up in norms of femininity, and there is an intrinsic link between masculinity and leadership roles. The expectation that leaders have masculine qualities extends back to America’s founding and, indeed, well before the United States came into existence. I use two empirical tests of how masculinity influences thinking about political leadership and qualifications.
Microstrip and stripline losses in Method of Moments (MOM) calculations have an error arising from the large current density at the strip edges, characterized by an integration limit (W/2-d) in the equation for current density in thin strips (width W), where d is a fitting parameter. It depends primarily on the width of the MOM subsection on the edge of the strip. By comparing with the integration limit (W/2-Δ) for an actual strip with finite thickness, a correction factor is estimated. The equations incorporating d are confirmed by comparing with MOM calculations of isolated stripline, uniformly spaced parallel strips, striplines and microstrips close to ground planes, and with a strip in a uniform, externally applied magnetic field. The results are also consistent with measurements with copper. This makes the accuracy of the loss estimates commensurate with the excellence of the other aspects of MOM simulations.
The diagnosis of an advanced cancer in young adulthood can bring one's life to an abrupt halt, calling attention to the present moment and creating anguish about an uncertain future. There is seldom time or physical stamina to focus on forward-thinking, social roles, relationships, or dreams. As a result, young adults (YAs) with advanced cancer frequently encounter existential distress, despair, and question the purpose of their life. We sought to investigate the meaning and function of hope throughout YAs’ disease trajectory; to discern the psychosocial processes YAs employ to engage hope; and to develop a substantive theory of hope of YAs diagnosed with advanced cancer.
Thirteen YAs (ages 23–38) diagnosed with a stage III or IV cancer were recruited throughout the eastern and southeastern United States. Participants completed one semi-structured interview in-person, by phone, or Skype, that incorporated an original timeline instrument assessing fluctuations in hope and an online socio-demographic survey. Glaser's grounded theory methodology informed constant comparative methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
Findings from this study informed the development of the novel contingent hope theoretical framework, which describes the pattern of psychosocial behaviors YAs with advanced cancer employ to reconcile identities and strive for a life of meaning. The ability to cultivate the necessary agency and pathways to reconcile identities became contingent on the YAs’ participation in each of the psychosocial processes of the contingent hope theoretical framework: navigating uncertainty, feeling broken, disorienting grief, finding bearings, and identity reconciliation.
Significance of Results
Study findings portray the influential role of hope in motivating YAs with advanced cancer through disorienting grief toward an integrated sense of self that marries cherished aspects of multiple identities. The contingent hope theoretical framework details psychosocial behaviors to inform assessments and interventions fostering hope and identity reconciliation.
As more people move back into densely populated cities, bike sharing is emerging as an important mode of urban mobility. In a typical bike-sharing system (BSS), riders arrive at a station and take a bike if it is available. After retrieving a bike, they ride it for a while, then return it to a station near their final destinations. Since space is limited in cities, each station has a finite capacity of docks, which cannot hold more bikes than its capacity. In this paper, we study BSSs with stations having a finite capacity. By an appropriate scaling of our stochastic model, we prove a mean-field limit and a central limit theorem for an empirical process of the number of stations with k bikes. The mean-field limit and the central limit theorem provide insight on the mean, variance, and sample path dynamics of large-scale BSSs. We also leverage our results to estimate confidence intervals for various performance measures such as the proportion of empty stations, the proportion of full stations, and the number of bikes in circulation. These performance measures have the potential to inform the operations and design of future BSSs.
The Fokker–Planck approximation to the Boltzmann equation has emerged as an efficient alternative to the discrete simulation Monte Carlo method for various flow simulations. This method has been mostly limited to simulating single-component rarefied gas flows. In the present paper, we propose two models based on the Fokker–Planck equation and quasi-equilibrium models that are capable of describing the dynamics of rarefied binary gas mixtures over a large range of Schmidt numbers. We first prove that these models satisfy the necessary conservation laws and the
-theorem. We validate the model by simulating three benchmark problems – Graham's law for effusion, Couette flow and binary diffusion.
This chapter offers a critical consideration of behavior change scholarship. It introduces the complexity of behavior change and provides a brief overview of major concerns that have been raised regarding behavior change theories and models. It then discusses how critical and qualitative approaches can provide a response to some of these concerns and how qualitative approaches have value for extending practice in this field. The chapter provides arguments for using qualitative research in behavior change research, gives examples of where qualitative approaches have been employed, and outlines social practice theory as a means to address many of the concerns about dominant approaches to behavior change. The chapter also discusses critical perspectives and their value to the field of behavior change research and implementation. In the final sections, the chapter outlines the benefits of researchers and practitioners working interdisciplinarily, advocates the importance of understanding and incorporating qualitative approaches into behavior change research, and highlights the value of taking a broader, more critical perspective on research and practice in this field.
This chapter describes the behavior change technique of goal setting. Goal setting is an established and ubiquitous technique that has been used successfully in varied and diverse contexts, for multiple behaviors, and in numerous populations. Goal setting encompasses many different perspectives from individual-level goal setting (e.g., making a new year’s resolution or reading one book a week) to goal setting by global organizations (e.g., the United Nations’ sustainable development goals). This chapter considers many different kinds of goal setting interventions, including those that have emerged in popular culture and those derived from specific theories. Given that goal setting is ubiquitous, numerous theories have emerged to explain how and why goals operate, with Locke and Latham’s (1990) goal setting theory, the focus of the current chapter, as the only theory that deals with goal setting as a behavior change technique in its own right. Goal setting theory is described in detail and used to illustrate how different types of goal setting interventions might operate. The final section includes a step-by-step guide of what to do, what not to do, and what can be left to personal preference when setting goals.
Self-efficacy can be defined as individuals’ beliefs in their capability to implement a behavior needed to reach a goal or perform a task successfully. A vast amount of empirical research shows that self-efficacy is a key factor in predicting and explaining the successful initiation and maintenance of behavior change in various domains of human life. Less research has been conducted on the sources of self-efficacy (mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, somatic and affective states) and how these can be prompted in behavior change interventions. This chapter reviews primary and meta-analytic research on behavior change techniques promoting self-efficacy beliefs in interventions for change in health, work, and academic contexts. It also provides practical guidelines and concrete examples on how to design and evaluate behavior change interventions that target self-efficacy.