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This article focuses on the maritime cultural landscape of the former Zuiderzee (ad 1170–1932) in the central part of the Netherlands. Since the large-scale reclamations from the sea (1932–1968), many remains have been discovered, revealing a submerged and eroded late medieval maritime culture, represented by lost islands, drowned settlements, cultivated lands, shipwrecks, and consequently socio-economic networks. Especially the north-eastern part of the region, known today as the Noordoostpolder, is testimony to the dynamic battles of the Dutch against the water. By examining physical and immaterial datasets from the region, it is possible to give a modern-day idea of this late medieval maritime cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and densities of late medieval archaeological remains are analysed and compared to historical data and remote sensing results. This interdisciplinary approach has led to the discovery of the remains of the drowned settlement of Fenehuysen.
Autonomy is a primary motive, as well as source of satisfaction, for those who start and run their own business. Autonomy is not inherent to business ownership – owner/founders must make concentrated efforts to achieve and maintain autonomy. This study aims to increase our understanding of autonomy by investigating how it is experienced, the factors that affect it, and the actions that business owners take to attain and retain it. We study these topics in the setting of an emerging market – Russia – and compare the outcomes with a similar study conducted in the Netherlands. Our cross-cultural comparison reveals that the way autonomy is experienced and attained can be viewed as an expression of survival values in Russia and of self-expression values in the Netherlands. We posit an underlying structural similarity by theorizing the level of experienced entrepreneurial autonomy to be the outcome of the balance of power and dependencies.
Maintaining good cognitive function with aging may be aided by technology such as computers, tablets, and their applications. Little research so far has investigated whether internet use helps to maintain cognitive function over time.
Two population-based studies with a longitudinal design from 2001/2003 (T1) to 2007/2010 (T2).
Sweden and the Netherlands.
Older adults aged 66 years and above from the Swedish National Study on Ageing and Care (N = 2,564) and from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 683).
Internet use was self-reported. Using the scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) from T1 and T2, both a difference score and a significant change index was calculated. Linear and logistic regression analysis were performed with difference score and significant change index, respectively, as the dependent variable and internet use as the independent variable, and adjusted for sex, education, age, living situation, and functional limitations. Using a meta-analytic approach, summary coefficients were calculated across both studies.
Internet use at baseline was 26.4% in Sweden and 13.3% in the Netherlands. Significant cognitive decline over six years amounted to 9.2% in Sweden and 17.0% in the Netherlands. Considering the difference score, the summary linear regression coefficient for internet use was −0.32 (95% CI: −0.62, −0.02). Considering the significant change index, the summary odds ratio for internet use was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.78).
The results suggest that internet use might play a role in maintaining cognitive functioning. Further research into the specific activities that older adults are doing on the internet may shine light on this issue.
Alcohol consumption may be wrongly estimated because of inaccurate information on actual portion sizes. We compared portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home with the Dutch standard drink sizes.
Participants measured portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits at home up to a maximum of three times and reported these via an online survey. Average portion sizes (in millilitres) were compared with the Dutch standard drink sizes. Portion sizes were compared between subgroups of gender, age, BMI and level of education, and for different glass types.
Wageningen and surroundings, the Netherlands.
Adults (N 201) living in the Netherlands and consuming wine and/or straight spirits at home at least once per week.
Participants poured on average 129·4 ml white wine and 131·7 ml red wine, which is significantly more than the standard of 100 ml. For fortified wine, the average poured amount was 94·0 ml, significantly more than the standard of 50 ml; also for straight spirits the poured amount was significantly more than the standard (47·0 v. 35 ml).
Participants’ portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home were on average larger than the Dutch standard drink sizes. This suggests that at-home alcohol consumption in the Netherlands is underestimated.
By the start of the twentieth century, the two organizational forms most used by Dutch banks to raise capital through the dispersal of their ownership were the cooperative association and the public company. Share ownership in cooperatives was typically restricted to customers, while companies permitted outside investors. Neither organizational form dictated specific shareholder liability arrangements. New specialist banks targeting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) combined these two organizational forms and flexible liability rules to create hybrid forms. I find those that took the public company form were more likely to suffer distress during the Dutch financial crisis of the 1920s. Liability arrangements for shareholders, by contrast, had a negligible impact on these banks’ resilience.
On 9 October 2018, the Court of Appeal of The Hague (the Netherlands) upheld the District Court’s decision in the case of Urgenda, thus confirming the obligation of the Netherlands to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 25% by 2020 compared with levels in 1990. This case raised some of the thorniest issues in climate law. As the Netherlands is responsible for only a tiny fraction of global GHG emissions, is it right for a court to hold that a national emissions reduction mitigation target is necessary to prevent dangerous climate change and its impact on human rights? If so, how can this target be determined? The District Court and the Court of Appeal of The Hague have provided inspiring responses, although they are perhaps not entirely convincing.
On the basis of dissociated and scattered skull bones and several types of scutes and scales of a single, large-sized individual, a new species of dercetid is recorded from the lower to middle portion of the Maastricht Formation (upper Gronsveld, Schiepersberg or Emael members) as formerly exposed at ’t Rooth quarry near Bemelen, east of Maastricht, the Netherlands. This new taxon, Pelargorhynchus grandis n. sp., the fifth dercetid recorded to date from the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage, is characterised by the presence of both large, smooth scutes and small ornamented scales, by the degree of curvature of skull bones, the presence of unfused premaxillae and the lack of teeth.
The aim of the study is to explore to what extent members of the community are willing to participate in the way their primary care practice is organized and which characteristics of people and community are associated with this willingness.
Community participation in primary care refers to involvement of community members in the organization, governance and policy making of primary care facilities. Due to demographic changes and changes in the role of patients and the community concerning health care, it becomes important to include the social environment of patients into healthcare. Community participation may help GPs to improving their practice and providing care according to the needs of the population. Interpreted this way, it may be an important contributor to quality of care.
In 2016, a web questionnaire was send to 800 members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel. The response rate was 34%. Willingness to participate was divided into perceived readiness, ability and time to participate. The data were analysed using frequency tables and linear regression analysis.
Half of the participants were ready to give their opinion on primary care and one-third reported willingness to participate in decision making. Participants were less optimistic about their ability to participate and the time they have available for participation. Readiness and perceived ability were mainly determined by the importance that the respondents attributed to participation. Participants with previous experience in volunteering appeared more willing to spend time on participation.
This study showed that half of the respondents are willing to participate, but they are less sure about their ability to do so and that finding time to participate is seen as problematic. Future research should focus on which characteristics influence willingness. This knowledge might help primary care facilities to recruit people more easily and successfully.
The Celtic field research programme of Groningen University involves research excavations of Dutch Celtic fields or raatakkers: embanked field plots thought to date to the Iron Age (c. 800 cal bc–12 bc). In this paper, detailed attention is given to (a) the palaeoecology of raatakkers; (b) the relationship between habitation and agriculture in such systems; and (c) their dating and use-life. Counter-intuitively, it is argued that the macro-remains from crops such as barley, wheat, millet, and flax recovered from Celtic field banks represent a non-local (settlement) signal rather than document local agricultural regimes. Palynological approaches, in which a more local signal can be preserved but which also show evidence for details of the agricultural regime such as manuring strategies and fallow cycles, are argued to be more appropriate avenues to study local agricultural strategies. A discussion of the relations between habitation and agriculture shows that house sites uncovered within Dutch Celtic fields are almost invariably placed in positions partly overlapping banks. Moreover, in most cases such settlement traces appear to date to the Middle or Late Iron Age, raising the question of where the initial farmers of the Celtic fields lived, as the communities planning and first using these Celtic fields probably pre-dated the Iron Age. A critical review of existing dates and discussion of new OSL and AMS dates has shown that bank construction of Dutch Celtic fields started around the 13th–10th centuries cal bc and continued into the Roman era. The chronostratigraphies preserved in the banks testify to a sustainable agricultural regime of unprecedented time-depth: centuries of continued use make the system employing raatakkers the most enduring and stable form of farming known in the history of the Netherlands.
In 2002, The Netherlands continued its leadership in developing rules and jurisdiction regarding euthanasia and end-of-life decisions by implementing the Euthanasia Act, which allows euthanasia for patients 12 years of age and older. Subsequently, in 2005, the regulation on active ending of life for newborns was issued. However, more and more physicians and parents have stated that the age gap between these two regulations—children between 1 and 12 years old—is undesirable. These children should have the same right to end their suffering as adults and newborn infants. An extended debate on pediatric euthanasia ensued, and currently the debate is ongoing as to whether legislation should be altered in order to allow pediatric euthanasia. An emerging major question regards the active ending of life in the context of palliative care: How does a request for active ending of life relate to the care that is given to children in the palliative phase? Until now, the distinction between palliative care and end-of-life decisions continues to remain unclear, making any discussion about their mutual in- and exclusiveness hazardous at best. In this report, therefore, we aim to provide insight into the relationship between pediatric palliative care and end-of-life decisions, as understood in the Netherlands. We do so by first providing an overview of the (legal) rules and regulations regarding euthanasia and active ending of life, followed by an analysis of the relationship between these two, using the Dutch National Guidelines for Palliative Care for Children. The results of this analysis revealed two major and related features of palliative care and end-of-life decisions for children: (1) palliative care and end-of-life decisions are part of the same process, one that focuses both on quality of living and quality of dying, and (2) although physicians are seen as ultimately responsible for making end-of-life decisions, the involvement of parents and children in this decision is of the utmost importance and should be regarded as such.
Recent literature on discursive opportunities shows broad consensus on the importance of media communication in determining the success of minority mobilization. However, the impact of media discourse on formal forms of political participation is less clear. This article examines to what extent, if any, media coverage on immigrant minorities shapes the parliamentary activities of “minority representatives” in the Netherlands and the UK. We investigate whether salience and tone on minorities have impact on how often and in what ways minority members of parliament address ethnic and/or religious constituencies. To study this relationship between media coverage and parliamentary activity, we conduct two separate content analyses of parliamentary questions and newspapers between 2002 and 2012 in the Netherlands and the UK. Multivariate analyses reveal that a more negative tone in newspaper coverage results in more suppressive framing in the Dutch parliament. Our findings for the British case indicate a negative effect of media salience and minority presence on parliamentary salience.
This study examines whether or not political representation in the Netherlands is biased toward the rich and higher educated by comparing the political orientations of members of parliament to those of the electorate. The analyses reveal stark differences in the representation of different socio-economic groups. The political views of elected national representatives are far more similar to those of rich, higher educated citizens than to those with less income and education. Moreover, a longitudinal analysis reveals that inequalities in political representation have actually grown in recent years. We also show that the use of measures of ideological self-identification might to lead to highly misleading results regarding the nature of political representation as opposed to the use of issue items. We conclude that, despite a highly proportional electoral system, the views which are represented in the Dutch lower house of parliament contain major distortions of the views of the broader electorate.
Shaking and damage in the province of Groningen, the Netherlands, resulting from production-induced seismicity has caused increased public anxiety. Since 2014, production offtake has been reduced stepwise by over 50% in an attempt to minimise production-induced seismicity. The earthquake catalogue, combined with comprehensive data of the changes in production offtake, shows a clear response of seismic activity following the production measures taken. Associated temporal variations in the proportionality between smaller- and larger-magnitude events (the b-value of the Gutenberg–Richter relation) are observed. Since production measures were imposed, the b-value has tended to increase, thus lowering the probability of a larger-magnitude event. The analysis also shows increases in activity rate and b-value prior to larger-magnitude events. Subsequently, the probability of a larger-magnitude event seems to be decreasing prior to the events occurring. This implies that for short-term earthquake prediction of hydrocarbon-production-induced seismicity, these types of analysis could be misleading. However, regional analysis is necessary to explain the observations in terms of rupture initiation. At present, each event felt still draws the interest of both public and press. As some clustering of events in both time and space is still observed, managing both the seismicity and the public perception provides a continuing challenge.
Although dietary supplement use is increasing in Europe and the USA, little research involving adults’ beliefs regarding dietary supplements has been conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore and compare users’ and non-users’ beliefs towards dietary supplements.
Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted of which seven groups were dietary supplement users and six groups were non-users. Based on the socio-cognitive factors of the Integrated Change Model, a semi-structured topic guide was set up. The discussions were audio-recorded and subjected to qualitative content analysis, applying the framework approach.
Data were collected in Maastricht, the Netherlands, in 2014 and 2015.
In total fifty-six individuals participated in the study, of whom twenty-eight were dietary supplement users and twenty-eight non-users. The average age of participants was 42·9 years.
Dietary supplement users’ attitude beliefs were mainly related to mental and physical health enhancement, illness prevention and curative health benefits. Users were critical of the nutritional knowledge of health professionals and of the quality of food products. Non-users were convinced that the human body does not need any support and that regular food is enough to cover one’s nutritional needs. Users and non-users held comparable beliefs regarding the definition and risks of dietary supplements, and perceived social influences.
In their decision about dietary supplement use, both groups were guided by their own convictions to a great extent. Both groups would benefit from improved understanding of the health effects of dietary supplements to improve informed decision making.
To update the Dutch Healthy Diet index, a measure of diet quality, to reflect adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines 2015 and to evaluate against participants’ characteristics and nutrient intakes with the score based on 24 h recall (24 hR) data and FFQ data.
The Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) consists of fifteen components representing the fifteen food-based Dutch dietary guidelines of 2015. Per component the score ranges between 0 and 10, resulting in a total score between 0 (no adherence) and 150 (complete adherence).
Wageningen area, the Netherlands, 2011–2013.
Data of 885 men and women, aged 20–70 years, participating in the longitudinal NQplus study, who filled out two 24 hR and one FFQ, were used.
Mean (sd) score of the DHD15-index was 68·7 (16·1) for men and 79·4 (16·0) for women. Significant inverse trends were found between the DHD15-index and BMI, smoking, and intakes of energy, total fat and saturated fat. Positive trends were seen across sex-specific quintiles of the DHD15-index score with energy-adjusted micronutrient intakes. Mean DHD15-index score of the FFQ data was 15·5 points higher compared with 24 hR data, with a correlation coefficient of 0·56 between the scores. Observed trends of the DHD15-index based on FFQ with participant characteristics, macronutrient and energy-adjusted micronutrient intakes were similar to those with the DHD15-index based on 24 hR.
The DHD15-index score assesses adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines 2015 and indicates diet quality. The DHD15-index score can be based on 24 hR data and on FFQ data.
Being one of Europe’s most densely populated countries, and having multiple nuclear installations, a heavy petrochemical industry, and terrorist targets, the Netherlands is at-risk for chemical, biological, or radionuclear (CBRN) incidents. Recent world and continental events show that this threat is real and that authorities may be underprepared.
The hypothesis of this study is that Dutch hospitals are underprepared to deal with these incidents.
A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed. All 93 Dutch hospitals with an emergency department (ED) were sent a link to an online survey on different aspects of CBRN preparedness. Besides specific hospital information, information was obtained on the hospital’s disaster planning; risk perception; and availability of decontamination units, personal protective equipment (PPE), antidotes, radiation detection, infectiologists, isolation measures, and staff training.
Response rate was 67%. Sixty-two percent of participating hospitals were estimated to be at-risk for CBRN incidents. Only 40% had decontamination facilities and 32% had appropriate PPE available for triage and decontamination teams. Atropine was available in high doses in all hospitals, but specific antidotes that could be used for treating victims of CBRN incidents, such as hydroxycobolamine, thiosulphate, Prussian blue, Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), or pralidoxime, were less frequently available (74%, 65%, 18%, 14%, and 42%, respectively). Six percent of hospitals had radioactive detection equipment with an alarm function and 22.5% had a nuclear specialist available 24/7 in case of disasters. Infectiologists were continuously available in 60% of the hospitals. Collective isolation facilities were present in 15% of the hospitals.
There is a serious lack of hospital preparedness for CBRN incidents in The Netherlands.
MortelmansLJM, GaakeerMI, DieltiensG, AnseeuwK, SabbeMB. Are Dutch Hospitals Prepared for Chemical, Biological, or Radionuclear Incidents? A Survey Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):483–491.
For the first time, geomorphology and archaeology are combined for a 165 km long stretch of the Meuse river, resulting in a geomorphogenetic map (GKM) and a series of archaeological predictive maps (AVM). The maps cover the central part the Meuse valley, located in the province of Limburg between Mook in the north and Eijsden in the south. The area consists of fluvial and aeolian landforms of the Holocene Meuse floodplain and Younger Dryas aged terraces along it, spanning a period of approximately 15,000 years of landscape genesis and human habitation. The GKM more clearly discriminates between map units of Younger Dryas and early Holocene age than in previous mappings of the Meuse valley. The AVM series provide predictive information on the location of sites for four distinct consecutive archaeological periods and four main cultural themes. The maps contribute to a better understanding of landscape processes (fluvial and aeolian geomorphology and the impact of man on river behaviour), and the possibilities for human habitation and land use in prehistoric and historic times.
Shells belonging to the bivalve genus Corbicula occur commonly in Pleistocene interglacial deposits in NW Europe. These have usually been identified as C. fluminalis, a modern species described from the Euphrates river, although the veracity of this specific attribution remains equivocal. Corbicula has nowadays a southern distribution, and laboratory studies indicate that it is thermophilous. It is also tolerant of brackish water, one of several attributes that make this an effective colonizer.
In NW Europe, Corbicula is known from the Lower Pleistocene but is absent from the Cromerian Complex, occuring again in the three interglacials following the Anglian/Elsterian. It appears to be unknown from the last interglacial, except as derived fossils.
A historical outline of the Eemian research in the Netherlands is presented as an introduction to recent research in the type area. At the end of the 19th and during the first part of the 20th century, Eemian sediments were recognized because of the presence of lusitanian and mediterranean mollusc species. From 1930 onwards, pollen analysis made it possible to identify also non-shell-bearing deposits and to equate them with the Eemian. At the same time this technique proved a valuable tool for understanding the vegetation development during this interglacial. Pollen zonation offered a unique possibility for the correlation of terrestrial sequences in North-West Europe.
The type area of the Eemian, near Amersfoort, was described by Harting in 1874 and was comprehensively restudied by Zagwijn (1961). A pollen zonation was introduced as a standard for the Netherlands, allowing the correlation of pollen records from both marine and non-marine depositional environments. This enabled a more detailed temporal resolution, resulting in a better understanding of the distribution of the various environments in the type area.
In the northern and central parts of the Netherlands, the identification of the marine sequence was, apart from the occurrence of the specific mollusc fauna, facilitated by the presence of a till of Saalian age underlying the Eemian deposits. The presence of deep glacial basins in these areas enabled the deposition and preservation of a complete Eemian record in a marine setting. Sediment accumulation in the basins began immediately following deglaciation at the end of the Saalian. The Eemian type sections at Amersfoort are situated near the margin of one of these basins.
Recent research of the Eemian focused on the integration of lithostratigraphic evidence and information on the sedimentary environment as derived from diatoms, dinoflagellates, foraminifers, molluscs and pollen.
During several archaeological excavations on a river terrace of the river Meuse near the village of Lomm (southeast Netherlands) information was gathered for a reconstruction of the sedimentation and vegetation history during the Holocene. Various geoarchaeological methods – geomorphological, micromorphological and botanical analyses – were applied, while accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating provided an accurate chronology for the sediments.
During the Early Holocene, many former braided river channels were deepened due to climate amelioration. Later, river flow concentrated in one main river channel to the west, at the location of the modern Meuse. The other channels were only active during floods, and infilling continued until the Bronze Age. Because of the higher setting of the Lomm terrace, it was only occasionally flooded and therefore formed an excellent location for habitation. Humans adapted to the changing landscape, as most remains were found on the higher river terraces or their slopes, a short distance from the Maas river. The Lomm terrace was more or less continuously inhabited from the Mesolithic onwards.
During the Early Holocene, river terraces were initially densely forested with birch and pine. From the Boreal (Mesolithic) onwards, dense mixed forests with deciduous shrubs and trees such as hazel, oak, elm and lime developed. During the Atlantic (Meso/Neolithic), the deciduous forests became dominated by oak. Due to human activities from the Late Subboreal (Late Bronze Age) onwards, forests slowly became more open, yet remained relatively dense in comparison to other Dutch areas. The botanical data, however, show that within the Lomm study area there was a large difference in the composition, distribution and openness of the vegetation. The spatial variation in openness came into existence during the Late Bronze Age, as soon as the higher areas started to be used for human activities (i.e. habitation, agriculture and livestock herding). Due to human activities, the northern part of the study area became very open during the Early Roman period. In the lower-situated areas of the southern part, however, forests remained present much longer, until the Early Middle Ages. Due to large-scale deforestation in the Lomm area and hinterland during the Roman period and Middle Ages, the sediment load of the river increased, large floods occurred and overbank sediments were deposited, burying the archaeological remains. The largest increase in sedimentation occurred after the Middle Ages.