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The process of 'othering' is not a concern only of foreigners, but also of citizens with an immigrant background, being a label that is passed down from generation to generation. This chapter will look at the perceived discrimination, alienation, and feelings of 'othering' among second-generation Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands, involving an analysis of family reunification measures and how they are applied. To this end, the impact of the legal context on the lives of second-generation Turks is assessed not only through legal research, but also ethnographic field research. It can be concluded that the outcomes of the Dutch family reunification measures undertaken in the name of integration are in direct contravention with the stated intention. Rather than their legal situation, it is the administrative and legal hurdles that immigrants must overcome that alienate them and feed their feelings of exclusion and increase the distance between them and the native Dutch, just when they think they are getting closer.
The algicolous and lichenicolous species Psammina filamentosa is described from the Netherlands and the UK, and is characterized by long (generally over 50 μm) and somewhat tapered conidial arms. Psammina filamentosa is compared with other Psammina specimens found in the same habitat, growing on algae or lichens on the dry side of trees and stones. Psammina filamentosa, P. inflata and P. stipitata differ in the dimensions of their conidial arms. Psammina simplex, however, may be a synonym of P. stipitata, and a DNA study is needed to determine whether it is a distinct species or developing material of P. stipitata. Psammina inflata is also reported as new for the Netherlands. A new worldwide key to the 10 species of Psammina currently known is provided, including three species described from plant material.
Currently, reimbursement decisions based on health technology assessments (HTA) in the Netherlands mostly concern outpatient pharmaceuticals. The Dutch government aspires to broaden the systematic application of full HTA towards other types of health care in order to optimise the content of the basic benefit package. This paper identifies important challenges for broadening the scope of full HTA to other types of health care. Based on a description of the Dutch reimbursement decision-making process, five important characteristics of outpatient pharmaceuticals were identified, which are all relevant to the successful application of HTA: (i) closed reimbursement system, (ii) absence of alternative policy measures, (iii) existence of marketing authorisation, (iv) identifiable and accountable counterparty, and (v) product characteristics. For a selection of other types of health care, which may be subject to HTA more frequently in the future, deviations from these characteristics of outpatient pharmaceuticals are discussed. The implications of such deviations for performing HTA and the decision-making process are highlighted. It is concluded that broadening the application of HTA will require policy makers to meet both important policy-related and methodological challenges. These challenges differ per health care domain, which may inform policy makers which expansions of the current use of HTA are most feasible.
The article focuses on one of the core but controversial features of a universal basic income (UBI): its unconditionality. Using qualitative in-depth interviews collected in the Dutch municipality of Tilburg in 2018–2019, we examine the arguments underlying popular opinions about a UBI and work conditionality. The analysis suggests that these arguments can be interpreted from two theoretical perspectives. On the one hand, respondents make frequent use of deservingness criteria referring to the characteristics of welfare recipients, such as their need and work willingness. On the other hand, they justify their opinions using arguments related to the characteristics of welfare schemes, such as their administrative and financial feasibility. Our findings offer important insights concerning political actors who support (or oppose) the real-world implementation of a UBI.
Chapter 1 situates the famine in its historical context and elaborates on other defining moments of the German occupation of the Netherlands. It explains how lessons learned from the First World War motivated the Dutch to prepare carefully for a new wartime food system. These preparations ensured that the agricultural transition to self-sufficiency was achieved in an orderly manner once the Netherlands was occupied. The new rationing apparatus and the Dutch bureaucrats involved were largely a continuation of the pre-war organisation of food supply and their adequate food governance prevented a serious shortage of food until September 1944.
Paradoxically, at roughly the same time in the Netherlands the amendment bill to introduce constitutional review by the judiciary of acts of parliament lapsed in 2018, the State Commission on the Parliamentary System recommended that such review be introduced. This Article analyzes Dutch exceptionalism on the topic of prohibiting constitutional review and comes to the conclusion that it cannot be justified. Focusing on the nature of constitutional change in the country, the recommendation is made that the quest for reform should start with the courts, and not with the constitutional legislature, as has been the case to date.
The Netherlands has ample geothermal resources. During the last decade, development of these resources has picked up fast. In 2007 one geothermal system had been realised; to date (1 January 2019), 24 have been. Total geothermal heat production in 2018 was 3.7 PJ from 18 geothermal systems. The geothermal sources are located in the same reservoirs/aquifers in which the oil and gas accumulations are hosted: Cenozoic, Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous, Triassic and Rotliegend reservoirs. Additionally, the yet unproven hydrocarbon play in the Lower Carboniferous (Dinantian) Limestones delivered geothermal heat in two geothermal systems. This is in contrast to the Upper Cretaceous and Upper Carboniferous with no producing geothermal systems but producing hydrocarbon fields. Similar to hydrocarbon development, developing the geothermal source relies on fluid flow through the reservoir. For geothermal application a transmissivity of 10 Dm is presently thought to be a minimum value for a standard doublet system. Regional mapping of the geothermal plays, with subsequent resource mapping, by TNO discloses the areas with favourable transmissivity within play areas for geothermal development. The website www.ThermoGis.nl provides the tool to evaluate the geothermal plays on a sub-regional scale. The Dutch geothermal source and resource portfolio can be classified using geothermal play classification of, for example, Moeck (2014). An appropriate adjective for play classification for the Dutch situation would be the predominant permeability type: matrix, karst, fracture or fault permeability. The Dutch geothermal play is a matrix-permeability dominated ‘Hot Sedimentary Aquifer’, ‘Hydrothermal’ or ‘Intra-cratonic Conductive’ play. The Dutch ‘Hot Sedimentary Aquifer’ play is subdivided according to the lithostratigraphical annotation of the reservoir. The main geothermal plays are the Delft Sandstone and Slochteren Sandstone plays.
In this chapter on human germline editing in The Netherlands, we first discuss the Dutch legal framework and the institutional environment regulating research involving human gametes and embryos. We then focus on legal provisions within the regulation of human germline editing. Here we show that within Dutch law, embryos and fetuses are not regarded as legal subjects with independent legal rights. However, unborn human life, even in early stages, is not treated as just a legal object either. With regard to human germline editing, two bans dominate the national legislative and policy framework: the ban on intentionally modifying the genetic material of the nucleus of human germline cells for reproductive purposes, and the ban on the creation of embryos for research. Finally, we offer an overview and analysis of current public and political debates on this technology in the light of the tensions between self-determination and reproductive autonomy on the one hand (the ‘medical ethics regime’), and human dignity and respect for human life on the other (the ‘human rights regime’). We conclude with our suggestion that, in order to make this debate more inclusive and balanced, both the human rights perspective and the medical-ethical perspective should be properly represented.
A large share of our food comes from international supply food chains that are difficult to trace. Therefore, consumers are not aware of their environmental and social effects. We analysed the tomato supply system for Germany. Tomatoes consumed in Germany are produced either in The Netherlands by Polish workers and using large amounts of energy, or in Spain by West African workers and depleting the aquifer. The analysis shows the long-distance effects of food consumption that should be considered when designing strategies for a sustainable global food system. Comparable results can be expected for other food products traded around the world.
This article investigates the determinants of Dutch firms’ dividend policies in the twentieth century. We identify three distinct episodes and document shifts in dividend policies in the 1930s and 1980s, because firm managers cater to the changing preferences of shareholders. The first episode, prior to World War II, was characterised by dividends that were fixed contracts between shareholder and management and the payouts were mechanically determined by earnings. The second epoch of Dutch dividend policy, until the 1980s, was characterised by dividend smoothing. Dividends were still strongly related to earnings, but because of shareholder's preferences for stable dividend income, earnings changes are incorporated in dividends with a lag. Finally, dividend policy in the most recent episode is inspired by shareholder wealth maximisation, based on agency and signalling motives. In this period, dividends have become largely decoupled from earnings.
This article focuses on the maritime cultural landscape of the former Zuiderzee (ad 1170–1932) in the central part of the Netherlands. Since the large-scale reclamations from the sea (1932–1968), many remains have been discovered, revealing a submerged and eroded late medieval maritime culture, represented by lost islands, drowned settlements, cultivated lands, shipwrecks, and consequently socio-economic networks. Especially the north-eastern part of the region, known today as the Noordoostpolder, is testimony to the dynamic battles of the Dutch against the water. By examining physical and immaterial datasets from the region, it is possible to give a modern-day idea of this late medieval maritime cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and densities of late medieval archaeological remains are analysed and compared to historical data and remote sensing results. This interdisciplinary approach has led to the discovery of the remains of the drowned settlement of Fenehuysen.
Autonomy is a primary motive, as well as source of satisfaction, for those who start and run their own business. Autonomy is not inherent to business ownership – owner/founders must make concentrated efforts to achieve and maintain autonomy. This study aims to increase our understanding of autonomy by investigating how it is experienced, the factors that affect it, and the actions that business owners take to attain and retain it. We study these topics in the setting of an emerging market – Russia – and compare the outcomes with a similar study conducted in the Netherlands. Our cross-cultural comparison reveals that the way autonomy is experienced and attained can be viewed as an expression of survival values in Russia and of self-expression values in the Netherlands. We posit an underlying structural similarity by theorizing the level of experienced entrepreneurial autonomy to be the outcome of the balance of power and dependencies.
Maintaining good cognitive function with aging may be aided by technology such as computers, tablets, and their applications. Little research so far has investigated whether internet use helps to maintain cognitive function over time.
Two population-based studies with a longitudinal design from 2001/2003 (T1) to 2007/2010 (T2).
Sweden and the Netherlands.
Older adults aged 66 years and above from the Swedish National Study on Ageing and Care (N = 2,564) and from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 683).
Internet use was self-reported. Using the scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) from T1 and T2, both a difference score and a significant change index was calculated. Linear and logistic regression analysis were performed with difference score and significant change index, respectively, as the dependent variable and internet use as the independent variable, and adjusted for sex, education, age, living situation, and functional limitations. Using a meta-analytic approach, summary coefficients were calculated across both studies.
Internet use at baseline was 26.4% in Sweden and 13.3% in the Netherlands. Significant cognitive decline over six years amounted to 9.2% in Sweden and 17.0% in the Netherlands. Considering the difference score, the summary linear regression coefficient for internet use was −0.32 (95% CI: −0.62, −0.02). Considering the significant change index, the summary odds ratio for internet use was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.78).
The results suggest that internet use might play a role in maintaining cognitive functioning. Further research into the specific activities that older adults are doing on the internet may shine light on this issue.
Alcohol consumption may be wrongly estimated because of inaccurate information on actual portion sizes. We compared portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home with the Dutch standard drink sizes.
Participants measured portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits at home up to a maximum of three times and reported these via an online survey. Average portion sizes (in millilitres) were compared with the Dutch standard drink sizes. Portion sizes were compared between subgroups of gender, age, BMI and level of education, and for different glass types.
Wageningen and surroundings, the Netherlands.
Adults (N 201) living in the Netherlands and consuming wine and/or straight spirits at home at least once per week.
Participants poured on average 129·4 ml white wine and 131·7 ml red wine, which is significantly more than the standard of 100 ml. For fortified wine, the average poured amount was 94·0 ml, significantly more than the standard of 50 ml; also for straight spirits the poured amount was significantly more than the standard (47·0 v. 35 ml).
Participants’ portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home were on average larger than the Dutch standard drink sizes. This suggests that at-home alcohol consumption in the Netherlands is underestimated.
On 9 October 2018, the Court of Appeal of The Hague (the Netherlands) upheld the District Court’s decision in the case of Urgenda, thus confirming the obligation of the Netherlands to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 25% by 2020 compared with levels in 1990. This case raised some of the thorniest issues in climate law. As the Netherlands is responsible for only a tiny fraction of global GHG emissions, is it right for a court to hold that a national emissions reduction mitigation target is necessary to prevent dangerous climate change and its impact on human rights? If so, how can this target be determined? The District Court and the Court of Appeal of The Hague have provided inspiring responses, although they are perhaps not entirely convincing.
On the basis of dissociated and scattered skull bones and several types of scutes and scales of a single, large-sized individual, a new species of dercetid is recorded from the lower to middle portion of the Maastricht Formation (upper Gronsveld, Schiepersberg or Emael members) as formerly exposed at ’t Rooth quarry near Bemelen, east of Maastricht, the Netherlands. This new taxon, Pelargorhynchus grandis n. sp., the fifth dercetid recorded to date from the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage, is characterised by the presence of both large, smooth scutes and small ornamented scales, by the degree of curvature of skull bones, the presence of unfused premaxillae and the lack of teeth.
By the start of the twentieth century, the two organizational forms most used by Dutch banks to raise capital through the dispersal of their ownership were the cooperative association and the public company. Share ownership in cooperatives was typically restricted to customers, while companies permitted outside investors. Neither organizational form dictated specific shareholder liability arrangements. New specialist banks targeting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) combined these two organizational forms and flexible liability rules to create hybrid forms. I find those that took the public company form were more likely to suffer distress during the Dutch financial crisis of the 1920s. Liability arrangements for shareholders, by contrast, had a negligible impact on these banks’ resilience.
The aim of the study is to explore to what extent members of the community are willing to participate in the way their primary care practice is organized and which characteristics of people and community are associated with this willingness.
Community participation in primary care refers to involvement of community members in the organization, governance and policy making of primary care facilities. Due to demographic changes and changes in the role of patients and the community concerning health care, it becomes important to include the social environment of patients into healthcare. Community participation may help GPs to improving their practice and providing care according to the needs of the population. Interpreted this way, it may be an important contributor to quality of care.
In 2016, a web questionnaire was send to 800 members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel. The response rate was 34%. Willingness to participate was divided into perceived readiness, ability and time to participate. The data were analysed using frequency tables and linear regression analysis.
Half of the participants were ready to give their opinion on primary care and one-third reported willingness to participate in decision making. Participants were less optimistic about their ability to participate and the time they have available for participation. Readiness and perceived ability were mainly determined by the importance that the respondents attributed to participation. Participants with previous experience in volunteering appeared more willing to spend time on participation.
This study showed that half of the respondents are willing to participate, but they are less sure about their ability to do so and that finding time to participate is seen as problematic. Future research should focus on which characteristics influence willingness. This knowledge might help primary care facilities to recruit people more easily and successfully.