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Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
As work teams have increasingly become the cornerstone of the post bureaucratic organization, there have been calls for a greater understanding of collective thought and action. Such understanding is deemed important for the design and management of teamwork. Theory suggests that feelings of ownership manifest themselves at the collective level, and positively affect team performance effectiveness. This study illuminates the role played by teamwork complexity and team self-management in the emergence of the psychological processes that are associated with the manifestation of job-focused collective psychological ownership (CPO). In addition, employment of serial mediation suggests that both teamwork dimensions put employees on two routes (intimate knowing of and the collective investment of the team members' selves into the job) that lead to the emergence of a collective sense of ownership, and together these two route variables and CPO sequentially mediated a positive relationship between teamwork design and team performance effectiveness.
We extend charismatic leadership research by identifying conditions under which charismatic leadership reduces individual performance. Previous research found a positive impact of charismatic leadership, especially in crisis situations. However, we expect that followers with high self-determination reject charismatic leadership so that performance is reduced. In a laboratory experiment built as a brainstorming competition, 88 participants were randomly assigned to a condition with a team crisis or a control condition. Half of the participants received a charismatic leadership intervention after the crisis, which led to the ostentatious departure of a group member, while the other half was led laissez-faire. The results support our hypotheses. Although charismatic leadership was overall beneficial in a team crisis, our study provides experimental evidence of how charismatic leadership reduces the performance of certain team members in crises. Future research should investigate how leadership can best meet the specific needs of followers in different types of critical team situations.
The case of a non-oncological patient at the end of his life, admitted to a Palliative Care Unit (PCU), is presented. After a failed attempt to place a central venous catheter (CVC) and another placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), the patient exhibited high anxiety regarding a midline catheter (MC) and refused its placement, even though this was necessary for the administration of intravenous drugs to control dyspnea and other complex symptoms that he presented.
An intervention through clinical hypnosis for successful MC placement and symptom control is described.
Through clinical hypnosis and interdisciplinary teamwork, it was possible to place a MC, necessary for symptomatic control of a complex patient.
Significance of result
This case exemplifies hypnosis as a simple procedure that is easy to apply, accepted by the patient, and effective in the implementation of invasive procedures and symptom control in PCUs.
This chapter gives examples of applying the creative abilities to common research challenges, using the examples of choosing a dissertation topic, cultivating your relationship with your advisor, and managing time efficiently.
This chapter provides guidance on ways to become aware of the language you use and the stories you tell about your research in order to gain insight about the assumptions you hold about research. Noticing these patterns provides the opportunity to craft new stories that reinforce your use of the creative abilities and your identity as a creative scholar.
This chapter focuses on finding diverse sources of feedback on your work. Researchers tend to work either independently or in project-focused teams. As a result, they may rarely get input on early ideas or interact with people in fields outside their own. This chapter highlights the benefits that diverse input can provide, including providing you with surprising insights you would not have otherwise encountered, helping you develop a deeper understanding of your research process, and enabling you to see your challenges in light of others’ common struggles. We present strategies for understanding your various types of feedback needs and for building a diverse support network that meets those needs.
Sketching-related activities are considered as an essential form of communication in the early phases of a design process. In the presented study, it is argued that both the sketching and the sketch-related verbalisations are reflected in the level of elaboration of the sketching outputs. Hence, a protocol study was conducted to analyse the frequencies of different sketching-related activities during team conceptual design sessions and the associated levels of elaboration for each of the sketching outputs in the form of concept drawings. The results show that although teams generate sketches of various number, complexity and clarity, there exist commonalities across the studied experiment sessions. For example, teams share a pattern of developing solutions without transformations or using lateral transformations within the first part of the sessions and using vertical transformations to produce final concepts towards the end of the sessions. Moreover, teams used associated sketch elements to start drawing new sketches and then alternated to other activities, most of all verbal explanation, for the sake of elaboration and better understanding.
Coordination in system design requires an interplay between different roles. In this work, we identify five design team roles that pertain to the partitioning and coordination of distributed design team tasks. The proposed characterization is based on self-reported responsibilities and communication behaviors from 109 student designers in 22 teams at the conclusion of a semester-long design project. The self-reports capture both how team members viewed their own work as well as communication patterns between team members. We leverage two representations of this data. Through text analysis, we identify keywords describing team member roles and responsibilities. Social network analysis can further distinguish roles based on team communication behaviors. Cluster analysis on both types of data identifies groups of individuals with similar characteristics. The resulting five clusters capture common roles in system design teams that simultaneously capture the diverse responsibilities and communication patterns.
Studies of design activity have been dominantly reporting on different aspects of the design process, rather than the content of designing. The aim of the presented research has been the development and application of an approach for a fine-grain analysis of the design content communicated between designers during the team conceptual design activities. The proposed approach builds on an engineering design ontology as a foundation for the content categorisation. Two teams have been studied using the protocol analysis method. The coded protocols offered fine-grain descriptions of the content communicated at different points in the design session and enabled comparison of teams’ approaches and deriving some generalisable findings. For example, it has been shown that both teams focused primarily on the use of the developed product and the operands within the technical process, in order to generate new technical solutions and initial component design. Moreover, teams exhibit progress from abstract to concrete solutions as the sessions proceeded and focused on the functional requirements towards the end of the sessions.
This paper presents the results of computational experiments aimed at studying the effect of experience on design teams’ exploration of problem-solution space. An agent-based model of a design team was developed and its capability to match theoretically-based predictions is tested. Hypotheses that (1) experienced teams need less time to find a solution and that (2) in comparison to the inexperienced teams, experienced teams spend more time exploring the solution-space than the problem-space, were tested. The results provided support for both of the hypotheses, demonstrating the impact of learning and experience on the exploration patterns in problem and solution space, and verifying the system's capability to produce the reliable results.
With the trend of global collaboration and development of Internet of Things in industry 4.0, the collaboration relationships between designers is getting more close and important than before. Therefore, when project manager assign designers to design projects, it is very important for them to select design projects with the consider about the expectations of the designers regarding the different projects and collaboration ability for the designers in the projects while it is very important to identify the projects with the consideration of skills, experiences, availabilities and so on. Even though, there are various methods for selecting projects, most of these methods not consider about the expectations of designer and the collaboration ability. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a project selection methodology, which consider about the designers’ expectations to the candidate multi-project and collaboration ability in the candidate multi-project. The main objective of our research is to help project manager to find an adaptable and comfortable multi- project to the designer.
Multidisciplinary agile teams working in fast paced, delivery-oriented sprint cycles of two weeks can experience moments of stuckness. Typically, these moments can be characterised by the inability to continue, which can be quite detrimental in agile settings, where time is pressured. This paper aims to explore these moments of stuckness, to understand when and why they occur and to understand the different strategies Scrum teams use to overcome them, both on a personal as well as team level. A combination of interviews and observations were conducted with six Scrum team members and two experts to understand their process and experiences while working in an agile set up. We have identified five strategies, which strongly rely on agile values of collaboration, communication, and creativity. These are: looking for expert guidance, open communication, creating spike stories, visual communication and incubation. The findings from this study provide both practice and academia with a deeper understanding into how can creativity be supported in agile settings.
While the form of building construction delivery known as Integrated Design-Build (or Integrated Project Delivery) is necessary for handling the complexity of modern projects, it raises up a host of problems due to the amount and variety of stakeholders that are brought together to co-design. Namely, the difficulty in forming a shared mental model of expectations regarding the project can cause disappointment in the results, as well as time and cost overruns. This paper is about creating an intervention to alleviate those issues. Employing knowledge from the field of rhetoric in design, and of mental models, two Integrated Design-Build workshops were analyzed to extract a set of rhetorical topics (topoi) to all such sessions. A design game was formulated around the empirical data by an iterative design process, following established design game theory. The game was found to indeed more than double the alignment of a group's individual mental models, though more testing is needed to validate this.
The interpersonal dynamics between patient and doctor remain a daily challenge for clinicians, and reflective practice is a tool that allows them better understanding of how patients engage with treatment. The interpersonal dynamics consultation is a form of group-based reflective practice for patients with difficult relational (interpersonal) styles. It includes the whole multidisciplinary team in a systematic consultation in order to arrive at new understanding and management plans for these patients. Interpersonal dynamics consultations have been used successfully for many years in mental healthcare, and this article has arisen from a project exploring their application in physical healthcare settings. The project works to promote effective working at the interface of physical and mental healthcare and facilitates the important translational work of making psychiatry and psychotherapeutic ideas applicable in a broader context. This article outlines the interpersonal dynamics consultation model and illustrates its use in three fictitious cases from different medical specialties.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•describe the ways in which reflective practice is beneficial to clinical work
•describe the basic structure of the interpersonal dynamics consultation, including the four interpersonal perspectives
•recognise the types of cases where interpersonal dynamics consultation might be most useful.
Introduction: Teamwork skills are essential in emergency presentations. When training medical students to manage acute care cases, simulation is frequently the educational tool. However, simulation content is often medically-focused, and post-simulation debriefs may not prioritize discussion of teamwork skills, as time is limited. Furthermore, debriefing both medical and teamwork aspects of a case may add to the learners cognitive load. This innovation uses an escape game as a non-clinical simulation to gamify teamwork skills training, with a focus on the collaborator CanMEDS role. In the entertainment industry, escape games are activities where teams solve a series of puzzles together to ultimately escape a room. Methods: 2 groups of 5 second-year medical students piloted the escape game, created within a simulation theatre, designed to surface teamwork competencies under the four University of Calgary Team Scheme domains (adapted from CIHCs National Interprofessional Competency Framework and TeamSTEPPS): Leadership/Membership, Communication, Situation Monitoring, and Collaborative Decision-Making/Mutual Support. During the game, facilitators noted examples of students strengths and challenges in demonstrating teamwork competencies. Post-game, a debrief and written reflective exercise enabled students to analyze successes and challenges in demonstrating teamwork competencies, propose solutions to teamwork challenges, and write 3 goals to improve teamwork skills. All competencies listed under each Team Scheme domain represented themes used in a thematic analysis to uncover students reported teamwork challenges. Results: Each escape game is a 30-minute teamwork activity where 5 students collaborate to complete 8 puzzles, which do not require medical knowledge, in order to win. Briefing is scheduled for 15-minutes, whereas post-game debriefing and reflection is 45-minutes. Conclusion: Escape games can highlight strengths and challenges in teamwork and collaboration amongst second-year medical students. Every competency under the Team Scheme domains was highlighted by the escape game pilots, touching on both strengths and challenges, for which students demonstrated, debriefed, and reflected upon. Students self-documented teamwork challenges include issues surrounding task-focused, closed-loop communication, and frequent reassessments. Advantages of this innovation include its use as a learning progression towards acute care simulations, portability and affordability, potential interprofessional use, and customizability. Additional training time may be required to orient facilitators to this atypical simulation. The escape game will launch in MDCN490 for second-year medical students and is scheduled prior to their acute care simulations. Further teamwork challenges identified at that time will help inform teamwork curriculum development for year 3.
Psychological, neurological, and social impairments caused by dementia may limit the person's everyday living and experiences, but their capacity to enjoy a meaningful life is still retained. Increasingly, evidence has been shown the importance of reablement approaches to care in maximizing the older person's independence, health, and well-being through increased engagement in their daily, physical, social, and community activities. However, there is a major knowledge gap in providing reablement for people living with dementia. We describe one case of a client with moderate dementia and her daughter carer who participated as a dyad in a person centered, interdisciplinary, and reablement program called I-HARP (Interdisciplinary home-based reablement program). I-HARP is designed to improve functional capacity of those community dwelling, older people living with dementia, and other health conditions. In this paper, we discussed key contributions that such a reablement approach to care can make to optimizing the social health of people living with dementia.
Recently, there emerged a theory of collective psychological ownership – an intersubjective sense of possession for different objects within the work and organizational context (e.g., work space). This shared mind-set has been cast as having the potential to explain a variety of collective, work-related attitudes, and actions. Preventing scientific inquiry into this phenomenon is the absence of an instrument for the measurement of this construct. The purpose of this work was the development and validation of such an instrument. To this end, work with a panel of judges and three sequentially conducted field studies was undertaken. Construct validation evidence (e.g., content, discriminant, nomological, and incremental validity) for an instrument for the assessment of collective psychological ownership is provided.