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This study identifies and interprets dominant developments in the Taiwanese literary field by examining data included in publication catalogs of literary journals and supplements from 1940 to 1953. Utilizing social network analysis, it focuses on both ruptures caused by crucial political events and continuities that spanned these ruptures. The study revisits central tenets of Taiwanese literary history and, by seeking to articulate structuring principles, also unveils new perspectives on how to map and interpret the dynamics of literary systems and the ways in which they mesh with society. It thereby exemplifies how digital humanities can guide researchers toward new historical insights.
The Preface briefly sets out the contrast between anthropology, psychology and economics as three human science disciplines with overlapping subject matters but very different ways of approaching reality. It touches on the question of human self-education in history and also alludes to the comparison between (notionally communist) China and (capitalist) Taiwan.
focuses on longer-term life planning and the role of learning involved in it, drawing specifically on the work of the macroeconomist Robert Lucas. Taking one ethnographic example from Taiwan, the author asks questions about Lucas’s account of human capital, examining among other things questions about fate in economic life and processes of modernisation in seemingly traditional societies.
This article examines the zoological gardens established by Japanese imperialists in colonial Seoul (1908) and Taipei (1914). Drawing on multilingual sources, it argues that zoos explicitly exposed the unequal interethnic and interspecies hierarchies that undergirded the colonial project. The colonial zoo was an ambivalent “dreamscape”: a carefully constructed landscape of iron cages and manicured pathways wherein colonizers’ dreams of ordering the natural world and colonized populations existed in uneasy tension with the actual experiences of zoo visitors and encaged zoo animals. Intellectuals sometimes criticized zoo excesses or identified the bondage of caged animals with the colonized experience. Yet these zoos also enjoyed immense popularity as Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese visitors alike participated in the physical and discursive subjugation of zoo animals. Sensitivity to these contradictions, this essay contends, is essential for understanding both the broader significance of these institutions and their contested legacies today.
This chapter analyzes government policies in the three principal Japanese colonies in the five decades up to 1945. It examines the extent to which the Japanese colonial governments in Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria succeeded in centralizing tax and other revenues, in leveraging these revenues in order to borrow, in establishing accountable government fiscal systems and in using revenues from taxes, non-tax sources and from loans to fund not just administration and policing but also expenditures on capital works. We also assess the important body of literature developed over the past five decades that emphasized the more positive aspects of the Japanese legacy, including the agricultural transformation, and the development of industry and transport infrastructure. When viewed in a broader Asian context, Japanese colonial policies were not as exceptional as some scholars have argued. There were a number of similarities with both revenue and expenditure policies in other Asian colonies, and while economic policies did diverge in the 1930s as the military-industrial complex in Japan became more powerful, the outcomes for indigenous populations in Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria were not always positive.
After presenting the fundamentals of Weberian-institutionalist and Gramsciian-culturalist approaches to understanding the state, this introduction suggests that it is possible to combine the two. Focusing on the unusually successful cases of state building of the “revolutionary” People’s Republic of China in Sunan and the “conservative” Republic of China in Taiwan in the early 1950s, it suggests that the “hows” of state building policy implementation are as important as the “whats.” Both regimes resorted to overlapping and shifting modalities of bureaucratic rule making and campaign mobilization, differing substantively in how these repertoires were performed and communicated to citizens at large.
While both the PRC in Sunan and the ROC in Taiwan had judicial systems that presumed the guilt of the accused and offered lenience to those who came forward and confessed, both were in practice arbitrary. In Sunan promises of lenience for those who registered were abruptly cancelled with the “high tide” of the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and in Taiwan the extension of lenience was notoriously inconsistent. The ways in which the state in Sunan and Taiwan implemented campaigns against subversion were, however, very different. In Sunan, the accused were paraded in front of a large audience in public accusation sessions and directly confronted by their victims’ tales of sorrow, whipping up the crowd into enthusiasm for the state’s just retribution; in Taiwan the accused were spirited away by shadowy security organizations, held incognito in prisons, and sentenced according to (martial) “law” in performances of procedure put on by the state for itself.
Chapter 3 illustrates what might be considered a relatively transparent attempt at regulating affect: the use of figures that are considered kawaii, a Japanese term meaning ‘cute’ or ‘adorable’. An examination of how kawaii figures are employed by various municipal authorities in Tokyo brings to light just how affect works when linguistic and non-linguistic modalities are combined. The use of kawaii in public signage, especially in the form of cartoon figures, brings to light and helps exemplify Ahmed’s (2004a, b) claim that affect circulates via the use of characters that tend to evoke specific cultural stereotypes.
Many orogens on the planet result from plate convergence involving subduction of a continental margin. The lithosphere is strongly deformed during mountain building involving subduction of a plate composed generally of accreted continental margin units and some fragments of downgoing oceanic crust and mantle. A complex deformation involving strong partitioning of deformation modes and kinematics produces crustal shortening, accompanied by crustal thickening. Partitioning depends on three main factors: (1) rheologic layering of the lithosphere; (2) interaction between tectonics and surface processes; (3) subduction kinematics and 3D geometry of continental margins (oblique convergence, shape of indenters). Here we present an original view and discussion on the impact of deformation partitioning on the structure and evolution of orogens by examining the Taiwan mountain belt as a case study. Major unsolved questions are addressed through geological observations from the Taiwan orogen and insights from analogue models integrating surface processes. Some of these questions include: What is the role played by décollements or weak zones in crustal deformation and what is the impact of structural heterogeneities inherited from the early extensional history of a rifted passive continental margin? What is the relationship between deep underplating, induced uplift and flow of crustal material during erosion (finite strain evolution during wedge growth)? Are syn-convergent normal faults an effect of deformation partitioning and erosion? What is the role of strain partitioning on the location of major seismogenic faults in active mountain belts? What can be learned about the long-term and the present-day evolution of Taiwan?
This chapter reviews the sophistication of the trust mechanism as compared to the new two-pronged adult guardianship system (AGS) employed in Taiwan. It compares the AGS’s effectiveness in showing greater respect for the exercise of personal residual abilities to its inadequacies in protecting the interests of a ward and in respecting a ward’s intent. It looks into the legal basis for the application of the trust mechanism and explores the reasons for the limited use of trust in the community and the issues pertaining to the law and regulations to the application of trusts in the AGS, including the selection of trustees, the selection of trust supervisors and the termination of trust deeds. It is argued that the statutory mechanism utilised in the AGS is limited and suggests that a shift from voluntary to mandatory trusts in the AGS and the use of voluntary guardianship system would better combine the trust system with the AGS in Taiwan to safeguard the financial security of disabled persons and elderly.
This chapter reviews legal instruments and avenues available for planning support for people with cognitive impairments in Australia, including adult guardianship, durable powers of attorney, representative payee and nominee appointments, and special needs disability trusts; the associated public institutions such as guardianship tribunals, office of the public advocate, and public trustees; and their interaction with service delivery programs such as the National Disability Insurance Scheme and social security. It is argued that the configuration of planning instruments, and the timing of their introduction, reflects adaption to the architecture of its welfare state, including its somewhat unique combination of extensive access to tightly means-tested income support (and reforms to overcome tax minimisation or avoidance), the absence of any expectation of family support, and acceptance of state responsibility for funding of services for disabled people least able to care for themselves.
As part of ongoing molecular phylogenetic work on the large Gesneriaceae genus Cyrtandra, new insights into the taxonomy and relationships of the Cyrtandra of Japan, Taiwan and Batan Island in the northern Philippines have emerged. Cyrtandra umbellifera is confirmed as a species with a distribution that includes both Taiwan and Batan Island. Cyrtandra yaeyamae is found to be distinct from the widespread C. cumingii, with a distribution that includes both the Ryukyu Islands in Japan and Batan Island.
This article introduces the designs and the potential problems of the new lay judge system in Taiwan. This article first describes the background of the development of lay participation in Taiwan, and the 2012 Observer Jury System and the 2018 Lay Judge System drafted by the judiciary. The core of this paper is a qualitative study of four mock trials conducted by four district courts in Taiwan. Through observations and interviews with mock trial lay judges, this article addresses three main problems of the new system, including professional judges’ domination in deliberations, the comprehensibility of law, and lack of evidence rules. It also provides a discussion of the possible solutions to the problems observed. This article urges that training sessions should be provided to both lay judges and legal professionals, adjust the discovery rule, provide guidance on sentencing, and create evidentiary rules.
Recently, internet usage among elderly adults has been increasing and becoming more mainstream; with the ageing population in Taiwan, concerns over health are on the rise, and this is directly related to the products that people eat. The main objectives of this study were to develop an integrated extensibility model incorporating the technology acceptance model and to investigate the impact of health consciousness on elderly adults’ acceptance of technology in relation to traceability information websites in Taiwan. This study used structural equation modelling to analyse the data. The results revealed that elderly people with high health consciousness and high perceived usefulness had more positive attitudes towards products than those with low health consciousness and low perceived usefulness, and those with high health consciousness and high perceived ease of use had more positive attitudes than those with low health consciousness and low perceived ease of use in relation to the agricultural product traceability system.
Understanding the human dimension is critical for effective conservation management of species involved in human–carnivore conflict. There is also a need to recognize who among the local human population is supportive of wildlife conservation. We investigated how local people's attitudes and knowledge of the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis are influenced by socio-demographic variables, encounter rates and the nature of encounters with the felid in Taiwan. During June–August 2014 we interviewed 150 residents in Miaoli County in northern Taiwan, where the leopard cat is known to occur. More than half of the participants indicated they were supportive of leopard cat conservation. The majority of those who expressed positive attitudes towards protection of the leopard cat belonged to younger, more educated socio-demographic groups. Negative attitudes towards leopard cat conservation were most prevalent among farmers, who also reported the highest incidence of negative experiences, mainly involving predation of poultry. We provide recommendations to mitigate human–felid conflict, including changes to animal husbandry practices. We also describe how conservation efforts for this species and wildlife in general in Taiwan could be improved, for example through incentive and awareness-raising programmes.
Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid expansion in the number of Taiwan programmes at universities in America and Europe; however, few of these Taiwan programmes have attempted to develop teaching courses. Where Taiwan courses have been introduced, they have tended to be in isolation and not well integrated into existing academic programmes. Among the universities with Taiwan programmes, only two have attempted to create comprehensive teaching programmes through which students can graduate with a degree in Taiwan studies: SOAS University of London and the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of this paper is to compare the experiences of these two institutions in developing such niche teaching programmes. It begins with a discussion of how these two programmes first emerged and then goes on to review their distinct development trajectories and key features. The paper offers an analysis of how these two programmes were able not only to survive but also to expand their offerings and thrive in an academic environment that should be hostile to such niche programmes. It concludes with a review of the remaining challenges facing these teaching programmes.
In May 2017, Taiwan's Constitutional Court reached a landmark decision that marriage should be opened to same-sex couples within two years, making Taiwan potentially the first country in Asia to realize marriage equality. How can we explain the success of the LGBT movement here? I argue that explanations based on cultural proclivity, public opinion, and linkages to world society, are inadequate. This article adopts a “political process” explanation by looking at changes in the political context and how they facilitate the movement for marriage equality. I maintain that electoral system reform in 2008, the eruption of the Sunflower Movement in 2014, and the electoral victory of the Democratic Progressive Party in 2016, stimulated Taiwan's LGBT mobilization, allowing it to eventually overcome opposition from the church-based countermovement.
We advance the literature on electoral institutions and legislative representation by investigating legislators’ position taking strategies in Taiwan under the single non-transferable voting period. Existing research largely assumes that representatives elected from the same electoral rule behave similarly. We challenge this conventional understanding by arguing that legislators in multi-member districts (MMDs) tend to move toward the extreme direction from the party line if they come from districts where their party is less competitive. This pattern of legislative representation allows them to appeal to partisan voters, as lowering one's partisan profile can be too costly in such districts. On the contrary, those who are elected from strong partisan districts are expected to deviate from the party toward the moderate direction. Given a solid partisan foundation in these districts, these legislators may target voters across party lines. Our analysis covering the entire period of MMD elections after Taiwan's democratization (1992–2008) provides robust empirical evidence to our theoretical claim. Our findings, therefore, shed lights for future studies on the intertwining nature between electoral systems, district level factors, and legislative representation.
Where does the legal profession’s identity originate from? How do we explain the intra-professional variations, as multiple legal professions diverge in their political orientations? This paper argues that the legal profession critically develops their core identity resisting incumbent rule when the state undergoes fundamental power reconfiguration. It is their political position as opposed to power in a critical juncture of state transformation that determines the legal profession’s collective ideal of who they are and what actions they take. Drawing on 133 interviews with Taiwanese judges, lawyers, and prosecutors, extensive fieldwork, and archival data up to the 1990s, this paper demonstrates how democratization shapes professional identity. As respective professions experienced different levels and models of authoritarian containment, they took separate trajectories to challenge the Kuomintang’s party-state and pledge to different normative commitments. Taiwanese judges categorically defend judicial independence, lawyers advocate for people’s rights, and prosecutors marshal under justice to check abuse of power.
To what extent do presidential candidates influence voting in mixed member legislative elections? A sizable literature addresses presidential–legislative coattail effects in the American context, with less attention given to this interaction in non-Western democracies. Nor is the role of past voting behavior adequately assessed in the literature. Taiwan's historic 2016 election allows for an analysis of the extent in which the popularity of presidential candidates influences coattail voting in the more complex electoral environment of two-vote mixed legislative systems. Evidence finds that, controlling for partisanship and previous voting behavior, voters who supported a presidential candidate were more likely to also support the party's legislative candidates, although this influence is stronger in regards to Democratic Progressive Party's Tsai Ing-wen.