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Opioid analgesics are often prescribed following rhinology surgery. This study aimed to evaluate whether the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed is justified.
Patients were asked about their pain management post-operatively. Parameters recorded included: current pain (using a 10-point Likert scale); type of operation; the opioid analgesics prescribed; and the quantity of opioid tablets taken and other methods of pain relief used.
Thirty-five patients were successfully contacted. The median pain score at one week post-operation was 1 (interquartile range, 0–3). Of these 35 patients, 16 were prescribed opioids, whilst 19 were not. Patients prescribed opioids took a median of 8 tablets (interquartile range, 0.8–10.5) out of the 28 tablets prescribed.
The study shows that the quantity of post-operative opioid analgesics prescribed does not compare with the amount consumed by patients to relieve pain, resulting in a surplus of opioid medication which has the potential to be abused.
There are few detailed studies about peripheral branch resection of the posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate; thus, this study aimed to investigate this.
Patients who underwent submucosal turbinoplasty with or without resection of the peripheral branches of posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate were included.
The resection of the posterior nasal nerves with turbinoplasty significantly reduced detection and recognition thresholds on olfactory testing. The rhinorrhoea severity, detection threshold and recognition threshold were significantly lower after resection of the posterior nasal nerves with turbinoplasty than after turbinoplasty alone, although there were no significant differences between the two groups before surgery.
This is the first study to show that the resection of the peripheral branches of the posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate with turbinoplasty more effectively inhibits allergic symptoms compared with turbinoplasty alone. It also showed that the resection of the peripheral branches of the posterior nasal nerves can inhibit olfactory dysfunction.
Comparing the feasibility of ovine and synthetic temporal bones for simulating endoscopic ear surgery against the ‘gold standard’ of human cadaveric tissue.
A total of 10 candidates (5 trainees and 5 experts) performed endoscopic tympanoplasty on 3 models: Pettigrew temporal bones, ovine temporal bones and cadaveric temporal bones. Candidates completed a questionnaire assessing the face validity, global content validity and task-specific content validity of each model.
Regarding ovine temporal bone validity, the median values were 4 (interquartile range = 4–4) for face validity, 4 (interquartile range = 4–4) for global content validity and 4 (interquartile range = 4–4) for task-specific content validity. For the Pettigrew temporal bone, the median values were 3.5 (interquartile range = 2.25–4) for face validity, 3 (interquartile range = 2.75–3) for global content validity and 3 (interquartile range = 2.5–3) for task-specific content validity. The ovine temporal bone was considered significantly superior to the Pettigrew temporal bone for the majority of validity categories assessed.
Tympanoplasty is feasible in both the ovine temporal bone and the Pettigrew temporal bone. However, the ovine model was a significantly more realistic simulation tool.
To report device failures, audiological signs and other reasons for revision cochlear implant surgery, and discuss indications for revision surgery.
Revision procedures between November 1997 and August 2017 were retrospectively analysed. Over 20 years, 2181 cochlear implant operations were performed, and 114 patients underwent 127 revision operations.
The revision rate was 4.67 per cent. The full insertion rate for revision cochlear implant surgery was 88.2 per cent. The most frequent reasons for revision surgery were: device failure (59 per cent), wound breakdown (9.4 per cent) and electrode malposition (8.7 per cent). The device failure rate was: 2.78 per cent for Advanced Bionics, 1.82 per cent for Cochlear and 5.25 per cent for Med-El systems. The number of active electrodes was significantly increased only for Med-El devices after revision surgery. The most common complaints among 61 patients were: gradually decreased auditory performance, sudden internal device shutdown and headaches.
The most common reason for revision surgery was device failure. Patients should be evaluated for device failure in cases of: no hearing despite appropriate follow up, side effects such as facial nerve stimulation, and rejection of speech processor use in paediatrics. After revision surgery, most patients have successful outcomes.
The sternocleidomastoid can be used as a pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction. It has previously been associated with high complication rates, likely due in part to the variable nature of its blood supply.
To provide clinicians with an up-to-date review of clinical outcomes of sternocleidomastoid flap surgery in head and neck reconstruction, integrated with a review of vascular anatomical studies of the sternocleidomastoid.
A literature search of the Medline and Web of Science databases was conducted. Complications were analysed for each study. The trend in success rates was analysed by date of the study.
Reported complication rates have improved over time. The preservation of two vascular pedicles rather than one may have contributed to improved outcomes.
The sternocleidomastoid flap is a versatile option for patients where prolonged free flap surgery is inappropriate. Modern vascular imaging techniques could optimise pre-operative planning.
Barbed pharyngoplasty aims to reduce lateral retropalatal obstruction by pulling up the soft palate anterolaterally. However, barbed pharyngoplasty can be less efficient in some cases of obstructive sleep apnoea, especially in the presence of an elongated uvula with redundant tissues over it. This paper describes an attempt to overcome this drawback by modifying barbed pharyngoplasty, using a single continuous suture technique.
Thirty-four patients were assigned to two groups based on the surgical procedure performed. Those with an elongated uvula were treated with modified barbed pharyngoplasty (n = 17); the others were treated with barbed pharyngoplasty (n = 17). Pre- and post-operative quality of life questionnaires, and questionnaires concerning diet, pain and return to activity, were completed. Pre- and post-operative polysomnography was performed as an objective measurement.
There was no significant difference between barbed pharyngoplasty and modified barbed pharyngoplasty in terms of outcomes. However, reductions in the apnoea/hypopnea index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and snoring visual analogue scale scores were greater in the modified barbed pharyngoplasty group.
Modified barbed pharyngoplasty is a safe and feasible method, and eliminates the need for surgical resection of the redundant soft tissues around the uvula while lifting up the uvula base.
Chapter 7 explores laryngeal speech disorders, voice pathologies that depart from normal function, and the consequences of laryngeal surgery on voice quality from the perspective of the Laryngeal Articulator Model. Clinical cases involve the laryngeal mechanism as a whole, and many voice quality outcomes resemble the registers of linguistic systems. New drawings diagram surgical excisions of laryngeal structures. Post-surgery compensatory behaviours demonstrate innovative adaptation of the aryepiglottic sphincter mechanism to generate ‘substitution voice’. Numerous videos/audio of clinical cases illustrate the effect of pathologies on voice quality. Pre- and post-operative speech production show how altered structures create altered voice quality. Epilaryngeal tube control is shown to be the cornerstone of our ability to adapt. Mongolian long song and human beatboxing illustrate the use of the professional voice. Clinicians as well as linguists will benefit from the detailed new exploration of the laryngeal articulator and its adaptability.
The use of three-dimensional printing has been rapidly expanding over the last several decades. Virtual surgical three-dimensional simulation and planning has been shown to increase efficiency and accuracy in various clinical scenarios.
To report the feasibility of three-dimensional printing in paediatric laryngotracheal stenosis and discuss potential applications of three-dimensional printed models in airway surgery.
Retrospective case series in a tertiary care aerodigestive centre.
Three-dimensional printing was undertaken in two cases of paediatric laryngotracheal stenosis. One patient with grade 4 subglottic stenosis with posterior glottic involvement underwent an extended partial cricotracheal reconstruction. Another patient with grade 4 tracheal stenosis underwent tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Models of both tracheas were printed using PolyJet technology from a Stratasys Connex2 printer.
It is feasible to demonstrate stenosis in three-dimensional printed models, allowing for patient-specific pre-operative surgical simulation. The models serve as an educational tool for patients’ understanding of the surgery, and for teaching residents and fellows.
The adverse health effects associated with smoking tobacco have been well investigated, and its detrimental effects on cancer treatment outcomes, efficacy and quality of life (QOL) for cancer patients have also been well documented. Tobacco smoke contains many thousands of chemicals, including a plethora of carcinogens, and the exposure of human cells to these carcinogens, and their metabolic activation, is the main mechanism by which smoking-related cancer is initiated.
Materials and Methods:
This paper reports on a narrative review of recent studies in the field of effects of tobacco smoking on cancer treatment, including the effects of carcinogens in smoke on carcinogenesis, cell mutations and the immune system. The health effects of smokeless tobacco, effects of tobacco smoking on cancer treatment, and its impact on surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are reported. The potential risks of second primary cancers or recurrence from tobacco use, the effects of second-hand smoking and cancer treatment, the impact of smoking on the QOL after cancer treatment and the need to integrate smoking cessation programs into the cancer care continuum are also reported.
Tobacco use has a direct impact on cellular function by inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating proliferation and decreasing the efficacy of cancer treatment; therefore, quitting its use has the potential to improve treatment response rates and survival, as well as reduces the risk of developing second cancers and potentially improves the QOL after treatment. Smoking cessation is one of the most important interventions to prevent cancer and is also essential after the diagnosis of cancer to improve clinical outcomes. Due to the numerous benefits of smoking cessation, it should become a critical component of the cancer care continuum in all oncology programs – from prevention of cancer through diagnosis, treatment, survivorship and palliative care. Evidence-based smoking cessation intervention should be sustainably integrated into any comprehensive cancer program, and the information should be targeted to the specific benefits of cessation in cancer patients.
There is a growing interest in sodium hyaluronate for the clinical management of patients who undergo functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis, because of the mucosal regenerative properties of this macromolecule. However, its role in post-operative care is still debated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium hyaluronate administered via nasal irrigation with saline, in the post-operative period, after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
A multicentric, prospective, randomised, double-blind, parallel group study was conducted on 56 consecutive patients who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps. Group 1 received the standard therapy of normal saline; group 2 received saline plus sodium hyaluronate.
Both objective and subjective measurements, in terms of endoscopic appearance and patient-reported satisfaction, were significantly better in group 2 compared to group 1.
Sodium hyaluronate may be a useful adjunct to nasal saline irrigation in the early post-operative period following functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
All patients undergoing tympanomastoid surgery should be assessed post-operatively for a ‘dead ear’; however, tuning forks are frequently inaccessible.
To demonstrate that smartphone-based vibration applications provide equivalent accuracy to tuning forks when performing Weber's test.
Data were collected on lay participants with no underlying hearing loss. Earplugs were used to simulate conductive hearing loss. Both the right and left ears were tested with the iBrateMe vibration application on an iPhone and using a 512 Hz tuning fork.
Occluding the left ear, the tuning fork lateralised to the left in 18 out of 20 cases. In 20 out of 20 cases, sound lateralised to the left with the iPhone (chi-square test, p = 0.147). Occluding the right ear, the tuning fork lateralised to the right in 19 out of 20 cases. In 19 out of 20 cases, sound lateralised to the right with the iPhone (chi-square test, p > 0.999).
Smartphone-based vibration applications represent a viable, more accessible alternative to tuning forks when assessing for conductive hearing loss. They can therefore be utilised on the ward round, in patients following tympanomastoid surgery, for example.
Surgery for chronic suppurative otitis media performed in low- and middle-income countries creates specific challenges. This paper describes the equipment and a variety of techniques that we find best suited to these conditions. These have been used over many years in remote areas of Nepal.
Results and conclusion
Extensive chronic suppurative otitis media is frequently encountered, with limited pre-operative investigation or treatment possible. Techniques learnt in better-resourced settings with good follow up need to be modified. The paper describes surgical methods suitable for resource-poor conditions, with rationales. These include methods of tympanoplasty for subtotal wet perforations, hearing reconstruction in wet ears and open cavities, large aural polyps, and canal wall down mastoidectomy with cavity obliteration. Various types of autologous ossiculoplasty are described in detail for use in the absence of prostheses. The following topics are discussed: decision-making for surgery on wet or best hearing ears, children, bilateral surgery, working with local anaesthesia, and obtaining adequate consent in this environment.
The successful provision of middle-ear surgery requires appropriate anaesthesia. This may take the form of local or general anaesthesia; both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Local anaesthesia is simple to administer and does not require the additional personnel required for general anaesthesia. In the low-resource setting, it can provide a very safe and effective means of allowing middle-ear surgery to be successfully completed. However, some middle-ear surgery is too complex to consider performing under local anaesthesia and here general anaesthesia will be required.
This article highlights considerations for performing middle-ear surgery in a safe manner when the available resources may be more limited than those expected in high-income settings. There are situations where local anaesthesia with sedation may prove a useful compromise of the two techniques.
In Nigeria, access to open heart surgery (OHS) is adversely affected by insufficient blood and blood products, including the challenges because of the lack of patient-focused blood management strategies owing to the absent requisite point-of-care tests in the operating theatre (OR)/ICU. In addition, the limited availability of altruistic blood donors including the detection of transfusion transmitted infections more commonly among non-altruistic blood donors is another burden affecting the management of excessive bleeding during and after open heart surgery in our country.
The objective of this study was to review our local experience in the use of blood and blood products during open heart surgery and compare the same with the literature.
Materials and methods
In a period of 3 years (March, 2013–February, 2016), we performed a retrospective review of those who had open heart surgery in our institution. The data were obtained from our hospital health information technology department. The data comprised demography, types of operative procedures and units of blood and blood products transfused per procedure, including the details regarding the usage of the cell saver, as well as those who had severe bleeding requiring excessive blood transfusion.
During the study period, 102 patients had open heart surgery, an average of 34 cases in a year. Among them, there were 75 (73.53%) males and 37 (36.27%) females, giving a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients were from 0.6 (7/12) to 74 years. Mitral valve procedure was the most common (n=22, 21.6%) surgery type. Transfusion requirements averaged 1.9 units of fresh frozen plasma, 0.36 units of platelet concentrate, and 1.68 units of packed cells per procedure. The least common surgical procedure was common atrium repair (n=1, 0.01%).
Open heart procedure is a very complex procedure requiring cardiopulmonary bypass with associated severe perioperative bleeding. The attendant blood loss and haemostatic challenges are combated by intricate and selective transfusions of allogeneic blood and or blood products.
The clinical effects of CHD can occur during the neonatal period, childhood, adolescent, and even adulthood. Some CHD in the adult population have indications for surgical management.
The objective of this study was to review the role of humanitarian cardiac surgery missions in the surgical management of CHD in the adult population in a developing country.
Materials and method
Over a 5.5-year period – June, 2003, February, 2013–October, 2017 – five different humanitarian cardiac surgery teams visited National Cardiothoracic Center of Excellence, Nigeria. During the period, they operated on adults with CHD. A retrospective study of the patients treated was performed using data obtained from our Hospital Information Technology Department. The demography of the patients, types of CHD, operative modalities, as well as the outcome was analysed using Microsoft Excel. The results were presented in arithmetic of percentages using tables.
During the period, a total of 18 CHD patients were treated.
Anterior cricoid split is performed for grade 2 and 3 subglottic stenosis, which can be a cause of extubation failure. It can be performed endoscopically or as an open procedure. This paper describes a case series of endoscopic cricoid split procedures performed using a bespoke sickle knife.
Nine patients (six pre-term infants) underwent endoscopic cricoid split in a tertiary referral paediatric unit between August 2012 and March 2015.
Six patients (67 per cent; four pre-term and two term infants) were on oxygen pre-operatively. Mean age at operation was 30 weeks (range, 11–104 weeks). Mean number of days’ intubation was 5.6 days (range, 4–9 days). All five patients intubated pre-operatively were extubated. Seven patients required repeat dilatations. One patient required tracheostomy.
The extubation rates for endoscopic cricoid split are comparable to the open procedure. It is a safe and efficient method for managing subglottic stenosis, whether acquired or congenital. The main advantage is the shorter operative time, in addition to the avoidance of an external scar and drain.
Disconnection of a pulmonary artery needs early surgical treatment in order to support the growth of the vessel. However, owing to the high rate of re-stenosis after traditional surgical reconstruction, we developed a hybrid approach involving the creation of pulmonary artery continuity by using autologous or heterologous tissue supported by stent implantation.