To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The ductus arteriosus (DA) connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta to bypass the pulmonary circulation in utero. It normally closes within 24–72 hours after birth due to increased pulmonary resistance from an increase in oxygen partial pressure with the baby’s first breath. Medical treatment can help close the DA in certain situations where closure is delayed. However, in duct-dependent cardiac defects, the presence of the DA is crucial for survival and as such medical and surgical techniques have evolved to prevent closure. This review aims to outline the two main management options for keeping a ductus arteriosus patent. This includes stenting the PDA and shunting via a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt. Whilst both techniques exist, multicentre trials have found equal mortality end points but significantly reduced morbidity with stenting than shunting. This is also reflected by shorter recovery times, reduced requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and improved quality of life, although stent longevity remains a limiting factor.
This study sought to assess the impact of simulation training in influencing trainees’ initial surgical participation as perceived by experienced surgeon trainers.
Twenty ENT surgeons assessed how much of a given procedure they would expect to allow a trainee to perform for their first time. Responses were provided for trainees who had undergone a relevant simulation course and those who had not, and scored according to the eLogbook levels of involvement in surgery. This was completed for simulated procedures with validated models, across four grades of junior doctors.
A total of 1120 judgements on the trainees’ intended level of involvement were made. The median involvement score was higher in the simulation group versus the non-simulation group (Mann–Whitney U, p = 0.0001), corresponding to a translation in surgical opportunity from a primarily assisting role to an active role.
Trainer perception of a relevant ENT simulation course appears to positively impact on the initial surgical opportunities afforded to the trainee.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin with an array of biological functions. A number of proposed factors contribute to the vitamin’s plasma bioavailability and ability to exert optimal functionality. The aim of this review was to systematically assess plasma vitamin C levels post-surgery compared with pre-surgery/ the magnitude and timeframe of potential changes in concentration. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library databases between 1970 to April 2020 for relevant research papers. Prospective studies, control groups and true placebo groups derived from controlled trials that reported means and standard deviations of plasma vitamin C concentrations pre and post operatively were included into the meta-analysis. Data were grouped into short-term (≤7 days) and long term (> 7 days) post-operative follow-up. 23 of 31 studies involving 642 patients included in the systematic review were suitable for meta-analysis. Pooled data from the meta-analysis revealed a mean depletion of plasma vitamin C concentration of -17.99 µmol/L (39% depletion) (CI = -22.81, -13.17) (trial arms = 25, n = 565, p < 0.001) during the first post-operative week and -18.80 µmol/L (21% depletion) (-25.04, -12.56) (trial arms = 6, n = 166, p < 0.001) 2-3 months post-operatively. Subgroup analyses revealed that these depletions occurred following different types of surgery, however, high heterogeneity was observed amongst trials assessing concentration change during the first post-operative week. Overall, our results warrant larger, long term investigations of changes in post-operative plasma vitamin C concentrations and their potential effects on clinical symptomology.
Aerosol generation during temporal bone surgery caries the risk of viral transmission. Steps to mitigate this problem are of particular importance during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
To quantify the effect of barrier draping on particulate material dispersion during temporal bone surgery.
The study involved a cadaveric model in a simulated operating theatre environment. Particle density and particle count for particles sized 1–10 μ were measured in a simulated operating theatre environment while drilling on a cadaveric temporal bone. The effect of barrier draping to decrease dispersion was recorded and analysed.
Barrier draping decreased counts of particles smaller than 5 μ by a factor of 80 in the operating theatre environment. Both particle density and particle count showed a statistically significant reduction with barrier draping (p = 0.027).
Simple barrier drapes were effective in decreasing particle density and particle count in the operating theatre model and can prevent infection in operating theatre personnel.
We prove a “splicing formula” for the LMO invariant, which is the universal finite-type invariant of rational homology three-spheres. Specifically, if a rational homology three-sphere M is obtained by gluing the exteriors of two framed knots
$K_1 \subset M_1$
in rational homology three-spheres, our formula expresses the LMO invariant of M in terms of the Kontsevich–LMO invariants of
. The proof uses the techniques that Bar-Natan and Lawrence developed to obtain a rational surgery formula for the LMO invariant. In low degrees, we recover Fujita’s formula for the Casson–Walker invariant, and we observe that the second term of the Ohtsuki series is not additive under “standard” splicing. The splicing formula also works when each
comes with a link
in addition to the knot
, hence we get a “satellite formula” for the Kontsevich–LMO invariant.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the third leading cause of death among Canadian men. The standard treatment modalities for prostate cancer include prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy or any combination depending on the stage of the tumour. However, several studies have reported that tobacco smoking at the time of diagnosis and during treatment can potentially impact treatment efficacy, outcome and patients quality of life after treatment.
Materials and methods:
This narrative literature review elucidates the impacts of tobacco smoking on prostate cancer progression, treatment efficacy, including its effects on prostatectomy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, risk of cancer recurrence and mortality and quality of life after treatment. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of integrating a smoking cessation programme into the treatment regimen for prostate cancer patients in order to yield more favourable treatment outcomes, reduce risk of recurrence and mortality and increase the quality of life after treatment for prostate cancer patients.
Smoking cessation is one of the most important interventions to prevent cancer and it is also essential after the diagnosis of prostate cancer to improve clinical outcomes. All prostate cancer patients should be advised to quit tobacco use since it can potentially improve treatment response rates and survival, as well as reduce the risk of developing treatment complications and potentially improve the quality of life after treatment. There are several benefits to smoking cessation and it should become an important component of the cancer care continuum in all oncology programmes, starting from prevention of cancer through diagnosis, treatment, survivorship and palliative care. Evidence-based smoking cessation intervention should be sustainably integrated into any comprehensive cancer programme, and the information should be targeted to the specific benefits of cessation in cancer patients.
The association between surgery with general anesthesia (exposure) and cognition (outcome) among older adults has been studied with mixed conclusions. We revisited a recent analysis to provide missing data education and discuss implications of biostatistical methodology for informative dropout following dementia diagnosis.
We used data from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We fit linear mixed effects models (LMMs) to assess the association between anesthesia exposure and subsequent trajectories of cognitive z-scores assuming data missing at random, hypothesizing that exposure is associated with greater decline in cognitive function. Additionally, we used shared parameter models for informative dropout assuming data missing not at random.
A total of 1948 non-demented participants were included. Median age was 79 years, 49% were female, and 16% had MCI at enrollment. Among median follow-up of 4 study visits over 6.6 years, 172 subjects developed dementia, 270 died, and 594 participants underwent anesthesia. In LMMs, exposure to anesthesia was associated with decline in cognitive function over time (change in annual cognitive z-score slope = −0.063, 95% CI: (−0.080, −0.046), p < 0.001). Accounting for informative dropout using shared parameter models, exposure was associated with greater cognitive decline (change in annual slope = −0.081, 95% CI: (−0.137, −0.026), p = 0.004).
We revisited prior work by our group with a focus on informative dropout. Although the conclusions are similar, we demonstrated the potential impact of novel biostatistics methodology in longitudinal clinical research.
Managing diabetes during surgery is complex. Adverse outcomes associated with poor preoperative diabetes management includes higher morbidity and mortality, higher risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycaemia, prolonged inpatient stay, and higher systemic and surgical complications. The author provides a detailed description of pre- and postoperative management of insulin- and noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Two issues relate to prescribing for the surgical patient: managing their previous medication during the metabolically stressful and starved perioperative period, and prescribing drugs required as a consequence of surgery. The author considers both issues, with particular attention paid to perioperative anticoagulation, fluids and analgesia, and prophylaxis.
This mixed-methods study aimed to assess health-related quality of life in young adults with CHD following surgery in a low middle-income country, Pakistan. Despite the knowledge that geographic, cultural and socio-economic factors may shape the way health and illness is experienced and managed and consequently determine a person’s health-related quality of life, few health-related quality of life studies are conducted in low middle-income countries. This deficit is pronounced in CHD, so there is little guidance for patient care.
The study utilised concurrent, mixed methods. Adults with CHD (n = 59) completed health-related quality of life surveys (PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scale, PedsQLTM Cognitive Functioning Scale and PedsQLTM 3.0 Cardiac Module). Semi-structured interview data were collected from a nested sub-sample of 17 participants and analysed using qualitative content analysis, guided by the revised Wilson–Cleary model of health-related quality of life.
The lowest health-related quality of life domain was emotional with the mean score (71.61 ± 20.6), followed by physical (78.81 ± 21.18) and heart problem (79.41 ± 18.05). There was no statistical difference in general or cardiac-specific health-related quality of life between mild, moderate or complex CHD. Qualitative findings suggested low health-related quality of life arose from a reduced capacity to contribute to family life including family income and gender. A sense of reduced marriageability and fear of dependency were important socio-cultural considerations.
CHD surgical patients in this low-income country experience poor health-related quality of life, and contributing factors differ to those reported for high-income countries. Socio-cultural understandings should underpin assessment, management and care-partnering with young adults with CHD following surgical correction.
The use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in surgery is expanding and there is a focus on comprehensively evaluating the clinical impact of this technology. However, although additional costs are one of the main limitations to its use, little is known about its economic impact. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the costs associated with its use and highlight the first quantitative data available.
A systematic literature review was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases and in the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) at the University of York. Studies that reported an assessment of the costs associated with the use of 3D printing for surgical application and published between 2009 and 2019, in English or French, were included.
Nine studies were included in our review. Nine types of costs were identified, the three main ones being printing material costs (n = 6), staff costs (n = 3), and operating room costs (n = 3). The printing cost ranged from less than U.S. dollars (USD) 1 to USD 146 (in USD 2019 values) depending on the criteria used to calculate this cost. Three studies evaluated the potential savings generated by the use of 3D printing technology in surgery, based on operating time reduction.
This literature review highlights the lack of reliable economic data on 3D printing technology. Nevertheless, this review makes it possible to identify expenditures or items that should be considered in order to carry out more robust studies.
Outcome data of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect closure in adults are limited.
A review was made of the inpatients >18 years of age who underwent doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect closure between June 2010 and June 2017.
The patients were categorised into two groups: The valve intervention group consisted of 31 patients who underwent aortic valvuloplasty, aortic valve replacement, or repair of sinus Valsalva aneurysm in addition to doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect closure; non-valvular intervention group comprised 58 patients who underwent only doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect closure. The groups did not differ by sex and age. Patients in the valve intervention group, with a larger ventricular septal defect size, were shorter and tended to be lighter. The valve intervention group had more patients with pneumonia perioperatively. No infective endocarditis and reoperation were noted during the study period. At last follow-up, 91 and 96.6% of the studied patients were free from left ventricle dilation and pulmonary hypertension. In patients without pre-operative aortic regurgitation, 12 developed new mild aortic regurgitation during the follow-up.
About 34.8% of adult patients with doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect required concurrent intervention on aortic valve or sinus Valsalva aneurysm. The midterm results of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect closure in adult patients were favourable. However, the incidence of new mild aortic regurgitation after ventricular septal defect closure was high (27.3%). Long-term follow-up of aortic regurgitation progression is needed.
To evaluate the effect of cosmetic surgery and the stability of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) diagnosis in patients with a minimal defect in appearance, with and without BDD, 5 years after their request for plastic surgery.
Subjects and methods
Thirty patients requesting cosmetic surgery with minimal defect in appearance, of whom 12 had BDD and 18 did not, were re-evaluated 5 years later by telephone interview regarding their cosmetic surgery interventions, satisfaction with the intervention, BDD diagnosis, handicap, and psychiatric comorbidity.
Of the 30 patients, we were able to re-evaluate 24 subjects (80%), 10 with BDD and 14 non-BDD. Seven BDD subjects had undergone cosmetic surgery vs 8 non-BDD. Patient satisfaction with the intervention was high in both groups. Nevertheless at follow-up, 6 of the 7 operated BDD patients still had a BDD diagnosis and exhibited higher levels of handicap and psychiatric comorbidity compared to their non-BDD counterparts. Moreover, 3 non-BDD patients had developed a BDD at follow-up.
This prospective study confirms that cosmetic surgery is not efficient on BDD despite declared patient satisfaction. Cosmetic surgery had no significant effects on BDD diagnosis, handicap or psychiatric comorbidity in BDD patients at 5-year follow-up. Furthermore, BDD appeared at follow-up in some initially non-BDD diagnosed subjects. Patients' declared satisfaction with surgery may contribute to explain why some plastic surgeons may not fully adhere to the contraindication of cosmetic surgery in BDD.
Convolutional neural networks are a subclass of deep learning or artificial intelligence that are predominantly used for image analysis and classification. This proof-of-concept study attempts to train a convolutional neural network algorithm that can reliably determine if the middle turbinate is pneumatised (concha bullosa) on coronal sinus computed tomography images.
Consecutive high-resolution computed tomography scans of the paranasal sinuses were retrospectively collected between January 2016 and December 2018 at a tertiary rhinology hospital in Australia. The classification layer of Inception-V3 was retrained in Python using a transfer learning method to interpret the computed tomography images. Segmentation analysis was also performed in an attempt to increase diagnostic accuracy.
The trained convolutional neural network was found to have diagnostic accuracy of 81 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval: 73.0–89.0 per cent) with an area under the curve of 0.93.
A trained convolutional neural network algorithm appears to successfully identify pneumatisation of the middle turbinate with high accuracy. Further studies can be pursued to test its ability in other clinically important anatomical variants in otolaryngology and rhinology.
This paper aims to report our experience with a minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, performed in a day-surgery setting under local anaesthesia.
A retrospective study of 30 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps was conducted. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 and modified Lund–Kennedy scores were collected. Intra- and post-operative pain was evaluated using a 10-point visual analogue scale.
The mean Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 score decreased from 41.8 ± 15.8 pre-operatively to 13.3 ± 9.5 post-operatively (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the mean endoscopic score decreased from 6.8 ± 1.8 to 0.2 ± 0.7 (p < 0.001). The mean intra-operative pain score was 2.9 ± 3.2, and 29 patients (96.7 per cent) reported no pain in the post-operative period (visual analogue scale score = 0).
Our study confirms that minimally invasive surgery represents a safe, repeatable procedure that results in remarkable subjective and objective improvement, without intra- and post-operative pain or discomfort.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases. China has a high burden of TB and accounted for almost 13% of the world's cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Spinal TB is one reason for the resurgence of TB in China. Few large case studies of MDR spinal TB in China have been conducted. The aim of this research was to observe the epidemiological characteristics of inpatients with MDR spinal TB in six provinces and cities of China from 1999–2015. This is a multicentre retrospective observational study. Patients' information was collected from the control disease centre and infectious disease database of hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. A total of 3137 patients with spinal TB and 272 patients with MDR spinal TB were analysed. The result showed that MDR spinal TB remains a public health concern and commonly affects patients 15–30 years of age (34.19%). The most common lesions involved the thoracolumbar spine (35.66%). Local pain was the most common symptom (98.53%). Logistic analysis showed that for spinal TB patients, reside in rural district (OR 1.79), advanced in years (OR 1.92) and high education degree (OR 2.22) were independent risk factors for the development of MDR spinal TB. Women were associated with a lower risk of MDR spinal TB (OR 0.48). The most common first-line and second-line resistant drug was isoniazid (68.75%) and levofloxacin (29.04%), respectively. The use of molecular diagnosis resulted in noteworthy clinical advances, including earlier initiation of MDR spinal TB treatment, improved infection control and better clinical outcome. Chemotherapy and surgery can yield satisfactory outcomes with timely diagnosis and long-term treatment. These results enable a better understanding of the MDR spinal TB in China among the general public.
Coronary artery fistulas are relatively rare congenital or iatrogenic heart defects that can present with or without symptoms. Symptomatic patients manifest as myocardial ischaemia, arrhythmia, or heart failure. We present a asymptomatic child with a large left anterior descending coronary artery to right ventricular fistula.
Surgical care for the weapon wounded and sick in conflict and disaster zones is clearly defined with internationally accepted guidelines for clinical care, the provision of resources, and infrastructure. This chapter outlines priorities in the organization and delivery of surgical care, with real-life examples of surgical activity in the field and ICRC experience of field hospital surgery. ICRC hospital programmes and surgical standards are summarized.
The world’s most fragile states contain 38% of the world’s population and are among the world’s poorest. In these states up to 10% of all deaths and 20% of deaths among young adults may be attributed to untreated surgical disease, and over 500 000 women die each year during childbirth. International aid organizations have a presence in fragile states notably the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The potential for long-term field missions to address disparities in access to acute trauma, surgical, and obstetric care is not to be underestimated. Every opportunity for training and support of local health care staff is to be valued. The success of long-term deployments rests on sound planning before the implementation of programs and honest appraisal of ongoing programs.