To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Probiotics are being used increasingly in pregnant women, whereas the efficiency on pregnancy outcomes is yet lacking. The meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation in pregnant women based on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched throughout August 2018 to select the RCTs focused on the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation in pregnant women. Relative risks or weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were employed to calculate the summary outcomes. A total of 18 RCTs including 4,356 pregnant women were eligible. The summary RRs indicated that probiotic supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of atopic eczema (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58–0.81; P<0.001) and eczema (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68–0.91; P=0.002) without significant heterogeneity. No significant differences were detected between probiotic and placebo for the incidence of allergic disease (P=0.303), IgE-associated allergic disease (P=0.946), asthma (P=0.501), sensitization (P=0.082), and cesarean section (P=0.091). Probiotic supplementation was associated with a prolonged gestational age (WMD: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.04–0.15; P=0.001) with insignificant heterogeneity, whereas no significant effect was exerted on birth weight (P=0.851). The risk of death (RR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.13–0.91; P=0.031) and necrotizing enterocolitis (RR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18–0.81; P=0.012) was significantly reduced in pregnant women receiving probiotics without evidence of heterogeneity, while the risk of gastrointestinal symptoms (P=0.350), preeclampsia (P=0.165), and sepsis (P=0.532) was not statistically significant. These findings suggested that probiotics in pregnant women were beneficial for atopic eczema, eczema, gestational age, death, and necrotizing enterocolitis.
To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.
This study aimed at analysing how dietary folic acid (FA) and iron deficiency followed by supplementation with these nutrients, affect the expression of folate and iron transporters in the duodenum, as well as FA and iron status. After a deficiency period, Wistar rats were randomized to a group fed with a diet deficient in FA and supplemented with iron (DFE), a diet deficient in iron and supplemented with FA (DFOL), a diet supplemented with iron and FA (FEFOL), a diet deficient in iron and FA (D), or a control diet (C). Tissue collection was performed after 2, 10, or 21 days of these diets. Group D had higher Slc11a2 mRNA levels than the DFE group at every time point and there were differences in mRNA levels of Slc46a1 between the DFE and the FEFOL groups at the third time point, but we observed no differences in protein levels between the groups. The DFE and D groups had lower serum folate concentrations at every time-point, but also had the highest homocysteine concentrations. TIBC concentrations were the lowest in the DFE group at the first time-point and in the DFE and the FEFOL groups at the final time point. Simultaneous supplementation with FA and iron resulted in significantly higher haemoglobin concentrations than did supplementation with these nutrients alone. Our findings indicate that dietary FA and iron deficiency, and subsequent supplementation with these nutrients, affect transcription but not the protein levels of FA and iron transporters in the duodenum.
The competitiveness and sustainability of low input cost dairy production systems are generally supported by efficient use of pasture in the diets. Therefore, pasture intake directly affects overall efficiency of these systems. We aimed to assess feeding and grazing management main factors that affect pasture dry matter intake (DMI) in commercial dairy farms during the different seasons of the year. Fortnightly visits to 28 commercial dairies were carried out between June 2016 and May 2017 to record production and price, supplement offered and price, pasture access time (PAT), herbage mass (HM) and allowance (HA). Only farms with the most contrasting estimated pasture DMI per cow (eDMI) were compared as systems with high (HPI; N = 8) or low (LPI; N = 8) pasture DMI. Despite a lower individual milk production in HPI than LPI (19.0 v. 23.3 ± 0.7 l/cow, P < 0.01), daily margin over feeding cost was not different between groups (3.07 v. 2.93 ± 0.15 U$S/cow for HPI and LPI, respectively). During autumn and winter, HPI cows ingested more pasture than LPI cows (8.3 v. 4.6 and 5.9 v. 2.9 ± 0.55 kg DM/cow per day, respectively, P < 0.01) although PAT, HM and HA were similar between groups. Both groups offered high supplementation levels during these seasons, even though greater in LPI than HPI (14.7 v. 9.7 ± 0.7 kg DM supplement/cow per day, respectively, P < 0.01). On the other hand, differences between groups for both pasture and supplement DMI were more contrasting during spring and summer (13.1 v. 7.3 ± 0.5 and 4.0 v. 11.4 ± 0.4 kg DM/cow per day for HPI and LPI, respectively, P < 0.01), with higher PAT in both seasons (P < 0.05) and higher HA during summer in HPI than LPI (P < 0.01). Unlike LPI, during these seasons HPI adjusted offered supplement according to HA, achieving a higher pasture eDMI and making more efficient use of available pastoral resource than LPI. As there was no grazing limiting condition for pasture harvesting in either group, the main factor affecting pasture DMI was a pasture by supplement substitution effect. These results reinforce the importance of an efficient grazing management, and using supplements to nutritionally complement pasture intake rather than as a direct way to increase milk production.
The modern hyper-prolific sow gives birth to more piglets than she has functional teats (in the following called supernumerary piglets). The aim of the present study was (1) to investigate the production consequences of hyper-prolific sows rearing supernumerary piglets equal to the mean live-born litter size, and (2) investigate whether potential negative effects on survival and growth could be alleviated by providing access to milk replacer and/or providing easier access to the udder (by loose housing). At day 1 (D1) postpartum (pp), 93 litters were standardised to 14 or 17 piglets (LS14/LS17) after which no piglets were moved between sows leading to decreased litter size if piglets died. Litters were provided with or without milk replacer in milk cups (+MILK/−MILK), and sows were either crated or loose housed (CRATE/LOOSE) in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Piglet mortality was higher in LS17 compared to LS14 (P < 0.01; OR = 2.0), higher in −MILK compared to +MILK (P = 0.01; OR = 1.2) and higher in LOOSE compared to CRATE (P = 0.02; OR = 1.8). This study showed that sow rearing of supernumerary piglets while supplying with milk replacer can increase piglet survival. It also showed that early mortality before piglets learned to drink milk replacer posed a challenge using this automatic milk replacer system. An interaction between access to milk replacer and the standardised litter size D1 affected litter weight (P < 0.01) and piglet weight day 28 (D28) (P = 0.03). The highest litter weight D28 was found in LS17 +MILK (P < 0.01) but with a lower individual piglet weight than in LS14 −MILK. Piglet weight D28 was higher in LS14 −MILK compared to LS17 regardless of access to milk replacer. Heterogeneity in piglet weight within litters D28 was larger in LS17 (P = 0.03) but could be reduced with +MILK in CRATE (P < 0.01). No effects were found on sow weight loss and feed intake (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that sows cannot rear the supernumerary piglets without further management interventions to reduce mortality. Supplying supernumerary piglets equal to the mean live-born litter size of hyper-prolific sows with milk replacer can from results of this study be an alternative strategy to the use of nurse sows.
Iodine (I) is a micronutrient that mammals need for proper functionality of thyroid gland since it is the main component of thyroid hormones. Besides studies that have investigated the role of I in livestock nutrition, it is also important to know the transcriptomics changes in small ruminants following I supplementation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of I on the whole blood transcriptome in sheep. Fifteen lactating cross-bred ewes (3 to 4-year-old, 55 to 65 kg BW) at their late lactation period were enrolled in this study. At the beginning, all the animals had a 2-week acclimation period where they were fed with a basal diet which includes an adequate level of I (2 mg I/animal per day) in the form of calcium iodate (CaI2O6). Then, the ewes were randomly divided into two groups and fed in individual troughs: the control group (n = 5) was maintained on basal diet and the experimental group (I, n = 10) was fed for 40 days with a diet containing a high I supplementation (equivalent to 30 mg I/animal per day), in the form of potassium iodide. Whole blood and milk were collected individually at the beginning (T0) and after the 40 days of supplementation (T40). Iodine quantification was assessed in serum and milk sample. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed on whole blood and, filtering data using a fold change >2 with an adjusted P < 0.05, we identified 250 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the I group (T40 v. T0). Looking for biological processes associated with our DEGs, we found significant association with cell growth regulation. Thus, our study unveils the role of I supplementation on gene expression in sheep improving the knowledge about micronutrients in animal nutrition.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is essential for monogastric animals. It is mainly produced by recombinant microorganisms (Candida famata, Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii). The availability of genetically modified organism (GMO)-free riboflavin, obligatory in European organic agriculture, is a major issue. Besides, requirements for organic livestock might differ from conventional production because other genotypes and feed formulations are used. The effects of a fermentation suspension with a high native content of riboflavin produced with unmodified A. gossypii by fermentation were investigated at graded dosages as an alternative to conventional (GMO-based) riboflavin in slow-growing broilers on performance traits and health and welfare indicators. In 2 runs with 800 animals each, Ranger Gold™ broilers were fed with 4 dietary treatments. For starter diets (day 1 to 18), treatments included a basal diet (1) without any riboflavin supplementation (negative control, N-C), (2) with conventional riboflavin supplementation (Cuxavit B2 80% riboflavin) at 9.6 mg/kg (positive control, P-C), (3) with riboflavin supplementation from the alternative source at 3.5 mg/kg (A-low) and (4) with riboflavin supplementation from the alternative source at 9.6 mg/kg (A-high). For the finisher diet (day 29 until slaughtering), P-C and A-high were supplemented with 8.0 mg/kg and A-low with 3.5 mg/kg. Diets were formulated according to organic regulations. Animals were kept in floor pens with 20 chickens per pen. Weekly, BW, feed and water consumption were recorded. Every second week, animal-based health and welfare indicators (feather score and footpad dermatitis) were scored. Slaughter traits were assessed for five males and females per pen at 62/63 days of age. Final body weight of A-high differed from N-C and A-low, but not from P-C. From week 2 until six years of age, A-high had a higher daily weight gain when compared to all other groups. With 74.4%, dressing percentage was higher in A-high compared with all other groups (73.3%). Breast percentage of A-low was lower than that of both control groups but did not differ from A-high. The highest frequency of liver scores indicating fatty liver syndrome was found in P-C, followed by N-C and A-low. Feather scores did not respond to treatment; the highest frequency of mild footpad dermatitis was observed in A-high, however at a low prevalence. In conclusion, the tested fermentation suspension with a high native content of riboflavin derived from fermentation of A. gossypii can be used at levels of commercial recommendations as alternative to riboflavin produced from GMO in broiler feeding. Further studies must verify whether riboflavin can be reduced without inducing riboflavin deficiency in slow-growing broilers.
Fe deficiency (ID) defined as plasma ferritin <12 µg/l is associated with delayed cognitive development in early childhood and increased incidence of infections; however, the longitudinal association between early-life factors and ID in 18-month-old children in Denmark is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ID and to describe risk factors associated with ID in healthy 18-month-old Danish children. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaire data had been obtained in the birth cohort, Odense Child Cohort. The questionnaires were modified from those used in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Plasma ferritin and C-reactive protein in venous, non-fasting samples were analysed in the final sample size of 370 children after exclusion of seventy-nine children due to chronic disease, acute infection, C-reactive protein >10 mg/l, twin birth or prematurity. Associations with ID were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, maternal education, duration of partial breast-feeding and current intake of milk, fish and meat. Overall, fifty-six children had ID (15·1 %). Factors associated with increased risk were exclusive breast-feeding beyond 4 months (OR 5·97; 95 % CI 1·63, 21·86) and no intake of oral Fe supplements from 6 to 12 months (OR 3·99, 95 % CI 1·33, 11·97. Duration of partial breast-feeding and current diet was not associated with ID. In conclusion, the ID prevalence was 15·1 %, and both exclusive breast-feeding beyond 4 months and no intake of oral Fe supplements from 6 to 12 months were associated with increased risk of ID in 18-month-old children.
Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended in the periconceptional period, for the prevention of neural tube defects. Limited data are available on the folate status of New Zealand (NZ) pregnant women and its association with FA supplementation intake. Objectives were to examine the relationship between plasma folate (PF) and reported FA supplement use at 15 weeks’ gestation and to explore socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with PF. We used data and blood samples from NZ participants of the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy (n 1921) were interviewed and blood samples collected. PF was analysed via microbiological assay. Of the participants, 73 % reported taking an FA supplement at 15 weeks’ gestation – of these, 79 % were taking FA as part of/alongside a multivitamin supplement. Of FA supplement users, 56 % reported consuming a daily dose of ≥800 μg; 39 % reported taking less than 400 µg/d. Mean PF was significantly higher in women reporting FA supplementation (54·6 (se 1·5) nmol/l) v. no FA supplementation (35·1 (se 1·6) nmol/l) (P<0·0001). Reported daily FA supplement dose and PF were significantly positively correlated (r 0·41; P<0·05). Younger maternal age, Pacific and Maori ethnicity and obesity were negatively associated with PF levels; vegetarianism was positively associated with PF. Reported FA supplement dose was significantly associated with PF after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle confounders and multivitamin intake. The relationship observed between FA supplementation and PF demonstrates that self-reported intake is a reliable proxy for FA supplement use in this study population.
A number of clinical trials have examined the effect of l-arginine on lipid profile in recent years; however, the results remain equivocal. Therefore, the present study aims to summarise and quantitatively examine the available evidence on the effectiveness l-arginine supplementation on lipid parameters using a systematic review and meta-analytic approach. Online databases including PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2019 for randomised controlled trials that examined the effect of l-arginine supplementation on lipid profile in adults. Treatment effects were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and the corresponding standard error in concentrations of serum lipids. To estimate the overall effect of l-arginine supplementation, we used the random-effects model. In total, twelve studies were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis revealed that l-arginine supplementation did not significantly change the concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: –5·03 mg/dl; 95 % CI –10·78, 0·73; P = 0·08; inconsistency index (I2) = 39·0 %), LDL (WMD: –0·47 mg/dl; 95 % CI –3·61, 2·66; P = 0·76; I2 = 0·0 %), or HDL (WMD: 0·57 mg/dl; 95 % CI –1·28, 2·43; P = 0·54; I2 = 68·4 %). A significant reduction was observed only in serum TAG levels (WMD: –7·04 mg/dl; 95 % CI –11·42, –2·67; P < 0·001; I2 = 0·0 %). This meta-analysis concludes that l-arginine supplementation can significantly reduce blood TAG levels; however, there is insufficient evidence to support its hypocholesterolaemic effects. To draw straightforward conclusions regarding generalised recommendations for l-arginine supplementation for improving lipid profile, there is a need for more well-controlled trials targeting exclusively patients with dyslipidaemia.
Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass/strength) burdens many older adults – hospitalised older adults being particularly vulnerable. Treating the condition, protein supplementation (PrS) and resistance training (RT) may act synergistically. Therefore, this block-randomised, double-blind, multicentre intervention study, recruiting geriatric patients > 70 years from three medical departments, investigated the effect of PrS combined with RT during hospitalisation and 12 weeks after discharge. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive PrS (totally 27·5 g whey protein/d, about 2000 kJ/d) or isoenergetic placebo-products (< 1·5 g protein/d) divided into two servings per d to supplement the habitual diet. Both groups were engaged in a standardised, progressive low-intensity RT programme for the lower extremities (hospital: supervised daily/after discharge: self-training 4×/week). From April 2016 to September 2017, 2351 patients were screened, 462 were eligible, and 165 included. Fourteen were excluded and ten dropped out, leaving 141 participants in the intention-to-treat analysis. The average total protein intake during hospitalisation/after discharge was 1·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·8, 1·3)/1·1 (IQR 0·9, 1·3) g/kg per d (protein-group) and 0·6 (IQR 0·5, 0·8)/0·9 (IQR 0·6, 1·0) g/kg per d (placebo group). Both groups improved significantly for the primary and secondary endpoints of muscle mass/strength, functional measurements and quality of life, but no additional effect of PrS was seen for the primary endpoint (30-s chair stand test, repetitions, median changes from baseline: (standard test: 0 (IQR 0, 5) (protein group) v. 2 (IQR 0, 6) (placebo group) and modified test: 2 (IQR 0, 5) (protein group) v. 2 (IQR −1, 5) (placebo group)) or any secondary endpoints (Mann–Whitney U tests, P > 0·05). In conclusion, PrS increasing the total protein intake by 0·4 and 0·2 g/kg per d during hospitalisation and after discharge, respectively, does not seem to increase the adaptive response to low-intensity RT in geriatric medical patients.
The contribution of milk and dairy products to daily iodine intake is high but variable in many industrialised countries. Factors that affect iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products are only poorly understood. Our aim was to: (1) assess the effect of feed iodine concentration on milk iodine by supplementing five groups of five cows each with one of five dosages from 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM; (2) quantify iodine losses during manufacturing of cheese and yogurt from milk with varying iodine concentrations and assess the effect of cellar-ripening; and (3) systematically measure iodine partitioning during heat treatment and skimming of milk. Milk iodine reached a near-steady state after 3 weeks of feeding. Median milk iodine (17–302 μg/l for 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM) increased linearly with feed iodine (R2 0·96; P < 0·001). At curd separation, 75–84 % of iodine was lost in whey. Dairy iodine increased linearly with milk iodine (semi-hard cheese: R2 0·95; P < 0·001; fresh cheese and yogurt: R2 1·00; P < 0·001), and cellar-ripening had no effect. Heat treatment had no significant effect, whereas skimming increased (P < 0·001) milk iodine concentration by only 1–2 μg/l. Mean daily intake of dairy products by Swiss adults is estimated at 213 g, which would contribute 13–52 % of the adults’ RDA for iodine if cow feed is supplemented with 0·5–2 mg iodine/kg DM. Thus, modulation of feed iodine levels can help achieve desirable iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products, and thereby optimise their contribution to human iodine nutrition to avoid both deficiency and excess.
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids’ co-supplementation on markers of cardiometabolic risk in diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-one vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CHD. At baseline, the range of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in study participants was 6·3–19·9 ng/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups either taking 50 000 IU vitamin D supplements every 2 weeks plus 2× 1000 mg/d n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil (n 30) or placebo (n 31) for 6 months. Vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids’ co-supplementation significantly reduced mean (P = 0·01) and maximum levels of left carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) (P = 0·004), and mean (P = 0·02) and maximum levels of right CIMT (P = 0·003) compared with the placebo. In addition, co-supplementation led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (β −0·40 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·77, −0·03; P = 0·03), insulin (β −1·66 μIU/ml; 95 % CI −2·43, −0·89; P < 0·001), insulin resistance (β −0·49; 95 % CI −0·72, −0·25; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (β −0·21 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·41, −0·01; P = 0·04), and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (β +0·008; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·01; P = 0·001) and HDL-cholesterol (β +0·09 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·17; P = 0·02) compared with the placebo. Additionally, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β −1·56 mg/l; 95 % CI −2·65, −0·48; P = 0·005) was reduced in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group. Overall, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids’ co-supplementation had beneficial effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.
To evaluate the implementation of the national health promotion programme (through nutritional education and Fe supplementation) among female high-school students in Iran and to assess the application of the crosswise model (CM) for evaluating the programme’s implementation.
Two cross-sectional surveys in female high-school students, one using the direct questioning (DQ) method and the other using the CM, were conducted. Two survey questionnaires used to collect the data contained questions about three aspects of the programme: delivering the Fe supplements, consuming them and holding nutritional training sessions.
Female high schools, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
A sample of 2180 students, of whom 1740 were surveyed by the CM and 440 were interviewed by DQ.
The CM resulted in estimates that were consistently lower than the estimates of the DQ. The proportion of students in the DQ and CM who reported receiving the pills weekly and on a regular basis was 73·2 and 22·5 %, respectively. About 43 and 31 % of students in the DQ and CM surveys reported consuming all pills delivered to them. In the DQ method, only 12 % of students who reported the number of pills consumed had taken the complete dose (sixteen pills).
Implementation of the Fe supplementation programme in female high schools was poor and insufficient, so that it seems unsuccessful in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in adolescent girls. The CM might be considered for evaluating the health programme’s implementation at high schools.
While strong evidence from clinical studies suggests beneficial effects of carnitine supplementation on metabolic health, serious safety concerns associated with carnitine supplementation have been raised from studies in mice. Considering that the carnitine doses in these mice studies were up to 100 times higher than those used in clinical studies, the present study aimed to address possible safety concerns associated with long-term supplementation of a carnitine dose used in clinical trials. Two groups of NMRI mice were fed either a control or a carnitine-supplemented diet (1 g/kg diet) from weaning to 19 months of age, and parameters of hepatic lipid metabolism and stress signalling and skeletal muscle gene expression were analysed in the mice at 19 months of age. Concentrations of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine in plasma and tissues were higher in the carnitine than in the control group (P<0·05). Plasma concentrations of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine were higher in mice at adult age (10 and 15 months) than at advanced age (19 months) (P<0·05). Hepatic mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress signalling and hepatic and plasma lipid concentrations did not differ between the carnitine and the control group. Skeletal muscle transcriptome analysis in 19-month-old mice revealed only a moderate regulation between carnitine and control group. Lifelong carnitine supplementation prevents an age-dependent impairment of plasma carnitine status, but safety concerns associated with long-term supplementation of carnitine at doses used in clinical trials can be considered as unfounded.
A growing number of studies have explored overall health during ageing in a holistic manner by investigating multidimensional models of healthy ageing (HA). However, little attention has been given to the role of adherence to national nutrition guidelines in that context. This study aimed to investigate the prospective association between adherence to the French nutrition guidelines and HA. The authors analysed data from 21 407 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study with a median baseline age of 55·6 years (2009–2014) and initially free of major chronic diseases. HA was defined as not developing major chronic disease, no depressive symptoms, no function-limiting pain, independence in instrumental activities of daily living, good physical, cognitive and social functioning, as well as good self-perceived health. Adherence to guidelines of the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé or PNNS) was measured via the PNNS Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), using baseline data from repeated 24-h dietary records and physical activity questionnaires. After a median follow-up of 5·7 years, 46·3 % of participants met our HA criteria. Robust-error-variance Poisson regression revealed that higher PNNS-GS scores, reflecting higher adherence to nutrition recommendations (including both diet and physical activity guidelines), were associated with a higher probability to age healthily (relative riskquartile 4 v. quartile 1 = 1·17 (95 % CI 1·12, 1·22)). Supplementary analyses revealed that this association may, to a small part, be mediated by weight status. The results suggest that high adherence to the French national nutrition recommendations may be linked to better overall health throughout ageing.
One of the challenges with initiating long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic regimens is achieving relevant drug levels quickly. After first injection of the LAI antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL), the lag to reaching relevant plasma aripiprazole levels was initially addressed using supplemental oral aripiprazole for 21 days. A 1-day AL initiation regimen using a NanoCrystal® Dispersion formulation of AL (ALNCD; Aristada Initio®) combined with a single 30 mg dose of oral aripiprazole has been developed as an alternative approach. We compared the 1-day AL initiation regimen (ALNCD + 30 mg oral aripiprazole for 1 day) with the 21-day AL initiation regimen (AL + 15 mg/day of oral aripiprazole for 21 days) using kinetic modeling. Observed and modeled data demonstrate that the 1-day AL initiation regimen provides continuous aripiprazole exposure comparable to the 21-day AL initiation regimen. Each component of the 1-day AL initiation regimen (30 mg oral aripiprazole, ALNCD, and AL) contributes to aripiprazole plasma levels at different times, with oral aripiprazole predominating in the first week, then ALNCD and AL over time. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study in patients with schizophrenia, the 1-day initiation regimen resulted in rapid achievement of relevant plasma aripiprazole levels comparable to those from the 21-day initiation regimen. Safety and tolerability of the 1-day regimen were consistent with the known profile of aripiprazole. Each part of the 1-day initiation regimen, together with AL, is necessary for continuous aripiprazole exposure from treatment initiation until the next regularly scheduled AL injection is administered.
Supplementation of methionine (Met) in broiler chicken diets is essential to support productive performance and optimise carcass yield. Met is the first limiting amino acid in corn and soybean-meal based diets for poultry. The DL-Met form is the main source used in broiler diets, but other sources such as acid free hydroxy-analogous methionine (HMA-FA) are available. Studies have indicated that the molar bioequivalence of HMA-FA is approximately 88% compared with DL-Met at 99% for growth traits. However, differences in absorption and metabolism between Met sources can influence their efficacy, especially when broilers are exposed to high temperatures. The substitution of DL-Met by HMA-FA is a potential strategy to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress because it is passively absorbed in the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract. This review highlights the effects of substituting HMA-FA for DL-Met in diets for broiler chickens reared in different thermal environments.
The effect of 38 µg (1500 IU) daily vitamin D3 supplementation, consumed with an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal for 8 weeks, on haematological indicators in Fe-deficient female subjects was investigated. Fifty Fe-deficient subjects (plasma ferritin concentration <20 µg/l; mean age: 27·4 (sd 9·4) years) were randomised to consume an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal containing 9 mg of Fe daily, with either a vitamin D3 supplement or placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline, interim (4 weeks) and post-intervention (8 weeks) for measurement of Fe and vitamin D status biomarkers. The effect of intervention was analysed using mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVA. Significant increases were observed in two main haematological indices: Hb concentration and haematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention in the vitamin D group but not in the placebo group. The increase from baseline to post-intervention in Hb concentration in the vitamin D group (135 (sd 11) to 138 (sd 10) g/l) was significantly higher compared with the placebo group (131 (sd 15) to 128 (sd 13) g/l) (P=0·037). The increase in haematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention was also significantly higher in the vitamin D group (42·0 (sd 3·0) to 43·8 (sd 3·4) %) compared with the placebo group (41·2 (sd 4·3) to 40·7 (sd 3·6) %) (P=0·032). Despite the non-significant changes in plasma ferritin concentration, this study demonstrates that 38 µg supplemental vitamin D, consumed daily, with Fe-fortified breakfast cereal led to improvement in Hb concentration and haematocrit levels in women with low Fe stores. These findings may have therapeutic implications in the recovery of Fe status in Fe-deficient populations at a healthcare level.
Many factors, including pathogens, environmental change and breeding techniques, affect honeybee immunity/resistance, so substances and natural supplements that enhance it are desired. To eliminate the impact of unknown external factors, in 2016 a cage experiment was conducted under constant laboratory conditions (35 °C, 65% relative humidity). Bees in the control group were fed with sugar dissolved in water at ratio 1:1 ad libitum with no additives, while the other group was fed with sugar syrup (1:1) supplemented with piperine (3 µg/ml) ad libitum. The piperine-treated workers lived 9 days longer compared to the control group. In the piperine-consuming group, protein concentration and the activities of antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were higher than in the control group. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also higher in the piperine-treated group. Neutral and acidic proteases inhibitors, as well as neutral protease activities, were higher in the haemolymph of the piperine-treated workers than in untreated bees. Acidic protease activities in the haemolymph were higher in untreated workers only on days 18 and 32. Alkaline protease activities in the control bees were higher from day 10. From 10 days old, the total antioxidant capacity level was significantly higher in the haemolymph of piperine-treated workers. Piperine decreased DNA methylation levels significantly in the older bees. The compound could have the potential to be a natural diet supplement increasing apian resistance to stress factors.