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This study aimed to evaluate the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior associated with vortioxetine treatment in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Suicide-related events were evaluated post hoc using 2 study pools: one short-term pool of 10 randomized, placebo-controlled studies (6–8 weeks) and another long-term pool that included 3 open-label extension studies (52 weeks). Evaluation of suicide-related events was performed using Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) scores and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) data.
At baseline, the percentage of patients reporting any C-SSRS ideation or behavior events in short-term studies was similar between placebo (14.7%), vortioxetine (19.8%, 13.0%, 11.2%, and 13.7% for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-mg groups, respectively), and duloxetine active reference (13.2%) and did not change throughout the 6- to 8-week treatment period for placebo (17.0%), vortioxetine (19.3%, 13.5%, 12.6%, and 15% for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-mg groups, respectively), or duloxetine (11.3%). The incidence of suicide-related events for TEAEs in the short-term pool was 0.4% for placebo, 0.2% or 1.0% for vortioxetine 5 mg or 10 mg, and 0.7% each for vortioxetine 15 mg and 20 mg, as well as duloxetine. After 52-week treatment with vortioxetine, suicidal ideation based on C-SSRS was 9.8%, C-SSRS suicidal behavior was 0.2%, and the incidence of suicide-related events based on TEAEs was <1%. There were no completed suicides in any study.
Vortioxetine is not associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation or behavior in MDD patients.
The first aim of this study was to provide prevalence suicidal feelings over time (past week, past month, past year and lifetime) in a population-based sample of old to very old adults without dementia. Does prevalence change with rising age? The second aim was to examine the fluctuation of suicidal feelings over time. How does this coincide with depression status?
Data were derived from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) which are multidisciplinary longitudinal studies on ageing. A representative sample of adults in Gothenburg, Sweden with birth years 1901–1944 were invited to take part in a longitudinal health study on ageing and participated at one or more occasions during 1986–2014. The sample consisted of 6668 observations originating from 3972 participants without dementia between the ages of 70 and 108, including 1604 participants with multiple examination times. Suicidal feelings were examined during a psychiatric interview using the Paykel questions (life not worth living, death wishes, thoughts of taking own life, seriously considered taking life, attempted suicide).
Prevalence figures for suicidal feelings of any severity were as follows: past week 4.8%, past month 6.7%, past year 11.2% and lifetime 25.2%. Prevalence rates increased with age in the total group and in women but not in men. Suicidal feelings were common in participants with concurrent major or minor depression, but over a third of the participants who reported suicidal feelings did not fulfil criteria for these diagnoses nor did they present elevated mean depressive symptom scores. The majority of participants consistently reported no experience of suicidal feelings over multiple examination times, but fluctuation was more common in women compared with men.
Suicidal feelings in late-life are uncommon in individuals without depression indicating that such behaviour is not a widespread, normative phenomenon. However, such feelings may occur outside the context of depression.
Although there are extensive data on clinical psychopathology in youth with suicidal ideation, data are lacking regarding their neurocognitive function.
To characterise the cognitive profile of youth with suicidal ideation in a community sample and evaluate gender differences and pubertal status effects.
Participants (N = 6151, age 11–21 years, 54.9% females) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a non-help-seeking community sample, underwent detailed clinical evaluation. Cognitive phenotyping included executive functioning, episodic memory, complex reasoning and social cognitive functioning. We compared participants with suicidal ideation (N = 672) and without suicidal ideation (N = 5479). Regression models were employed to evaluate differences in cognitive performance and functional level, with gender and pubertal status as independent variables. Models controlled for lifetime depression or general psychopathology, and for covariates including age and socioeconomic status.
Youth with suicidal ideation showed greater psychopathology, poorer level of function but better overall neurocognitive performance. Greater functional impairment was observed in females with suicidal ideation (suicidal ideation × gender interaction, t = 3.091, P = 0.002). Greater neurocognition was associated with suicidal ideation post-puberty (suicidal ideation × puberty interaction, t = 3.057, P = 0.002). Exploratory analyses of specific neurocognitive domains showed that suicidal ideation-associated cognitive superiority was more prominent in post-pubertal males compared with females (Cohen's d = 0.32 and d = 0.11, respectively) across all cognitive domains.
Suicidal ideation was associated with poorer functioning yet better cognitive performance, especially in post-pubertal males, as measured by a comprehensive cognitive battery. Findings point to gender and pubertal-status specificity in the relationship between suicidal ideation, cognition and function in youth.
Declaration of interest
R.B. serves on the scientific board and reports stock ownership in ‘Taliaz Health’, with no conflict of interest relevant to this work. M.A.O. receives royalties for the commercial use of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale from the Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene. Her family owns stock in Bristol-Myers Squibb. All other authors declare no potential conflict of interest.
Veterans are at high risk for suicide; emotion dysregulation may confer additional risk. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a well-supported intervention for suicide attempt reduction in individuals with emotion dysregulation, but is complex and multi-component. The skills group component of DBT (DBT-SG) has been associated with reduced suicidal ideation and emotion dysregulation. DBT-SG for Veterans at risk for suicide has not been studied.
This study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of DBT-SG in Veterans and to gather preliminary evidence for its efficacy in reducing suicidal ideation and emotion dysregulation and increasing coping skills.
Veterans with suicidal ideation and emotion dysregulation (N = 17) enrolled in an uncontrolled pilot study of a 26-week DBT-SG as an adjunct to mental health care-as-usual.
Veterans attended an average 66% of DBT-SG sessions. Both Veterans and their primary mental health providers believed DBT-SG promoted Veterans’ use of coping skills to reduce suicide risk, and they were satisfied with the treatment. Paired sample t-tests comparing baseline scores with later scores indicated suicidal ideation and emotion dysregulation decreased at post-treatment (d = 1.88, 2.75, respectively) and stayed reduced at 3-month follow-up (d = 2.08, 2.59, respectively). Likewise, skillful coping increased at post-treatment (d = 0.85) and was maintained at follow-up (d = 0.91).
An uncontrolled pilot study indicated DBT-SG was feasible, acceptable, and demonstrated potential efficacy in reducing suicidal ideation and emotion dysregulation among Veterans. A randomized controlled study of DBT-SG with Veterans at risk for suicide is warranted.
There is little investigation on the interaction effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in community adolescent populations, or gender differences in these effects.
To examine the individual and interaction effects of ACEs and social support on NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents, and explore gender differences.
A school-based health survey was conducted in three provinces in China between 2013–2014. A total of 14 820 students aged 10–20 years completed standard questionnaires, to record details of ACEs, social support, NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt.
Of included participants, 89.4% reported one or more category of ACEs. The 12-month prevalence of NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 26.1%, 17.5% and 4.4%, respectively; all were significantly associated with increased ACEs and lower social support. The multiple adjusted odds ratio of NSSI in low versus high social support was 2.27 (95% CI 1.85–2.67) for girls and 1.81 (95% CI 1.53–2.14) for boys, and their ratio (Ratio of two odds ratios, ROR) was 1.25 (P = 0.037). Girls with high ACEs scores (5–6) and moderate or low social support also had a higher risk of suicide attempt than boys (RORs: 2.34, 1.84 and 2.02, respectively; all P < 0.05).
ACEs and low social support are associated with increased risk of NSSI and suicidality in Chinese adolescents. Strategies to improve social support, particularly among female adolescents with a high number of ACEs, should be an integral component of targeted mental health interventions.
Sexual minority youth have elevated suicidal ideation and self-harm compared with heterosexual young people; however, evidence for mediating mechanisms is predominantly cross-sectional. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated self-esteem and depressive symptoms as mediators of increased rates of suicidal ideation or self-harm (SISH) among sexual minority youth, and the roles of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) and sex as moderators of these relationships.
In total, 4274 youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort reported sexual orientation at age 15 years, and past-year SISH at age 20 years. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 17 and 18 years, respectively. CGN was measured at 30–57 months. Covariates included sociodemographic variables and earlier measures of mediator and outcome variables. Mediation pathways were assessed using structural equation modelling.
Sexual minority youth (almost 12% of the sample) were three times more likely than heterosexual youth to report past-year SISH (95% confidence interval 2.43–3.64) at 20 years. Two mediation pathways were identified: a single mediator pathway involving self-esteem and a multiple-mediated pathway involving self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Although CGN was associated with past-year SISH, it did not moderate any mediation pathways and there was no evidence for moderation by sex.
Lower self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms partly explain the increased risk for later suicidal ideation and self-harm in sexual minority youth. Preventive strategies could include self-esteem-enhancing or protecting interventions, especially in female sexual minority youth, and treatment of depression.
Objectives: Suicidal ideation (SI) is highly prevalent in Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and multiple mTBIs impart even greater risk for poorer neuropsychological functioning and suicidality. However, little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that may confer increased risk of suicidality in this population. Thus, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functioning and suicidality and specifically whether lifetime mTBI burden would moderate relationships between cognitive functioning and suicidal ideation. Methods: Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans with a history of mTBI seeking outpatient services (N = 282) completed a clinical neuropsychological assessment and psychiatric and postconcussive symptom questionnaires. Results: Individuals who endorsed SI reported more severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and postconcussive symptoms and exhibited significantly worse memory performance compared to those who denied SI. Furthermore, mTBI burden interacted with both attention/processing speed and memory, such that poorer performance in these domains was associated with greater likelihood of SI in individuals with a history of three or more mTBIs. The pattern of results remained consistent when controlling for PTSD, depression, and postconcussive symptoms. Conclusions: Slowed processing speed and/or memory difficulties may make it challenging to access and use past experiences to solve current problems and imagine future outcomes, leading to increases in hopelessness and SI in veterans with three or more mTBIs. Results have the potential to better inform treatment decisions for veterans with history of multiple mTBIs. (JINS, 2019, 25, 79–89)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high risk of suicide. Conventional neuroimaging works showed abnormalities of static brain activity and connectivity in MDD with suicidal ideation (SI). However, little is known regarding alterations of brain dynamics. More broadly, it remains unclear whether temporal dynamics of the brain activity could predict the prognosis of SI.
We included MDD patients (n = 48) with and without SI and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 30) who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We first assessed dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (dALFF) – a proxy for intrinsic brain activity (iBA) – using sliding-window analysis. Furthermore, the temporal variability (dynamics) of iBA was quantified as the variance of dALFF over time. In addition, the prediction of the severity of SI from temporal variability was conducted using a general linear model.
Compared with MDD without SI, the SI group showed decreased brain dynamics (less temporal variability) in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the left orbital frontal cortex, the left inferior temporal gyrus, and the left hippocampus. Importantly, these temporal variabilities could be used to predict the severity of SI (r = 0.43, p = 0.03), whereas static ALFF could not in the current data set.
These findings suggest that alterations of temporal variability in regions involved in executive and emotional processing are associated with SI in MDD patients. This novel predictive model using the dynamics of iBA could be useful in developing neuromarkers for clinical applications.
Prior research has documented shared heritable contributions to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) as well as NSSI and suicide attempt (SA). In addition, trauma exposure has been implicated in risk for NSSI and suicide. Genetically informative studies are needed to determine common sources of liability to all three self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, and to clarify the nature of their associations with traumatic experiences.
Multivariate biometric modeling was conducted using data from 9526 twins [59% female, mean age = 31.7 years (range 24–42)] from two cohorts of the Australian Twin Registry, some of whom also participated in the Childhood Trauma Study and the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Project.
The prevalences of high-risk trauma exposure (HRT), NSSI, SI, and SA were 24.4, 5.6, 27.1, and 4.6%, respectively. All phenotypes were moderately to highly correlated. Genetic influences on self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and HRT were significant and highly correlated among men [rG = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.37–0.81)] and women [rG = 0.56 (0.49–0.63)]. Unique environmental influences were modestly correlated in women [rE = 0.23 (0.01–0.45)], suggesting that high-risk trauma may confer some direct risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among females.
Individuals engaging in NSSI are at increased risk for suicide, and common heritable factors contribute to these associations. Preventing trauma exposure may help to mitigate risk for self-harm and suicide, either directly or indirectly via reductions in liability to psychopathology more broadly. In addition, targeting pre-existing vulnerability factors could significantly reduce risk for life-threatening behaviors among those who have experienced trauma.
Sleep problems are a modifiable risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Yet, sparse research has examined temporal relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and psychological factors implicated in suicide, such as entrapment. This is the first in-the-moment investigation of relationships between suicidal ideation, objective and subjective sleep parameters, and perceptions of entrapment.
Fifty-one participants with current suicidal ideation completed week-long ecological momentary assessments. An actigraph watch was worn for the duration of the study, which monitored total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep latency. Daily sleep diaries captured subjective ratings of the same sleep parameters, with the addition of sleep quality. Suicidal ideation and entrapment were measured at six quasi-random time points each day. Multi-level random intercept models and moderation analyses were conducted to examine the links between sleep, entrapment, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for anxiety and depression severity.
Analyses revealed a unidirectional relationship whereby short sleep duration (both objective and subjective measures), and poor sleep quality, predicted the higher severity of next-day suicidal ideation. However, there was no significant association between daytime suicidal ideation and sleep the following night. Sleep quality moderated the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening levels of suicidal ideation.
This is the first study to report night-to-day relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and entrapment. Findings suggest that sleep quality may alter the strength of the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening suicidal ideation. Clinically, results underscore the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbance when working with those experiencing suicidal ideation.
In recent years, suicide rates have increased in adolescents and the young population, so these age groups are considered as populations at risk. Considering that suicidal ideation is the first sign of possible future suicide behavior, the objective of this study is to determine the relative importance of psychological maturity, personality, depression and life satisfaction in predicting suicidal ideation in adolescents. Results show that depressive symptoms is the variable that best predicts suicidal ideation, but psychological maturity, life satisfaction and emotional stability are predictors as well (R2 = .51, p < .001). However, the Multigroup Structural Equation Models analyses carried out show that emotional stability has an indirect relationship with suicidal ideation, through its relationship with depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and identity. Two Multigroup Structural Equation Models were proposed to better understand the relationships between these variables for each sex. The results show that the fit of the model that includes the variable Self-reliance is better for boys than for girls (chi-square contributions of 8.175 for girls and 1.978 for boys) unlike the other model (chi-square contributions of 0.288 for girls and 1.650 for boys). These results suggest that the psychological maturity subscale Self-reliance play a role in suicidal ideation in males but not in females. Although there have been no previous studies on the role of psychological maturity as a predictor of suicidal phenomena, the current study suggests that it is a feature to be considered in the prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation.
Older people have a high risk of suicide but research in this area has been largely neglected. Unlike for younger age groups, it remains unclear what strategies for prevention exist for older adults. This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of interventions to prevent suicidal behavior and reduce suicidal ideation in this age group.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for relevant publications from their dates of inception until 1 April 2016. Studies included in this review report effectiveness data about interventions delivered to older adults to prevent suicidal behavior (suicide, attempted suicide, and self-harm without suicidal intent) or reduce suicidal ideation. A narrative synthesis approach was used to analyze data and present findings.
Twenty one studies met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Most programs addressed risk predictors, specifically depression. Effective interventions were multifaceted primary care-based depression screening and management programs; treatment interventions (pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy); telephone counseling for vulnerable older adults; and community-based programs incorporating education, gatekeeper training, depression screening, group activities, and referral for treatment. Most of the studies were of low quality apart from the primary care-based randomized controlled trials.
Multifaceted interventions directed at primary care physicians and populations, and at-risk elderly individuals in the community may be effective at preventing suicidal behavior and reducing suicidal ideation in older adults. However, more high quality trials are needed to demonstrate successful interventions.
To evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on suicidal ideation and behavior in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Post hoc analyses were conducted in patients from 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and a long-term, open-label extension study of levomilnacipran ER (40-120 mg/d) in adults with MDD. Analyses included incidence of suicide-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); incidence of Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) suicidal ideation (score=1–5) and behavior (score=6-10); percent of patients who shifted from no C-SSRS suicidal ideation/behavior at baseline to suicidal ideation during treatment (worsened from score=0 to score=1–5), or vice-versa (improved from score=1-5 to score=0).
Suicide-related TEAEs occurred in<1% of patients in the levomilnacipran ER studies. The incidence of C-SSRS suicidal ideation was 22.2%, 23.9%, and 21.7% for placebo, short-term levomilnacipran ER, and long-term levomilnacipran ER, respectively; C-SSRS suicidal behavior was<1% in all of these groups. In the short-term studies, the percentage of patients with C-SSRS shifts were as follows: worsening from score=0 to score=1–5 (placebo, 8.6%; levomilnacipran ER, 11.0%); improvement from score=1–5 to score=0 (placebo, 24.0%; levomilnacipran ER, 27.7%).
In adult MDD patients, the incidence of suicidal ideation and behavior was similar between placebo and short-term levomilnacipran ER as indicated by TEAE reports and C-SSRS scores. Worsening in C-SSRS scores was also similar between placebo and levomilnacipran ER. There was no indication of increased suicidality during longer courses of continued therapy. Together, these findings suggest that this medication is not associated with increased risks of suicidal ideation or behavior.
There is a genetic contribution to the risk of suicide, but sparse prior research on the genetics of suicidal ideation.
Active and passive suicidal ideation were assessed in a Sri Lankan population-based twin registry (n = 3906 twins) and a matched non-twin sample (n = 2016). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations with socio-demographic factors, environmental exposures and psychiatric symptoms. The heritability of suicidal ideation was assessed using structural equation modelling.
The lifetime prevalence of any suicidal ideation was 13.0% (11.7–14.3%) for men; 21.8% (20.3–23.2%) for women, with no significant difference between twins and non-twins. Factors that predicted suicidal ideation included female gender, termination of marital relationship, low education level, urban residence, losing a parent whilst young, low standard of living and stressful life events in the preceding 12 months. Suicidal ideation was strongly associated with depression, but also with abnormal fatigue and alcohol and tobacco use. The best fitting structural equation model indicated a substantial contribution from genetic factors (57%; CI 47–66) and from non-shared environmental factors (43%; CI 34–53) in both men and women. In women this genetic component was largely mediated through depression, but in men there was a significant heritable component to suicidal ideation that was independent of depression.
These are the first results to show a genetic contribution to suicidal ideation that is independent of depression outside of a high-income country. These phenomena may be generalizable, because previous research highlights similarities between the aetiology of mental disorders in Sri Lanka and higher-income countries.
Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology.
The present study used the CONVERGE study, a sample of 5864 women with major depressive disorder (MD) and 5783 women without MD throughout China. Diagnoses, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Neuroticism was assessed with the neuroticism portion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
Results replicate prior findings on the correlates of suicidal ideation, particularly elevated neuroticism among individuals who report prior suicidal ideation. Moreover, as compared with individuals who reported having experienced only suicidal ideation, neuroticism was associated with decreased likelihood of having attempted suicide.
The association of neuroticism with suicidality is more complicated than has been previously described. Whereas neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism may decrease risk for a suicide attempt among individuals with suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the assessment of risk for a suicide attempt among individuals who report suicidal ideation and addresses prior discordant findings by clarifying the association between neuroticism and attempted suicide.
Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC.
Twelve-month prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were established through community samples (n = 6689) and primary care attendees (n = 6470) from districts in Ethiopia, Uganda, South Africa, India and Nepal using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview suicidality module. Participants were also screened for depression and alcohol use disorder.
We found that one out of ten persons (10.3%) presenting at primary care facilities reported suicidal ideation within the past year, and 1 out of 45 (2.2%) reported attempting suicide in the same period. The range of suicidal ideation was 3.5–11.1% in community samples and 5.0–14.8% in health facility samples. A higher proportion of facility attendees reported suicidal ideation than community residents (10.3 and 8.1%, respectively). Adults in the South African facilities were most likely to endorse suicidal ideation (14.8%), planning (9.5%) and attempts (7.4%). Risk profiles associated with suicidal behaviour (i.e. being female, younger age, current mental disorders and lower educational and economic status) were highly consistent across countries.
The high prevalence of suicidal ideation in primary care points towards important opportunities to implement suicide risk reduction initiatives. Evidence-supported strategies including screening and treatment of depression in primary care can be implemented through the World Health Organization's mental health Global Action Programme suicide prevention and depression treatment guidelines. Suicidal ideation and behaviours in the community sample will require detection strategies to identify at risks persons not presenting to health facilities.
Researchers sought to determine the extent to which burden related to patients' symptom subtypes could predict informal hospice caregiver depression, and to illustrate the differences between caregivers who experience suicidal ideation and those who do not.
Informal caregivers recruited from a not-for-profit community-based hospice agency participated in a cross-sectional survey. Self-report questionnaires assessed caregiver burden associated with patient symptomatology (via a modified version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale–Short Form) and caregiver depressive symptoms, including suicidal ideation (measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire–9). Multiple regressions evaluated the unique predictability of patients' symptom subtypes on caregiver depression. Exploratory analyses examined mean differences of study variables between participants who did and did not endorse suicidal ideation.
Caregiver burden related to patients' psychological symptoms accounted for significant variance in caregiver depression scores when controlling for burden related to physical symptoms. Among 229 caregivers (M age = 61.4 years), 12 reported suicidal ideation, where 6 of the 12 were male, despite male caregivers comprising less than 20% of the total sample.
Significance of results:
Burden associated with patients' psychological symptoms uniquely contributed to caregiver depression, further highlighting the clinical utility and necessity for hospice providers to address the emotional needs of patients and their caregivers alike. Developing clinical procedures to identify and respond to such needs would not only behoove hospice agencies, but it would likely enhance the caregiving experience holistically, which might be particularly imperative for male caregivers.
The effect of life stress on suicidal symptoms during adolescence is well documented. Stressful life events can trigger suicidality, but most adolescents are resilient and it is unclear which factors protect against the deleterious impact of stress. Social support is thought to be one such factor. Therefore, we investigated the buffering effect of specific sources of social support (parental and peer) on life stress (interpersonal and non-interpersonal) in predicting suicidal symptoms during adolescence. In order to test the specificity of this stress buffering, we also examined it with regard to dysphoric mood.
Data come from the Adolescent Development of Emotions and Personality Traits (ADEPT) Project, a cohort of 550 adolescent females aged 13.5–15.5 recruited from Long Island. Self-reported social support, suicidality, and dysphoria were assessed at baseline and suicidality and dysphoria were assessed again at 9-month follow-up. Life stress was assessed by interview at the follow-up.
High levels of parental support protected adolescent girls from developing suicidal symptoms following a stressor. This effect was less pronounced for peer support. Also, social support did not buffer the pathogenic effects of non-interpersonal stress. Finally, social support did not buffer the effect of life stress on dysphoric symptoms.
Altogether, our results highlight a distinct developmental pathway for the development of suicidal symptoms involving parental support that differs from the development of dysphoria, and signifies the importance and specificity of social support in protecting against suicidality in adolescent girls.
Suicide rates are high among elderly individuals experiencing socioeconomic insecurity. Socioeconomic security is of critical importance for elderly individuals and directly affects mental health, including suicidal behavior. Thus, we investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status and suicidal ideation in elderly individuals.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on 58,590 individuals 65 years of age or older from the Korean Community Health Survey 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify relationships between socioeconomic factors (food insecurity, household income, and living arrangement) and suicidal ideation in the elderly population.
The study included 58,590 participants (24,246 males and 34,344 females). Of those, 2,847 males and 6,418 females experienced suicidal ideation. Participants with food insecure were more likely to experience suicidal ideation than were those who were food secure (males: OR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.34–1.90; females: OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.38–1.72). We found a similar pattern among participants with a low household income and those living alone. Additionally, male and female subjects who were food insecure and living alone or food insecure and had a low household income showed a marked increase in suicidal ideation.
Our findings suggest that low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation among the elderly. Furthermore, intervention programs that address the prevalence of elderly suicide, particularly among those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged, are needed.
Bullying is a common problem in school. Engagement in bullying has been known to have many adverse effects, even including suicide. Examining which factor will moderate or mediate the pathway from victimisation to suicidal ideation is needed to develop effective intervention initiatives. This study aimed to examine the mediator and moderator roles of perceived social support in the relationship between victimisation and suicidal ideation. The participants in the study were 946 Chinese adolescents (402 girls, 544 boys) who ranged in age from 11 to 16 years old. The results showed that 48.1% of these adolescents reported being bullied in school. Victimisation was positively correlated with suicidal ideation. There was evidence that perceived social support buffered, as well as partially mediated, the relationship between victimisation and suicidal ideation. Results suggest that helping students to seek more support from their parents and peers may be an effective bullying intervention program.