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This chapter shows that in spite of her dominant position in commercial magazines of the late Pahlavi era, "the western woman" was also discursively constituted as the nemesis of the Iranian woman in the competition over the heart of the “eastern man.” The discussion in this chapter is framed by the heated public debate evoked by a 1965 bill to cancel the passports or revoke the citizenship of Iranian students who married foreign women. Backed by a trove of popular materials from the 1970s (including literature and films), the chapter addresses the cultural formation of "the western woman” and "the modern Iranian man” in the context of Iran’s brain drain, fears of cultural assimilation, and the sense that educated, modern Iranian men were being lost as a result of mixed marriages. This discussion is especially intriguing considering the fact that Mohammad Reza Shah’s first marriage to a foreign princess, Queen Fawziya of Egypt, was followed by his second marriage to Soraya, daughter of a German mother and an Iranian father.
There is growing concern over a future shortfall in provision of UK otolaryngology consultants. There is a declining rate of applications to otolaryngology specialty training in the UK.
This study aimed to systematically review the literature to establish what factors influence medical students’ and junior doctors’ decision to pursue a career in otolaryngology.
Medline, Embase and PubMed databases were searched in January 2019. Additional manual reference checks of identified literature were performed.
Eleven articles were included in the review. Common factors that positively influenced the decision to pursue a career in otolaryngology were exposure to the specialty, positive role models and a good work-life balance. Lack of exposure was a consistent deterrent from pursuing a career in otolaryngology.
This review reiterates the need for greater exposure to otolaryngology in the undergraduate curriculum. In addition, mentorship for students with an interest in otolaryngology should be a priority.
Emergencies frequently happen and sometimes their victims are school students. School age children and adolescents may be more vulnerable to life events and require more attention than adults, depending on the stage of their growth. The private elementary school of Osveh Hasaneh in Zahedan, Iran, caught fire on December 18, 2018, at 9:00 AM, where 4 students were killed. This school fire is the highest rate of mortality in Iran in terms of the number of student deaths. Considering the repeated nature of such incidents in Iranian schools, it is necessary to increase the awareness of risk of fire in schools to promote a culture of fire prevention in society.
Increasing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) awareness and decreasing stigmatic beliefs among the general public are core goals of National Dementia Strategy programs. College students are one of the most important targeted populations for achieving this goal. The aim of the current study was to examine AD public stigma among Israeli and Greek college students.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among college students in Israel and Greece using vignette methodology.
Seven hundred and fifty three college students – 213 Israeli and 540 Greek – participated in the study.
Three dimensions of stigma were assessed (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) together with health beliefs regarding AD and socio-demographic characteristics.
Low levels of stigma were found in both samples, with Israeli students reporting statistically significant higher levels of stigmatic beliefs than Greek students in all the dimensions, except with willingness to help. Similar to stigma in the area of mental illness, the findings in both countries supported an attributional model for AD public stigma, i.e. positive correlations were found among cognitive attributions, negative emotions, and discriminatory behaviors in both countries. Differences between the countries emerged as a significant determinant of cognitive, as well as of negative emotions and willingness to help.
Our findings might help researchers and clinicians to apply the knowledge gained in the area of mental illness to the development of effective ways of reducing AD public stigma. Moreover, they allowed us to frame the understanding of AD public stigma within a socio-cultural context.
This study examines the gender dimension of the brain drain in Turkey, drawing on the results of an online survey to argue that the gender inequality present in sending countries can serve as a push factor in women's decisions to migrate and return or not return. The results indicate that the gender gap in the labor market in Turkey is an important factor in shaping the return intentions of female Turkish professionals and students living abroad. The findings reveal a gender gap in return intentions independent of other main factors, such as age, field of study/occupation, or duration of stay.
This study provides an in-depth examination of the understanding and implementation of cognitive–behavioural approaches (CBA) by Australian teachers of students with both autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Semistructured interviews were completed with 13 New South Wales teachers and several themes emerged. Interviewed teachers appeared to have limited knowledge about CBA; their description of the application of CBA and their reported practices included few features specific and unique to CBA. They primarily perceived CBA as a tool for behaviour management; addressing emotion was a theme but addressing cognition was not a salient feature of their practice. Most teachers seemed unaware of the potential of CBA in fostering generalisation or maintenance, and important student characteristics appeared to be seldom considered in teacher planning of their CBA programs. Directions for enhancing teacher knowledge and supporting their practice of CBA are suggested.
There is insufficient research on medical care at mass-gathering events (MGEs) on college and university campuses. Fun Day is an annual celebratory day held at Skidmore College (Saratoga Springs, New York USA), a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States. Fun Day is focused around an outdoor music festival; students also congregate and celebrate throughout the surrounding campus. To improve care and alleviate strain on local resources, a model was developed for the provision of emergency care by a collegiate-based, volunteer first-response service – Skidmore College Emergency Medical Services (EMS) – in coordination with a contracted, private ambulance service.
The aims of this study were to: (1) analyze medical usage rates and case mixes at Fun Day over a four-year period, and to (2) describe the collegiate-based first response model for MGEs.
Data were collected retrospectively from event staff, college administrators, and Skidmore College EMS on event-related variables, patient encounters, and medical operations at Fun Day over a four-year period (2014-2017).
Annual attendance at the music festival was estimated at 2,000 individuals. Over four years, 54 patients received emergency medical care on campus on Fun Day, and 18 (33.3%) were transported to the emergency department. On-site contracted ambulances transported 77.8% of patients who were transported to the emergency department; mutual aid was requested for the other 22.2% of transports. The mean (SD) patient presentation rate (PPR) was 7.0 (SD = 1.0) per 1,000 attendees. The mean (SD) transport-to-hospital rate (TTHR) was 2.0 (SD = 1.0) per 1,000 attendees. Thirty (55.6%) patients presented with intoxication, seven (13.0%) with laceration(s), and five (9.3%) with head trauma as the primary concern. Medical command was established by volunteer undergraduate students. Up to 16 volunteer student first responders (including emergency medical technicians [EMTs]) were stationed on campus, in addition to two contracted ambulances at the Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Life Support (ALS) levels. Operational strategies included: mobile first response crews, redundant communication systems, preventative education, and harm reduction.
High medical usage rates were observed, primarily due to alcohol/illicit substance use and traumatic injuries. The provision of emergency care by a collegiate-based first response service in coordination with a contracted, private ambulance agency serves as an innovative model for mass-gathering medical care on college and university campuses.
FriedmanNMG, O’ConnorEK, MunroT, GoroffD.Mass-Gathering Medical Care Provided by a Collegiate-Based First Response Service at an Annual College Music Festival and Campus-Wide Celebration. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(1):98–103.
A framework was examined to assist school psychologists and counsellors in recommending quality apps for supporting diabetes self-management. A content analysis was undertaken to assess behaviour change strategies in Apple and Android smartphone apps for the self-management of type 2 diabetes. The Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy was used to assess the presence of behaviour change strategies, while the Mobile App Rating Scale was used to assess overall app quality. Raters found, on average, 7.13 behaviour change techniques out of a possible 93, indicating few behaviour change techniques in apps for the self-management of Type 2 diabetes. Analysis indicated that apps of a higher overall quality tended to incorporate more behaviour change strategies. It was concluded that mental-health professionals are advantaged if they are able to assess and refine selection tools for matching apps with the needs of students with diabetes.
Although school-based programmes for the identification of children and young people (CYP) with mental health difficulties (MHD) have the potential to improve short- and long-term outcomes across a range of mental disorders, the evidence-base on the effectiveness of these programmes is underdeveloped. In this systematic review, we sought to identify and synthesise evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school-based methods to identify students experiencing MHD, as measured by accurate identification, referral rates, and service uptake.
Electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, British Education Index and ASSIA were searched. Comparative studies were included if they assessed the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify students in formal education aged 3–18 years with MHD, presenting symptoms of mental ill health, or exposed to psychosocial risks that increase the likelihood of developing a MHD.
We identified 27 studies describing 44 unique identification programmes. Only one study was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies evaluated the utility of universal screening programmes; where comparison of identification rates was made, the comparator test varied across studies. The heterogeneity of studies, the absence of randomised studies and poor outcome reporting make for a weak evidence-base that only generate tentative conclusions about the effectiveness of school-based identification programmes.
Well-designed pragmatic trials that include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness and detailed process evaluations are necessary to establish the accuracy of different identification models, as well as their effectiveness in connecting students to appropriate support in real-world settings.
The 1980s caught Albanians in Kosova in interesting social, political, and psychological circumstances. Two diametrically opposed dogmatic dilemmas took shape: “illegal groups” – considerably supported by students – demanded the proclamation of the Republic of Kosova and/or Kosova's unification with Albania. On the other side of the spectrum, “modernists” – gathering, among others, the political and academic elites – pushed for the improvement of rights of Kosovars guaranteed under the “brotherhood and unity” concept advocated within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). This paper outlines the nature of demonstrations that took place in March and April 1981 and the corresponding responses of political and academic elites. Stretching beyond symbolic academic reasons – demands for better food and dormitory conditions – the study points to the intense commitment of the students to their demands, often articulated in nationalistic terms. Was it inevitable that the structure of the SFRY would lead to those living in Kosova as a non-Slavic majority in a federation of “Southern Slavs” to articulate demands for national self-rule? It is necessary to highlight these political and social complexities through analytical approaches in order to track the students' goals and to reexamine assumptions behind the “modernist” agenda. In that vein, the paper analyzes the conceptual connections and differences between student reactions and modernists' positions during the historical period under discussion here.
Self-criticism is a transdiagnostic process associated with a range of psychological problems. This uncontrolled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session intervention using methods from compassion-focused therapy to reduce self-criticism, as well as investigating changes in a range of outcome measures. Twenty-three university student participants with significant impaired functioning associated with high levels of self-criticism received six individual weekly treatment sessions and a 2-month follow-up appointment. Acceptability was assessed through participant feedback. The intervention appeared to be feasible in terms of recruitment and retention of participants, and participant feedback indicated that overall the intervention seemed acceptable. There were statistically significant improvements between pre- and post-intervention for self-criticism, functional impairment, mood, self-esteem and maladaptive perfectionism with medium to large effect sizes at both post-intervention and follow-up. Gains were maintained or increased between post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. The study showed preliminary evidence of effectiveness of a compassion-focused intervention for self-critical students which appeared to be a feasible and acceptable treatment approach. This intervention now requires investigation in a randomized controlled trial.
School students are increasingly using apps for health-related purposes, either on their own or when recommended by psychologists or counsellors, as apps offer a way to assist students to change their behaviour. However, there is a growing need for psychologists and counsellors to be able to evaluate the quality and usefulness of such apps to effect behaviour change. This study was therefore undertaken to identify methods by which school psychologists and counsellors could evaluate health-related apps for clinical use or research purposes. After examining 15 studies of apps that met the inclusion criteria, it was clear that researchers used a number of taxonomies to evaluate the apps. There were seven taxonomies identified, of which five were generalisable to all health conditions, with the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy being the most comprehensive, containing 13 key behaviour strategies. Despite the utility of the taxonomies to identify the amount of behaviour change content within the apps, it was difficult to determine how the behaviour change strategies were measured, thus reducing the ability to predict app effectiveness. Approaches to improving methods by which apps can be developed and evaluated are proposed.
Firefighting is an important profession during disasters. Firefighters are on duty for many vital functions, including fire extinguishing, search and rescue work, and evacuation of disaster victims to a safe zone. In case of a disaster situation, it is vital to have willing personnel to work in disasters. In the literature, type of disaster, individual demographic factors, family factors, and workplace factors have been identified as factors that influence health care personnel’s willingness to work during a disaster. However, little is known about firefighters and firefighter candidates’ willingness to work in a disaster.
This study was aimed to identify the willingness of civil defense and firefighting program students to work in different disasters after graduation and the factors associated with their willingness.
The universe of this descriptive, epidemiological study was 1,116 students of civil defense and firefighting programs in Turkey. They were from 11 different universities. In the research study, a sample was not chosen as it was aimed at reaching the whole universe. A standardized survey form of 58 questions, prepared by researchers, was used to gather data.
The rate of participation was 65.5%. Of the students, 82.8% said that after graduation they would like to work in disasters, whereas 16.2% were indecisive. The students were less willing to work in nuclear accidents (42.4%) and epidemic disasters (32.1%). In chi-square analysis, “willingness of students to work in disasters after graduation” (dependent variable) and the independent variables: “university of student,” “exercising regularly,” “having a hobby related to disaster,” “having been educated about disaster,” and “being satisfied from the received education” were found statistically significant. When students’ willingness to work in disasters after graduation (ref=unwilling) was analyzed with multi-variate analysis, only “university of students” and “having a hobby related to disasters” were found statistically significant.
Overall, 16.2% of the students stated that they were indecisive to work in disasters in the future, and 1.0% of them stated that they did not want to work in disasters. Moreover, willingness of students to work in nuclear accident and contagious disease disasters has been found to be lower compared to other disaster types.
KayaE, AltintasH. Willingness of Firefighting Program Students to Work in Disasters—Turkey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):13–22.
This paper is based on a parallel session presented at the BIALL Conference 2017 by Corryn Walker. The content focusses on a project undertaken by Manchester Metropolitan University Library during 2015/2016 to revamp their ‘Welcome and Induction’ programme. The project was coordinated by Corryn Walker and Elaine Cooke, both Deputy Library Services Managers. The article covers the background to, and motivation behind the project, its aims and objectives and the changes made to improve how the library welcomes new students to the service.
Due to their age and lifestyle, female students in general are at an increased risk of various forms of sexual violence. Particular sociocultural contexts also form the background of gender-based violence in professional and academic structures. Yet despite institutional and legal efforts to protect (potential) survivors of sexual violence from primary (and secondary) victimization, persistent assaults demonstrate the reluctance of organizations and individuals to fully accept women’s experiences as being physically and psychologically harmful. Based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained in the context of the European research project “Gender-Based Violence, Stalking and Fear of Crime”,1 this article presents a comparative analysis of the prevalence of sexual violence, feelings of safety (or a lack thereof) and the reasons for (non-)disclosure for five European countries. A dataset of about 21,000 responses from German, British, Italian, Spanish and Polish students indicates that sexualized violence is a major problem at universities and that it has yet to be recognized as such. This – added to the fact that it is generally suppressed or concealed by universities – makes it society’s problem as well. The article discusses widespread social myths about victims and perpetrators, the role of the new media in victimization, and the issues of universities’ responsibility for their students (through institutional policy and specific responses to incidents of gender-based violence). The results presented here demonstrate the contradictory perceptions that students have in regard to their experiences and the nature of sexualized violence in an academic environment.
Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices.
Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages. The semi-structured telephone survey included items about free drinking-water access (sixty-four items), commonly available competitive beverages (twenty-nine items) and water-related policies and practices (twenty-eight items). Agreement between administrator surveys and observation/document review was calculated using kappa statistics for categorical variables, and Pearson correlation coefficients and t tests for continuous variables.
Public schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA.
School administrators (n 24).
Eighty-one per cent of questions related to school beverage access yielded κ values indicating substantial or almost perfect agreement (κ>0·60). However, only one of twenty-eight questions related to drinking-water practices and policies yielded a κ value representing substantial or almost perfect agreement.
This school administrator survey appears reasonably valid for questions related to beverage access, but less valid for questions on water-related practices and policies. This tool provides policy makers, researchers and advocates with a low-cost, efficient method to gather national data on school-level beverage access.
This study aimed to screen young adults for sleep-disordered breathing, and compare those with high and low risk for sleep-disordered breathing.
A survey based on the Berlin questionnaire was completed by 330 university students, and the results were used to divide them into sleep-disordered breathing positive and sleep-disordered breathing negative groups. A representative group was selected from each cohort (positive group, n = 16; negative group, n = 21), and assessed with sleep study, ENT examination, the Nose Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Sleep-disordered breathing prevalence was 11.2 per cent in the questionnaire and 24 per cent according to the sleep study. The sleep-disordered breathing positive and negative groups significantly differed in terms of coexisting sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. There were no significant differences between the positive and negative groups with regard to sleep study parameters (apnoea/hypopnoea index, respiratory disturbance index, oxygen desaturation index, snoring intensity) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Subjective and objective diagnostic tools revealed that sleep-disordered breathing is a common problem among young adults.
All forms of bullying, physical, verbal, social, and cyber, are prevalent among youth worldwide. An especially vulnerable population for involvement in bullying is students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there are some studies that have investigated bullying in these students, many of these are beset by methodological issues. We surveyed 104 students with ASD on their bullying experiences in all 4 forms of bullying and examined their roles as victim, perpetrator, and bully-victim, comparing them with a group of typically developing students matched for age and gender. It was found that students with ASD reported significantly more traditional victimisation (physical, verbal, and social) than their typically developing peers. Cyberbullying victimisation was similar for the 2 groups. There were no differences between the groups on traditional bullying perpetration; however, typically developing students reported more cyberbullying perpetration behaviours. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.
This study examines the usage of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire in Chinese students aged from 10 to 25 within four age groups (N = 5,510): early adolescence (10–13 years old, n = 1,258), middle adolescence (14–17 years old, n = 1,987), late adolescence (18–21 years old, n = 1,950) and early adulthood (22–25 years old, n = 315); and analyses the structure and levels of meaning in life, as well as the relationship between meaning in life and mental health. Results showed that: (1) the Meaning in Life Questionnaire in the four age groups of Chinese students had good construct validity and internal consistency reliability; (2) the average levels of the presence of meaning and search for meaning of Chinese students were moderate or above, and had obvious differences according to gender and family location (i.e., urban vs. rural); (3) the level of presence of meaning showed a trend of rising rapidly in middle adolescence and the level of search for meaning continued to rise in early adolescence and fell rapidly towards the end of adolescence; (4) presence of meaning was positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect and negatively related to depression and negative affect, and the same correlations were found with search for meaning.