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This chapter tests the hypotheses developed in Chapter One, first using a series of multilevel models and a dataset of over one million Russian firms. It finds empirical support that the presence of economic competition from rivals and weak political parties drive the decision to enter politics by affecting the benefits to be derived from holding office, while only those firms with sufficient resources and in poorer regions can cover the substantial costs of running. Businesspeople run for office when the commitment problem of transacting with politicians through other means is exacerbated. I then show the findings also come through using analysis of a survey of 654 Russian firms conducted in 2016. Finally, I draw on qualitative evidence from 70 interviews in three Russian regions (Tomsk, Ryazan, and Perm) to illuminate just how competition and weak parties incentivize businessperson candidacy.
The final chapter first summarizes the main arguments made in the book, overviewing the hypotheses developed and evidence used to test them in the empirical chapters. The conclusion also addresses the question of external validity by drawing in examples of similar phenomena from other countries around the world, both developing and developed, that are experiencing significant interest in political office from businesspeople. The book paints a somewhat grim picture of the effects of businesspeople winning elected office. In this chapter, I lastly examine whether there are policy solutions that might deter those businesspeople looking to abuse their positions in their private interests from running. I close by offering a number of recommendations that emerge from the analysis, both including and going beyond ethics laws, that could be of use in containing rent-seeking by these individuals in power.
This chapter opens the manuscript with an anecdote about a prominent Russian businessperson politician as well statistical evidence about the breadth of businesspeople working in public office around the world. It then catalogues our extant knowledge of why special interests like firms seek to influence policymaking and the means through which they do so, along the way defining key terms used throughout the manuscript. Next, it introduces the puzzle of businessperson candidacy, contrasting the high financial and time costs required to run for and hold office with our lack of knowledge about the benefits to be had. The chapter then briefly outlines the main arguments and evidence presented in the book and provides a justification for why Russia is a compelling case from which to build theory. In general, businessperson candidacy has received very little if any attention from scholars, especially given how widespread it is; the last section demonstrates how this book fills that gap. The chapter then closes by presenting the contributions the manuscript makes to our understanding of business–government relations, interest group politics, descriptive representation, authoritarian institutions, and the nature of policymaking in transitioning economies.
A software release game was formulated by Zeephongsekul and Chiera [Zeephongsekul, P. & Chiera, C. (1995). Optimal software release policy based on a two-person game of timing. Journal of Applied Probability 32: 470–481] and was reconsidered by Dohi et al. [Dohi, T., Teraoka, Y., & Osaki, S. (2000). Software release games. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 105(2): 325–346] in a framework of two-person nonzero-sum games. In this paper, we further point out the faults in the above literature and revisit the Nash equilibrium strategies in the software release games from the viewpoints of both silent and noisy type of games. It is shown that the Nash equilibrium strategies in the silent and noisy of software release games exist under some parametric conditions.
There are various strategies to control complexity and variety growth in ETO businesses. Such portfolio rationalization initiatives sometimes stall. This paper elaborates on the challenges that cause this. Challenges described in literature and challenges seen in five different industry cases are consolidated. The challenges are combined into groups and presented in the ADKAR change management model. The authors intend this list to be used for guidance In industry and expect the collection to be extended with future industry cases and challenges.
Design methods are seldom used in engineering design practice. The presented study aims at finding the alternative strategies for situations with a need for methodological support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten experienced design engineers to identify causes of and strategies for those situations. Three strategy clusters could be identified: generating information, experience and method application. As the individual's and the team's experience compete with the application of methods, they are seen as reasons for a lack of method application.
The concepts of high-velocity, complexity and interdependency are nowadays vividly discussed in design-led innovation management. Design organisations seek to manage innovation in a more dynamic way to ensure competitive advantage and long-term competitiveness. Contextual ambidexterity is advised to be a dynamic capability that can facilitate firms to effectively manage incremental and radical innovation alike. This paper proposes an approach that focuses on the individual and the underlying thinking which bases its foundations on ambidextrous leadership, abductive reasoning and strategic fit.
Many companies face a challenge while defining their individualized digitalization strategy. Therefore, the interrelation of corporate and digitalization strategy is addressed and a novel procedure model to assist companies in defining their strategy is introduced. Based on their corporate strategy, the introduced model allows companies to simply identify suitable business model patterns, digitization use cases and offers a possibility to asses the maturity level of their internal processes and evaluate the added value from an economic point of view.
In this chapter, we provide an overview of how a strategy perspective fruitfully contributes to our understanding of aging effects on cognitive functioning and brain activations. We review previous research showing that people use a wide variety of strategies to accomplish cognitive tasks and how strategy use evolves during aging. Although strategic variations are modulated by individual differences and experimental conditions, older adults have been found to use fewer strategies, to use the more demanding strategies less often, to select the most appropriate strategy on each problem less often, and to be less efficient when executing a given strategy than young adults. Adopting a strategy approach enables better characterization of age-related changes observed in brain activations during task completion and contributes to specify the mechanistic and functional significance of age-related changes in neural recruitments. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes underlie age-related changes in strategy use.
This chapter concludes with five main stylized facts. First the extent of reform progress and socioeconomic performance diverged considerably in three decades, with many countries essential completing reforms, but a few only slightly changed from the communist period. Second, in all post-communist countries, the levels of income and living standards are an improvement over the socialist period. Third, the most advanced reformers have gone a long way to catch-up to the EU, with incomes two to three times higher. Four, all countries saw a new capitalist class emerge, but, in the former USSR, a new super-rich group of oligarchs emerged and exerted great political power. Fifth, corruption has been reduced significantly in the advanced reformers, many now within the EU sphere, but persists at very high levels farther East.
The COVID-19 pandemic poses a particular set of challenges for health services. Some of these are common across all services (e.g. strategies to minimise infections; timely testing for patients and staff; and sourcing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)) and some are specific to mental health services (e.g. how to access general medical services quickly; how to safely deliver a service that traditionally depends on intensive face to face contact; how to isolate someone who does not wish to do so; and how to source sufficient PPE in the face of competing demands for such equipment). This paper describes how St Patrick’s Mental Health Services (SPMHS) chose to address this unfolding and ever-changing crisis, how it developed its strategy early based on a clear set of objectives and how it adapted (and continues to adapt) to the constantly evolving COVID-19 landscape.
Legal maneuvers can help explain the rapid recent growth of privatized forms of governance, such as voucher schemes and tax expenditures. Although privatization seems to exacerbate principal-agent problems and reduce credit-claiming opportunities, attenuating the relationship between the state and the controversial policy outputs can be politically expedient for policymakers fearing legal losses, because it helps defend such policies in court. This chapter introduces readers to the concept of attenuation: the process by which policymakers in local, state, or federal government hide the state’s role in promoting a particular policy output. Anticipating constitutional challenge, elites use strategic policy design and rhetoric to advance their policy goals.
The sluggish growth of vouchers into the first decade of the twenty-first century prompted voucher supporters to reevaluate their strategy. Ballot initiatives proved fruitless, so supporters switched to state legislatures and sought to distance the state from private schools by funding vouchers through tax credits rather than direct appropriation. The full fruits of attenuated governance matured with Republican victories during Barack Obama’s presidency. This chapter shows that the doubly distanced tax credit form enabled individualist and accommodationist forces to divert public funds to private religious institutions without appearing to do so. Due to the lingering importance of communitarian public schooling and secularist approaches to church–state relations among the nation’s many judges, doubly distanced policies were safest. Statistical analysis demonstrates that they were, and are, least likely to be challenged in court or struck down as unconstitutional. Attenuation is a powerful strategy for rival forces in America’s foundational struggles because it enables policymakers to achieve their goals obliquely. The link between state and legally controversial policy outputs is plausibly deniable in crucial venues of policy contestation, provided that elites follow the attenuation strategy consistently.
In their excellent review of the environmental and genetic underpinnings of personality disorders, Turner, Prud’homme, and Legg (this volume) provide compelling evidence that early family adversity (e.g., maltreatment, parenting difficulties, parental separation) is an environmental risk factor for offspring personality difficulties. However, little is known about how and why these family characteristics increase the risk for various personality disorders. Guided by evolutionary theory, the goal of this commentary is to illustrate how the synthesis of these two areas of inquiry may advance an understanding of the origins and course of typical and atypical personality characteristics in mutually informative ways. First, building on the coverage of attachment in the primary chapter, the authors address how other behavioral systems that are designed to defend against social threat and acquire resources may mediate the distinct personality sequelae experienced by children exposed to family adversity. Second, in identifying sources of heterogeneity in family risk, the authors highlight the value of expanding the conceptualization of moderators beyond diathesis-stress models. Consistent with differential susceptibility theory, they describe how temperamental, physiological, and genetic moderators may serve to heighten sensitivity to supportive as well as adverse family conditions rather than simply acting as diatheses that selective sensitize individuals to harsh socialization contexts.
In order to assess late prehistoric human responses to climate change in the Western Loess Plateau (WLP), we investigated 13,567 charred plant seeds and 19 radiocarbon (14C) dates obtained from 41 late prehistoric sites in the upper Wei River valley. Based on these new dating results as well as their cultural attributes, these sites could be confidently divided into four chronological phases (Phase 1: Late Yangshao and Majiayao culture; Phase 2: Qijia culture; Phases 3 and 4: Siwa culture) but a significant gap was identified at ca. 3600–3000 cal yr BP in this region. Comparison of this interval to high-resolution paleoclimate records from Tianchi Lake suggests it could be attributed to the dramatic drop in temperature at this time. Accordingly, archaeobotanical evidence with a refined chronology shows the adoption of cold-tolerant subsistence cereal grains such as barley on the NETP (Northeast Tibetan Plateau). Drawing from various lines of knowledge (chronology, palaeoclimate, archaeobotany, and archaeology), it is reasonable to conclude that, even when confronting a similar magnitude of climate change, local human societies could vary tremendously. Different subsistence strategies were brought in by the trans-Eurasia culture exchange of prehistoric times.
This chapter deals with the early stages of World War II in Europe, which was to some extent a repetition of World War I, but with a German victory in May-June 1940. Allied and German grand strategy. The Soviet-Finnish war. Russian annexation of the three Baltic states. The German invasion of neutral Norway, with naval and ground battles against the Allied forces. Churchill replaces Chamberlain as Prime Minister. Planning on both sides for the main Western Front in 1940. The German Blitzkrieg invasion of France and the Low Countries. The Allied evacuation of Dunkirk, the second phase of the invasion, and the French surrender. Air battle over Britain. Inability of the German Army to invade Britain, and Hitler’s decision to invade Russia.
In Chapter 14, the author discusses the need to study teachers’ awareness of language learning strategies and their perceptions and beliefs about instructional practices that foster language learning strategies. To this end, the results of some recent research on how teachers promote language learning strategies are presented.
The introduction lays out the basic arguments, and also explains the emphasis on grand strategy and operations. The Axis powers declared their aim as a ‘new order of things’, notably in their 1940 Tripartite Pact. This contrasted with the ‘old’ order created by the Allies after World War I, exemplified by the Paris peace treaties of 1919 and Washington Treaty of 1922. These treaties dealt with Europe and Asia respectively, and they demonstrate that the causes and course of the next struggle would be global. World War II began in China in July 1937, rather than in Europe in 1939; the Asia-Pacific war was as important as the war in Europe. The book’s focus on grand strategy and military operation is warranted, partly for reasons of space and partly because this is the history of a war, and the outcome was victory or defeat.
This chapter describes the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB). Since the start of the monetary union in 1999, the ECB has been responsible for monetary policy making in the euro area. The ECB and the national central banks of eurozone countries make up the Eurosystem. The Maastricht Treaty defines the ECB’s primary objective as achieving ‘price stability’. The ECB specifies this objective as inflation ‘below but close to’ 2 per cent in the euro area in the medium term. The ECB has an array of instruments available to realise this objective. The chapter analyses several non-standard (or unconventional) policy measures in response to the financial crisis, the euro crisis and the low inflation. Policy decisions are the outcome of the monetary policy strategy. The ECB has a ‘two-pillar’ strategy that pairs the discussion of a broad-based analysis of the risks to price stability in the short to medium run (‘economic analysis’) with monetary factors (‘monetary analysis’).
The aim of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic patients' impairment in semantic verbal fluency tasks is due to difficulties in organizing their search or, in other words, in organizing output in terms of clusters of meaningfully related words. Consecutive association of words belonging to subcategories of the semantic task was defined as semantic clustering. A categorical verbal fluency task was first administered to 100 healthy subjects and then to 22 schizophrenic patients and 22 healthy subjects matched for sex, age and education. In the normal population, semantic clustering was found to be involved in word generation. A large number of semantic clusters indicated efficient organization of semantic knowledge and led to better word production. Schizophrenic patients showed impaired verbal fluency and generated a smaller number of semantic clusters than the control subjects. These findings point to a defect in self-initiation of semantic categorization in schizophrenia.