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This chapter first identifies five entry points for science in environmental investment disputes. It continues with analysing framing techniques of both litigants and arbitrators that aim to strategically manage the science-intensity of the legal inquiry. The chapter discusses varied scientific fact-finding methods of investment tribunals. Despite that party-submitted evidence dominates investment arbitration, on rare occasions panels appoint independent experts. As to causal inquiry, the chapter discusses that open causal assessments remain a rarity in arbitral practice, though science-based causal nexus increasingly gains relevance in environmental disputes. As to the standard of review, arbitral tribunals are generally deferential towards the scientific claims of host states. Yet they design different standards to review the scientific basis of host states' risk regulatory measures, for instance, some focus on the transparency of the regulatory process, while others rely on regulatory trends of other states. This chapter concludes with analysing and comparing the various standards of review applied in science-intensive investment arbitral proceedings.
To contribute to our knowledge of the capabilities that are perceived as strategic by emerging market firms, this chapter presents a study of eight Chinese companies with different internationalization levels. They includes two exporters, the high-tech bus manufacturer Higer and the low-tech manufacturer of car seats Baby First. We also examine high-tech multinationals AVIC (aviation), Advantech (computer systems), and ShangGong Group (industrial sewing machines), in addition to low-tech Chervon (hand-held outdoor tools) and Siwei-Johnson (specialized vehicles). Finally, we examine retail service firm Sanpower. By examining and comparing/contrasting the capabilities identified as strategic by these companies, we aim to gain insights into strategic capability development based on the experience of the world’s largest emerging economy. For example, more than one company mentioned their reflection capabilities, a cognitive process where people attempt to increase their awareness and learn from past business experiences, and explained how they apply this mechanism to corporate governance.
Through development of strong strategic capabilities, Chilean companies have increased their foreign presence over the last three decades. Two critical factors influenced this drive to internationalization: (1) limited potential to grow domestically due to the relatively small size of the Chilean economy, and (2) the early start of Chile’s liberalization process compared to other Latin American countries. In this chapter, we examine the strategic capabilities and internationalization initiatives of seven Chilean firms: eClass (e-learning), ALTO (loss prevention), Kunstmann (premium beer production), Forus (premium brands retail), Derco (vehicle distribution), Casas del Toqui (wine), and BeitGroup (children’s clothing). During the internationalization process of these companies, all the firms found it crucial first to transfer strategic capabilities developed at home to another country, and then to successfully adapt these capabilities to the foreign country context. These companies did not seek to acquire or upgrade their strategic capabilities through internationalization.
In the early twentieth century, Argentinean firms were among the first emerging market multinationals. More recently, international expansion has been conditioned by domestic economic and political turmoil. In this chapter, we analyze the internationalization strategies of seven Argentinean firms: Globant and Grupo ASSA (information technology), Grupo ARCOR (food processing), Bodega Lagarde (winemaking), Grupo Mirgor (consumer electronics), Grupo Bagó (pharmaceutic), and San Miguel (agriculture). We included firms that are in different stages of the international process: from exporters to multilatinas to operating beyond Latin America. We find that firm internationalization requires the development of strategic capabilities that complement those required to be successful in the domestic market. Whereas firms initially emphasize production capabilities and leverage cost advantages, over time they develop marketing capabilities related to understanding customer needs in different markets and managerial capabilities that allow for integrating the multinational organization. Our interviews with directors and senior managers highlight how perceptions of the business context condition the development of strategic capabilities and their deployment in international markets.
In this chapter, we integrated data obtained from the interviews conducted with business leaders from seventy-two companies across twelve emerging markets in five continents to better understand which capabilities leaders of emerging market multinationals identify as being strategic. In doing so, we examined which capabilities appear to be commonly assessed as being strategic across our study contexts, and which ones varied by industry, company multinationality, and country of origin. In particular, we examined emerging market companies headquartered in Eastern Europe (Russia and Poland), Asia (China, India, and Kazakhstan), Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru) and Africa (South Africa). Looking across the various capabilities identified by the senior managers in our study, our results suggest that the strategic capabilities needed by emerging market firms to be successful outside their home markets occur at multiple levels, including management level, firm level, industry level, and national level. These capabilities influence both a firm’s ability to internationalize and its ability to be successful, abilities that often have reinforcing influences on each other.
Firms from different countries face different challenges to growth and development, with firms in emerging markets generally being at a disadvantage compared to developed countries’ firms. Despite this, some emerging market firms have started expanding to other countries, becoming progressively more established. This chapter will present the case of seven Mexican firms that have undergone an internationalization process and have become multinational corporations and exporters. To analyze this, the study focused on the capabilities each firm had that provided an advantage locally and globally, and whether these capabilities were different for each market. In the comparison, it was discovered that the most common and relevant capabilities for these firms were understanding local customer needs, corporate brand and reputation, and relationship capabilities.
This chapter introduces the background and key research question of the project for this book, which is an output of a multi-country study on a highly important subject in emerging markets: what types of capabilities do emerging market firms need, and how do they acquire and upgrade these capabilities in order to achieve competitiveness in the global market? The chapter highlights two unique aspects of emerging markets: weak institutions and lack of endowment. The main theme of the book thus becomes how emerging market companies develop competitive capabilities to international levels facing these two critical constraints. The chapter also discusses the organization of the book, which comprises twelve different country studies, and presents the methodology used to select and evaluate the firms studied.
Russia is the largest country in the world, ranking ninth by population with 146.8 million people. It contains 30 percent of the world’s natural resources, making it the most resource-rich country in the world. The Russian economy is sixth in the world in terms of GDP (purchasing power parity), according to the IMF. Our study of companies’ strategic capabilities is based on a comparative analysis of five firms operating in Russia. Three of them are domestic – SIBUR (Siberian-Ural petrochemical and Gas Company), Gazprom Marketing & Trading (part of the Gazprom group), and ByTerg, all representing exporters in the high-tech industry. The other two firms are multinational companies – Ecolab and Swilar, representing the high-tech and service industries respectively. This qualitative study, relying on semi-structured interviews, revealed that customer orientation is a crucial strategic capability, highlighted by all firms. Very important strategic capabilities also include product manufacturing and general sales capabilities (highlighted by 80 percent of respondents).
We analyze how firms from emerging markets upgrade their capabilities to improve their international competitiveness. We argue that firms use a combination methods, the four-I mechanisms, to upgrade their capabilities – imitation, integration, incorporation, and internal development – and that the underdevelopment of emerging markets affects this catching-up process. We propose that initially, as laggards in global competition, firms are more inclined to imitate products and services from more sophisticated firms, leveraging the relatively weak intellectual property protection of their home countries and aiming to serve low-income consumers. As they catch up, firms are more likely to integrate best practices through alliances to obtain technologies, or to learn by serving as suppliers of more sophisticated firms. Firms then incorporate best practices by acquiring technologies or firms that own sophisticated knowledge. Finally, as they catch up to leaders, firms focus more on internal development of capabilities. We highlight how the four-I mechanisms evolve with the development stages of firms and emerging economies.
This chapter seeks to investigate the nature of strategic capabilities required for Indian firms to successfully transcend domestic markets and venture abroad. The study is based on intensive case studies of four Indian firms in the manufacturing and services sectors. The findings indicates that the capabilities considered most important by the firm leaders for the internationalization of their activities were ability to develop resources internally, entrepreneurship, and ability to adjust to poor infrastructure need. Three interesting patterns also emerged in the way firms choose to expand their operations to other markets: capability complementing, capability augmenting, and new capability development. Overall, the study indicates that the competencies required to succeed are also significantly influenced by the industry type and prior history of internationalization by associated companies. To gain a better understanding of these issues it would be necessary to moderate for industry, size, and ownership effects.
Peru became one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America following its adoption of promarket reforms. However, trade openness and market liberalization created new pressures. Entrance of foreign competitors to Peruvian markets triggered upgrades to core competences by local companies. This chapter presents the way successful firms from different sectors faced institutional turmoil by upgrading specific capabilities and developing strategic responses to obtain a competitive edge. Our analysis covers companies from different sectors: Deltron (low-tech domestic firm), Cantol (low-tech exporter), Resemin (high-tech multinational), Alicorp (low-tech multinational), Alicorp (low-tech multinational), and Lolimsa (service multinational).
While the upgrading of strategic capabilities in these firms focused on improving product, service, and operational capabilities and on controlling retail operations, their strategic responses focused either on exploiting new windows of opportunity or on defending against the entrance of foreign competitors.
In this chapter, we highlight the strategic capabilities that have enabled six Brazilian companies to achieve competitive advantage. We selected firms from different industries and stages of internationalization in order to show a broad perspective of local and international successful firms. WEG and Fanen developed technological capabilities associated to both world-class manufacturing and product innovation, whereas Stefanini and Integration have consolidated knowledge about servicing emerging markets. Grendene’s production and operations are its key capabilities for international operations through exports, while innovative design and processes support their strategy in the local markets. The key capabilities of Dr.Consulta are entrepreneurship and innovation. In sum, due to highly turbulent institutional and economic environment, Brazilian firms have had to develop some specific capabilities, especially those related to financial management and organizational flexibility.
To what do we ascribe the far-reaching success of companies from emerging economies in domestic and global markets? What do emerging markets companies do differently? This chapter studies and provides a comparison of the cases of seven successful Colombian companies in different industries to identify specific attributes and capabilities that have helped these firms to overcome the liabilities associated with being situated in emerging markets, enabling them to become market leaders domestically or internationally. The findings of this study suggest that the most relevant capabilities for the success of these companies are their ability to obtain resources, their product adaptation capabilities, and their understanding of local consumers’ needs.
Polish firms focused on international markets only recently, as they were not present in the international markets during the planned economy era and thus did not develop managerial capabilities to compete. With the 1989 transition, huge opportunities for growth and development in the local market absorbed entrepreneurial talentat first. As a result, exports and outward foreign direct investments gained momentum only from the late 1990s. This chapter begins with a general picture of the economic transformation of Poland, and then analyzes the internationalization strategies and capabilities enhancing the efforts of a selected set of firms in foreign markets. Our findings reveal that the firms’ performance in foreign markets is shaped mainly by their ability to develop strategic competences related to product and technology improvement, management of relationships with partners, and those specific sensitivities to the cultural and business environment that enable the firm to gain reputation and the trust of local partners and customers and to overcome any legacy liabilities ascribed to country of origin.
In 2021, Brazilian scientific research in Antarctica will reach its 40 anniversary, and in that period it has experienced good and bad times. How has Brazilian scientific research evolved since its first scientific mission to Antarctica? What were the conditions that enabled this research? How will Brazilian researchers work in the brand-new scientific station? Using an interdisciplinary approach, this article identifies tipping points and the national policy network that led to unstable funding policies. This article highlights four phases of Brazilian Antarctic science and states that there is a clear disconnect between the geopolitical and scientific priorities on one side and the political priorities, including the executive and the legislative powers, on the other.
The chapter argues strategic essentialism has become the prevailing mode of thinking among scholars in Native American discourse, and traces its development over the past few decades. I suggest this has produced a host of unintended consequences and is, generally speaking, a bad thing. Mainly because the scholars are reflecting and advancing ideas held by many Native Americans in the United States, not just those in the academy. I analyze this condition through a discussion of the HBO series “The Leftovers,” recent exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian, and the rise of the tea party movement in 2014.
If there is no evidence of a religious resurgence in Turkey, what can explain the rise and sustained success of Islamic-based parties there? To understand the popularity of Islamic parties, like the AKP, a broader view of the Turkish electoral system as warranted: alongside the rise of the AKP came a sharp decline in electoral volatility -- vote swings between parties from election to election -- and in the share of votes that were wasted, cast for parties that failed to secure a seat in a given district. I argue that these two trends are not coincidental but are both based on matters of trust: low levels of interpersonal trust makes it difficult for voters within districts to vote strategically and successfully coordinate their individual votes into meaningful outcomes; but this trust problem is effectively solved within religious voters, to the comparative advantage of Islamic parties. Moreover, the ability of religious voters to coordinate their support for Islamic parties, and to do so consistently, helps to make these parties an attractive target for strategic votes from distrusting, conservative voters, even if they are secular. Analysis of panel data from the Turkish case provides empirical support for both hypotheses.
This article assesses Russian strategic narratives towards its interventions in Georgia (2008) and Ukraine (2014–16) based on a new database of 50 statements posted on the websites of the Russian Mission to the United Nations and the President of Russia homepage. By looking more broadly at Russian strategic narratives aimed at persuading other global actors and publics abroad and at home, this article identifies how Russia attempted to develop a story that could win global acceptance. This analysis shows that contrary to traditional Russian emphasis on sovereign responsibility and non-intervention, Russia supported claims for self-determination by separatist groups in Georgia and Ukraine. Russia used deception and disinformation in its strategic narratives as it mis-characterized these conflicts using Responsibility to Protect (R2P) language, yet mostly justified its own interventions through references to other sources of international law. Russian strategic narratives focused on delegitimizing the perceived opponents, making the case for the appropriateness of its own actions, and projecting what it proposed as the proper solution to the conflicts. It largely avoided making any references to its own involvement in the Donbas at all. Additionally, Russia’s focus on the protection of co-ethnics and Russian-speakers is reminiscent of interventions in the pre-R2P era.
Chapter 8 concludes with a summary and synthesis of the book’s findings. It discusses the book’s implications for theories of public support for courts, and situates the book within the broader literature on public opinion and political institutions. The chapter anticipates and responds to criticisms of the book’s theoretical and empirical sections, and explores broader implications for the Court’s independence and power within the American political system.
This paper deals with design of an alternative secure Blockchain network framework to prevent damages from an attacker. The alliance concept from the strategic management perspectives is applied on the top of a general stochastic game framework. This new enhanced hybrid theoretical model is designed to find the best strategies toward preparation for preventing a network malfunction from an attacker through strategic alliances with other genuine nodes and it is developed based on the combination of a strategic management framework and a conventional stochastic model based on the Blockchain Governance Game. Analytically, tractable results for decision-making parameters are fully obtained to predict of the moment for operations and also to provide the optimal number of allegiance nodes to protect a Blockchain network. This research helps those whom are considering initial coin offering or launching new Blockchain-based services by enhancing security features through strategic alliances in a decentralized network.