To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper we present data from the measurements of carbon isotopes (Δ14C and δ13C) from α-cellulose extracted from pine tree-rings. The samples were collected in four forests located in the most industrialized part of Poland, where coal mining and coal-based energy are an important branch of industry. The investigated period of time (1975–2012) covers the period of development in coal mining and other industry sectors. Stable isotope composition has been determined with using IRMS and radiocarbon concentration was determinate by AMS.
Un trabajo de rescate arqueológico en la cuenca alta del Río Loa (norte de Chile) resultó en el hallazgo de una inhumación prehispánica de un infante asociado a variados atavíos y ofrendas, junto a los restos óseos parciales de una adolescente. Ambos individuos fueron sometidos a análisis de isótopos estables para establecer paleodieta (δ13C y δ15N) y movilidad (δ18O y 87Sr/86Sr). Además, se efectuaron dataciones radiocarbónicas pareadas de los restos bioantropológicos y culturales con el fin establecer la cronología de la inhumación y, a la vez, evaluar la existencia de un posible efecto reservorio marino. Los resultados isotópicos sugieren consumo de dieta principalmente terrestre y un origen local para los individuos, aunque con una ingesta moderada de recursos marinos. Los fechados radiocarbónicos presentan una inesperada diferencia entre las edades de las ofrendas y los restos humanos, indicando la existencia de un importante efecto reservorio. Dichos resultados dan nuevas luces sobre el consumo de alimentos marinos durante el Formativo temprano en la región, a la vez que permiten ejemplificar los alcances de efectuar dataciones pareadas de restos humanos y culturales.
We have analysed a 6100-year record of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from inner neritic sediments from Core SK291/GC13, off the Goa coast, eastern Arabian Sea, to understand the response of benthic foraminifera to shallow-marine processes. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage is dominated by Nonion cf. asterizans, Ammonia beccarii, A. gaimardii and Virgulinella fragilis, which have been selected on the basis of a population of 10% or more in any three samples analysed. The planktonic foraminiferal population is sporadic and rare, with Globigerinoides ruber as the predominant species showing a variable trend. The foraminiferal proxies combined with total organic carbon (wt%) and δ13C and δ18O values of Ammonia gaimardii suggest distinct variations, indicating changes in productivity and salinity in the shallow eastern Arabian Sea. The coastal waters off Goa were relatively warmer and less saline between 6100 and 4600, or perhaps to 4200, calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to a stronger monsoon in South and East Asia. The shallow sea was cooler from ~4200 to 2600 cal yr BP in the study area, coinciding with a lower sea surface temperature in the northeastern Arabian Sea and an arid phase in the Indian subcontinent. From 2900 to 2600 cal yr BP the study core exhibits the impacts of short-term cold events, which have earlier been observed in the northeastern Arabian Sea, off Pakistan. During the Little Ice Age, the shallow sea off Goa was less productive.
The major facilitator superfamily domain 2a protein was identified recently as a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) symporter with high affinity for LPC species enriched with DHA (LPC-DHA). To test the hypothesis that reproductive state and choline intake influence plasma LPC-DHA, we performed a post-hoc analysis of samples available through 10 weeks of a previously conducted feeding study, which provided two doses of choline (480 and 930 mg/d) to non-pregnant (n=21), third-trimester pregnant (n=26), and lactating (n=24) women; all participants consumed 200 mg of supplemental DHA and 22% of their daily choline intake as deuterium-labeled choline. The effects of reproductive state and choline intake on total LPC-DHA (expressed as a percentage of LPC) and plasma enrichments of labeled LPC and LPC-DHA were assessed using mixed and generalized linear models. Reproductive state interacted with time (p=0.001) to influence total LPC-DHA, which significantly increased by week 10 in non-pregnant women, but not in pregnant or lactating women. Contrary to total LPC-DHA, patterns of labeled LPC-DHA enrichments were discordant between pregnant and lactating women (p<0.05), suggestive of unique, reproductive state-specific mechanisms that result in the reduced production and/or enhanced clearance of LPC-DHA during pregnancy and lactation. Regardless of reproductive state, women consuming 930 versus 480 mg choline/d exhibited no change in total LPC-DHA but higher d3-LPC-DHA (p=0.02), indicating that higher choline intakes favor production of LPC-DHA from the PEMT pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Our results warrant further investigation into the effect of reproductive state and dietary choline on LPC-DHA dynamics and its contribution to DHA status.
The Neolithisation of Europe involved socio-economic and biological adaptations to new environments. The use of seaweed as livestock fodder, for example, was key to the introduction of animal husbandry to the Orkney archipelago, c. 3500 cal BC. Using stable isotope analysis of faunal remains from Skara Brae, this study provides new evidence for, and clarifies the chronology of, the adoption of seaweed consumption by sheep. The results show that sheep consumed moderate amounts of seaweed from the moment of their introduction to Orkney—a practice that facilitated the successful spread of the farming lifeways to the most remote areas of Europe.
Las excavaciones arqueológicas y los registros bioantropológicos realizados en el archipiélago de los Chonos (entre 43° 50’ y 46° 50’ S), a lo largo de los canales occidentales de Patagonia, permiten definir la ocupación de este sistema insular por parte de cazadores recolectores marinos desde el Holoceno medio hasta el contacto europeo. Sus conjuntos tecnológicos y arqueofaunísticos señalan una dependencia de recursos del medio litoral y marítimo. La información de isótopos estables del carbono y nitrógeno en restos humanos asociados a estos contextos provee una herramienta de análisis independiente para evaluar las interpretaciones realizadas sobre la base de otros conjuntos de datos arqueológicos. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de análisis de δ13C y δ15N de 38 individuos con edades en el rango entre 2300 y 200 cal aP (fechamientos directos 14C por AMS), así como de muestras complementarias de arqueofauna. El análisis de los valores isotópicos respalda la interpretación de una adaptación cazadora recolectora fundamentada en un patrón de subsistencia enfocado principalmente en recursos litorales y marinos. Los valores de δ13C y δ15N son comparados con los obtenidos de otros grupos canoeros de los canales centrales y meridionales de Patagonia, poniendo de relieve las diferencias en trayectorias de subsistencia entre las regiones involucradas.
Aspects of paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic evolution of the north Aegean Sea through the Holocene are revealed by the study of quantitative variations in planktonic foraminiferal, pteropodal, and palynomorph assemblages; the isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera; and hydrographic-related indices, extracted from two high-sedimentation rate cores from the North Aegean Trough. Focusing on the last ~10 cal ka BP, the current Holocene subdivision (Greenlandian, Northgrippian, and Meghalayan) confirms the traditional understanding of an evolution from wetter (Greenlandian) to gradually drier (Northgrippian and Meghalayan) climatic conditions and further highlights the role of changing seasonality during this time. The most warm and humid phase corresponds to the time of the sapropel S1 deposition (9.6–6.1 cal ka BP). The Holocene climatic instability of the study area is further supported by six episodes of brief cooling (North Aegean cooling; NAEGC6–NAEGC1) centered at 9.30, 8.05, 7.05, 4.55, 3.55, and 2.05 cal ka BP, reflected by significant faunal changes and oxygen isotope enrichments. These cold/arid events are coeval with equivalent cooling events that have been described in different basins of the Mediterranean Sea, while signal similarities with equivalent changes in the intensity of the Siberian high suggest a climatic link between the studied area and the high-latitude areas.
Cephalopods are important prey in the diet of top predators, such as marine mammals and seabirds. However, detailed information on their trophic relationships in the Patagonian marine ecosystem is scarce, including those cephalopod species with commercial interest. The aims of this study were to evaluate the composition of the cephalopod component in the diet of Otaria byronia and determine the habitat use and trophic levels of their main cephalopod prey by measuring the stable isotopic signature of cephalopod beaks. Between May 2005 and February 2009, fresh faecal samples were collected from two sea lions rookeries in San Matias Gulf. Cephalopods occurred in 39.4% of the 1112 samples collected during the whole period of study. The dominant prey species was Octopus tehuelchus, which occurred in 45.8% of scats containing cephalopod remains, and represented 58.7% in terms of numerical abundance and 52.0% in mass of cephalopods consumed. The second species most consumed was the myopsid Doryteuthis gahi. The significant higher δ15N values of O. tehuelchus beaks in comparison with those of D. gahi showed that these two species have different trophic levels while occupying similar habitat (δ13C values) in neritic waters of the Patagonian shelf.
We report on an initial long-term study of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC) from Sabino Creek, located in Sabino Canyon, Pima County, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in dissolved radiocarbon (14C) with time and to understand the processes contributing to these variations. Our results span the period 2009–2016 and show a mixing trend between dissolved inorganic and organic carbon modern end-members with an older component. This study provides preliminary information for more detailed research on recycling of organic components in this stream system.
Biological studies on Mesolithic human remains from the Polish region are a rare subject of scientific research due to the limited number of these relics and their poor state of preservation. From the project titled “Old material with new methods: Using the latest bio-chemical analysis in studies of Mesolithic human remains from the Polish areas,” the radiocarbon (14C) dating of bones using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been performed. For these experiments, the gelatin was extracted from bones, and its quality evaluated by the C/Nat ratio and the stable isotope composition of both carbon and nitrogen. The 14C results have been obtained for 11 bone samples from 5 sites, and throughout this work the results of two preparation methods are compared. The simple gelatin extraction provided material with unsatisfactory collagen quality indicators, while additional alkali treatment allowed us to obtain much more reliable, and generally older, results. Additionally, analysis on VIRI/SIRI samples were conducted to test the developed method. Only seven of the investigated bone samples yielded ages within Mesolithic period, and the most reliable dates range from 5800 to 6800 cal BC. One sample was not datable, and two were shown to be much younger than expected.
The Barents Sea offers a suitable location for documenting advection of warm and saline Atlantic Water (AW) into the Arctic and its impact on deglaciation and postglacial conditions. We investigate the timing, succession, and mechanisms of the transition from proximal glaciomarine to marine environment in the northwestern Barents Sea. Two studied sediment cores demonstrate diachronous retreat of the grounded ice sheet from the Kvitøya Trough (core S2528) to Erik Eriksen Trough (core S2519). Oxygen isotope records from core S2528 depict a two-step pattern, with lower δ18O values prior to the Younger Dryas (YD), and higher values afterward because of advection of the more saline, 18O-enriched AW. At this location, subsurface AW penetration increased during the Allerød and YD/Preboreal transition. In the study area, foraminiferal and dinocyst data from the YD interval suggest cold conditions, extensive sea-ice cover, and brine formation, along with the flow of chilled AW at subsurface and the development of a high-productivity polynya in the Erik Eriksen Trough. Dense winter sea-ice cover with seasonal productivity persisted in the Kvitøya Trough area during the early Holocene, whereas surface warming seems to have occurred during the middle Holocene interval.
In this paper, we present the results of the accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS14C) dating campaign performed on samples selected from different levels in Grotta Romanelli (Castro, Italy). Grotta Romanelli is one of the key sites for the chronology of Middle Pleistocene–Holocene in Mediterranean region. After the first excavation campaigns carried out in the first decades of the 1900s, the cave has been systematically re-excavated only since 2015. During the last excavation campaigns different faunal remains were selected and submitted for 14C dating in order to confirm the chronology of the cave with a higher resolution. Isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurements were also carried out on faunal remains.
Late Quaternary landscapes of unglaciated Beringia were largely shaped by ice-wedge polygon tundra. Ice Complex (IC) strata preserve such ancient polygon formations. Here we report on the Yukagir IC from Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island in northeastern Siberia and suggest that new radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) dates of the Yukagir IC peat confirm its formation during the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 7a–c interglacial period. The preservation of the ice-rich Yukagir IC proves its resilience to last interglacial and late glacial–Holocene warming. This study compares the Yukagir IC to IC strata of MIS 5, MIS 3, and MIS 2 ages exposed on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island. Besides high intrasedimental ice content and syngenetic ice wedges intersecting silts, sandy silts, the Yukagir IC is characterized by high organic matter (OM) accumulation and low OM decomposition of a distinctive Drepanocladus moss-peat. The Yukagir IC pollen data reveal grass-shrub-moss tundra indicating rather wet summer conditions similar to modern ones. The stable isotope composition of Yukagir IC wedge ice is similar to those of the MIS 5 and MIS 3 ICs pointing to similar atmospheric moisture generation and transport patterns in winter. IC data from glacial and interglacial periods provide insights into permafrost and climate dynamics since about 200 ka.
Stomach contents analysis and stable isotope results indicate M. hubbsi is a generalist predator that feeds mainly on demersal fishes, followed by crustaceans and cephalopods. Ontogenetic changes in diet were identified, with fish importance increasing in the diet with hake size. Smaller hake (<250 mm) fed mostly on the sepiolid Semirossia tenera (89.45%IRI) and engraulid fish (89.96%IRI). Mid-sized hake (250–300 mm) fed mainly on benthic fish such as Bellator brachychir (95.63%IRI) and euphausiids (56.46%IRI), while larger hake (>300 mm) fed heavily on Dactylopterus volitans (94.80%IRI) and occasionally on a variety of teleosts. Significant correlations between δ13C (P < 0.05), THg (P < 0.001) and hake size occurred, whereas no relationship was observed between δ15N and hake size or δ15N and total mercury. Signatures were lowest in smaller hake with a tendency of increasing with size. Smaller and larger hake were significantly different in δ13C. Differences regarding isotopic niche width were quantified for each size group; trophic diversity and trophic redundancy among them were negligible, but hake >300 mm possibly have a larger feeding plasticity due to the combination of prey from a wide trophic level range.
We examined the feeding ecology (diet, trophic width and trophic position) of five demersal shark species (Mustelus mustelus Linnaeus, 1758, Galeus melastomus Rafinesque, 1810, Scyliorhinus canicula Linnaeus, 1758, Scyliorhinus stellaris Linnaeus, 1758, Squalus blainville, Risso, 1826) coexisting in the north-eastern Aegean Sea (around Gökçeda Island) by combining stomach content and stable isotope analyses. The results indicate clear differences in diet between the five sharks. Cephalopods were mainly found in diet of S. stellaris and M. mustelus and the stomachs of G. melastomus, S. canicula and S. blainville included fish. S. blainville showed the highest trophic position in respect of stable isotope analysis (TPsia = 4.89) around Gökçeada Island. It was followed by G. melastomus (TPsia = 4.57). Direct isotopic values (both stable nitrogen and carbon) and isotopic niche width based on the Standard Ellipse Area (SEA) clearly differed among the five shark species. In particular, S. blainville was isotopically segregated from the other shark species studied, showing a narrow isotopic trophic niche and higher trophic level. In contrast, M. mustelus had the widest trophic niche of the five species studied. The niche width of S. stellaris was narrower than M. mustelus and S. canicula but wider than S. blainville and G. melastomus. SEA showed that G. melastomus has a specialized feeding strategy in the area. There is no overlap between S. canicula and S. stellaris in trophic width.
Declining sea ice is expected to change the Arctic's physical and biological systems in ways that are difficult to predict. This study used stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ15N) of archaeological, historic, and modern Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) bone collagen to investigate the impacts of changing sea ice conditions on walrus diet during the last ~4000 yr. An index of past sea ice conditions was generated using dinocyst-based reconstructions from three locations in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Archaeological walrus samples were assigned to intervals of high and low sea ice, and δ13C and δ15N were compared across ice states. Mean δ13C and δ15N values were similar for archaeological walruses from intervals of high and low sea ice; however, variability among walruses was greater during low-ice intervals, possibly indicating decreased availability of preferred prey. Overall, sea ice conditions were not a primary driver of changes in walrus diet. The diet of modern walruses was not consistent with archaeological low sea ice intervals. Rather, the low average trophic position of modern walruses (primarily driven by males), with little variability among individuals, suggests that trophic changes to this Arctic ecosystem are still underway or are unprecedented in the last ~4000 yr.
We test the antiquity of a dietary life history model on Tutuila, American Samoa. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in serial, age-adjusted samples of first and third molars reveal isotopic biographies of 16 individuals from five late Holocene (200–1100 RCYBP) sites. Combining this with bone collagen from a larger sample of individuals, we document a patterned dietary life history on the island. Between ages zero and two years, infants show elevated δ15N values, consistent with a diet rich in breast milk. In early childhood (two–10 years), individuals shift to a diet with higher δ13C values, suggesting greater marine protein intake. Around age 10 years, males shift to a more terrestrially focused diet, while females retain a higher marine signature. After ~20 years of age, males and females are more similar in diet, with a greater contribution from terrestrial resources. We argue that these shifts reflect diet-marked social transitions in life histories, especially social status and eating order within households, as predicted from the ethnographic model. When contextualized with other archaeological data, such as mortuary patterns and social organization, the isotopic biographic approach facilitates examination of diet-linked social transitions of individuals as they aged within ancient societies.
A better understanding of the dynamics of different particulate organic matter (OM) pools in the coastal carbon budget is a key issue for quantifying the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle. To elucidate the benthic component of this carbon cycle at the land-sea interface, we investigated the carbon isotope signatures (δ13C and ∆14C) in the sediment pore waters dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in addition to the sediment OM to constrain the origin of the OM mineralized in sediments. The study site is located at the outlet of the Rhône River (Mediterranean Sea), which was chosen because this river is one of the most nuclearized rivers in Europe and nuclear 14C can serve as a tracer to follow the fate of the OM discharged by the river to the coastal sea. The ∆14C results found in the pore waters DIC show a general offset between buried and mineralized OM following a preferential mineralization model of young and fresh particles. For example, we found that the sediment OM has values with a mean ∆14C=–33‰ at sampling stations near the river mouth whereas enriched ∆14C values around +523‰ and +667‰ respectively were found for the pore waters DIC. This indicates complete mineralization of a riverine fraction of OM enriched in 14C in the river conduit during in-stream photosynthesis. In shelf sediments, the ∆14C of pore waters DIC is slightly enriched (+57‰) with sediment OM reaching –570‰. A mixing model shows that particles mineralized near the river mouth are certainly of riverine phytoplanktonic origin whereas OM mineralized on the shelf is of marine origin. This work highlights the fact that pore waters provide additional information compared to sediments alone and it seems essential to work on both pools to study the carbon budget in river prodelta.
Recent studies have shown that faunal assemblages from Mesolithic sites in inland Northern Europe contain more fish remains than previously thought, but the archaeological and archaeozoological record does not reveal the dietary importance of aquatic species to hunter-gatherer-fishers, even at a societal level. For example, the function of bone points, as hunting weapons or fishing equipment, has long been debated. Moreover, traditional methods provide no indication of variable subsistence practices within a population. For these reasons, paleodietary studies using stable isotope analyses of human remains have become routine. We present radiocarbon (14C) and stable isotope data from nine prehistoric human bones from the Early Mesolithic-Early Neolithic site of Friesack 4, and isotopic data for local terrestrial mammals (elk, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, aurochs, beaver) and freshwater fish (European eel, European perch). The reference data allow individual paleodiets to be reconstructed. Using paleodiet estimates of fish consumption, and modern values for local freshwater reservoir effects, we also calibrate human 14C ages taking into account dietary reservoir effects. Although the number of individuals is small, it is possible to infer a decline in the dietary importance of fish from the Preboreal to the Boreal Mesolithic, and an increase in aquatic resource consumption in the Early Neolithic.
New paleodietary data were obtained after the discovery and excavation in 2015–2017 of the Cherepakha 13 site in the southern part of Primorye (Maritime) Province in far eastern Russia. The site is located near the coast of Ussuri Bay (Sea of Japan) and belongs to the Yankovsky cultural complex of the Early Iron Age 14C-dated to ca. 3000 BP (ca. 1200 cal BC). The stable isotope composition of the bone collagen for 11 humans and 30 animals was determined. For humans, the following values (with±1 sigma) were yielded: δ13C=–10.2±0.8‰; and δ15N=+12.4±0.3‰. The majority of terrestrial animals show the usual isotopic signals: δ13C=–19.4 ÷ –23.3‰; and δ15N=+4.6÷+6.6‰ (for wolves, up to +10.1‰); dogs, however, have an isotopic composition similar to humans: δ13C= –11.7±1.2‰; and δ15N=+12.4±0.4‰. Marine mammals have common values for pinnipeds: δ13C=–13.7 ÷ –14.6‰; and δ15N=+17.4 ÷ +18.0‰. The main food resources for the population of Cherepakha 13 site were (1) marine mollusks, fish, and mammals; and (2) terrestrial mammals; and possibly C4 plants (domesticated millets).