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The recent years have brought into the forefront of cognitive neuroscience a mechanistic representation of the world in the cognitive system – cognitive maps. A “zoo” of different cells transforms the immediate experience of wandering in the environment into a maplike representation, written again and again in specific brain structures. Here we claim that another component is crucial for forming and interpreting these maps – the experiential and imaginary self. Through the concept of mental travel we explain how the self may be projected prior to the use of cognitive maps and how the world is referred to the self through the cognitive map. Biases and influences of the self may further affect the maps formation and interpretation. The concept of mental orientation is then suggested to include the experiencing self and the way in which it relates to the environment, as represented on cognitive maps, not only in spatial navigation but also in the processing of time (memories and plans), people (social world), and even abstract concepts.
This concluding chapter discusses the strengths and limitations of Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) in light of the results presented in this book. Concerning the strengths, the chapter notes that HMSC is a unifying framework that encompasses classic approaches such as single-species distribution models and model-based ordinations as special cases, which hence provides simultaneous inferences at the species and community levels. As another key strength, the chapter notes that HMSC can be applied to many kinds of study designs (including hierarchical, temporal or spatial) and many types of data (such as presence–absence, counts and continuous measurements). The chapter further emphasises that HMSC offers the general advantages of model-based approaches, such as tools for model validation and prediction, and that it is especially well suited for predictive modelling of communities with sparse data. Concerning the limitations, the chapter discusses three areas where future development is needed: a broader set of data models, a broader array of model structures related to various ecological and evolutionary processes, and improved computational efficiency.
This chapter describes the types of data that empirical community ecologists typically collect, and how these can be incorporated in the Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) framework as input. While community ecologists apply theoretical, experimental and observational approaches to studying the processes that structure ecological communities, this chapter (and the entire book) focuses mainly on empirical research based on non-manipulative observational data. Understanding the basic features of the data and how they have been collected will be essential for appropriately setting up the HMSC model and interpreting the results. The chapter describes each type of input HMSC data, namely the community data (i.e. the occurrences or abundances of the species), environmental data, data describing the spatio-temporal context, species trait data and phylogenetic data. Finally, the chapter discusses how to best organise the data, as well as how to solve problems arising from missing data.
This chapter applies Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) to a real dataset on Finnish birds, with the aim of using the case study to simultaneously demonstrate the many uses of HMSC. Specifically, it illustrates the full workflow of a typical HMSC analysis, shows how the researcher can access the full posterior distribution to go beyond the default outputs of HMSC analyses, shows how predictions of HMSC can be used as a starting point for further analyses as well as compares HMSC outputs to results obtained by other statistical methods in community ecology. The chapter starts by outlining the five steps of the HMSC workflow, and then shows how the researcher can access the entire posterior distribution of model parameters or predictions, e.g. for examining the level of statistical support related to either of these. Next the chapter illustrates how one may use HMSC predictions as a starting point for applied research, such as spatial conservation prioritisation or bioregionalisation. Finally, the chapter applies other widely used methods in statistical community ecology such as ordination methods and co-occurrence analysis to the same data, with the aim of comparing how their results relate to those obtained by HMSC.
This chapter examines the links between Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) outputs and the underlying community ecological processes. To do so, the chapter applies HMSC to simulated data generated from an agent-based model with known underlying assembly processes, and then assesses how those processes are captured from the patterns in the data. After simulating data with the spatial agent-based model, the chapter simulates two 'virtual ecologists' who sample data from the simulations, one applying a spatial study design and the other a temporal study design. While the main motivation of the chapter is to assess how community assembly processes translate into HMSC outputs, another motivation is to examine the robustness of HSMC to violations against structural model assumptions – namely, the data generated by the agent-based models violate some of the underlying assumptions of generalised linear mixed models and thus of HMSC. The chapter finishes by summarising what the virtual ecologists learned by applying HMSC to their data, particularly in light of the assembly processes that were used to simulate the data.
This chapter covers the basics of generalised linear mixed models in the univariate context of single-species distribution modelling. The chapter starts by discussing how species distribution models relate to the theory on environmental species niches. The modelling part of the chapter first introduces the linear model, then moves to generalised models, then to mixed models with both fixed and random effects, and finally describes how the explained variance can be partitioned among the explanatory variables. The applied part of the chapter uses both simulated and real data to illustrate how the R-package HMSC-R can be used to analyse generalised linear mixed models. While these analyses are rather standard and could also be conducted with many other packages, the reader is encouraged to go through them, as they provide the simplest way of becoming familiar with the syntax of HMSC-R.
This article presents a two-step methodology to annotate temporally anchored spatial knowledge on top of OntoNotes. We first generate potential knowledge using semantic roles or syntactic dependencies and then crowdsource annotations to validate the potential knowledge. The resulting annotations indicate how long entities are or are not located somewhere and temporally anchor this spatial information. We present an in-depth corpus analysis comparing the spatial knowledge generated by manipulating roles or dependencies. Experiments show that working with syntactic dependencies instead of semantic roles allows us to generate more potential entity-related spatial knowledge and obtain better results in a realistic scenario, that is, with predicted linguistic information.
In maritime search and rescue (SAR), commanders need to understand the task execution efficiency of each SAR unit in real time to improve the overall efficiency of SAR efforts. This study proposes a method to evaluate the progress of maritime SAR missions using automatic identification system (AIS) data. First, the positioning accuracy of the AIS data was improved according to the relationship between position, speed, and course. Second, the historical track of the SAR ship was used to generate the SAR completion area based on a line buffer algorithm. The SAR completion area and SAR mission area were then superimposed to determine the overall progress of the SAR mission. The proposed method has been deployed within the SAR software on-board Haixun01 (China's largest and most advanced large-scale cruise rescue ship) since 2017 and has played an important role in devising SAR strategies and tracking mission progress, during several SAR actions.
From April 2018 to August 2019, the Yuan has declined in value relative to the US dollar by 12.6%, and the effects of this decline have not been studied. This study analyzes the effects of this fall in Yuan value, in isolation of tariffs, on US, Chinese, and world cotton markets. The results show that the adverse effects of the decline in Yuan value reverberate throughout world cotton markets and exacerbate the detrimental effects of the Chinese cotton tariff.
Across disciplines, scholars strive to better understand individuals’ milieus—the people, places, and institutions individuals encounter in their daily lives. In particular, political scientists argue that racial and ethnic context shapes attitudes about candidates, policies, and fellow citizens. Yet, the current standard of measuring milieus is to place survey respondents in a geographic container and then to ascribe all that container's characteristics to the individual's milieu. Using a new dataset of over 2.6 million GPS records from over 400 individuals, we compare conventional static measures of racial and ethnic context to dynamic, precise measures of milieus. We demonstrate how low-level static measures tend to overstate how extreme individuals’ racial and ethnic contexts are and offer suggestions for future researchers.
Huencú Nazar es un sitio arqueológico a cielo abierto localizado en el Sistema Lagunar Hinojo-Las Tunas (región pampeana, Argentina) que fue ocupado durante el Holoceno tardío (ca. 3000 aP). En un área de 5.000 m2 se distribuyen 22 fogones, escondrijos de roca y concentraciones de rocas granitoides. En uno de los sectores excavados se registraron fogones en cubeta y el uso de huesos de Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae) como combustible. El uso de combustible óseo permitió solucionar el problema de los residuos molestos para la comodidad de las personas ubicadas alrededor de los fogones. En torno a las estructuras de combustión se depositaron materiales relacionados con la subsistencia y la tecnología.
This chapter takes stock of geopolitical ventures in advancing colonialism from the nineteenth century to the present day. The chapter spotlights protest movements of colonized and displaced communities as they contend with forced mobility and militarized blockade by colonial forces.
Introduction: Spatial ability has been defined as a skill in representing, transforming, generating and recalling symbolic, non-linguistic information. Two distinct human spatial abilities have been identified: visualization and orientation. A sex difference in spatial abilities favouring male has been documented. A pattern of negative effects with increasing age on spatial abilities has also been demonstrated. Spatial abilities have been correlated to anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections in a systematic review. Spatial abilities have also been correlated to technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners in a systematic review. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the interrelationship between spatial abilities, anatomy knowledge and technical skills. Methods: Search criteria included ‘spatial abilities’, ‘anatomy knowledge’ and ‘technical skills’. Keywords related to these criteria were identified. A literature search was done up to November 9, 2018 in Scopus and in several medical and educational databases on Ovid and EBSCOhost platforms. A bank of citations was obtained and was reviewed independently by two investigators. Citations related to abstracts, literature reviews, theses and books were excluded. Articles related to retained citations were obtained and a final list of articles was established. Methods relating spatial abilities testing, anatomy knowledge assessment and technical skills performance were identified. Results: A series of 385 titles and abstracts was obtained. After duplicates were removed and selection criteria applied, 11 articles were retained, fully reviewed, and subsequently excluded with reasons. Conclusion: No eligible articles were found in a systematic review of the interrelationship between spatial abilities, anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The outcome of future studies could help to further understand the cognitive process involved in learning a technical skill in Emergency Medicine.
Heat stress is a global issue constraining pig productivity, and it is likely to intensify under future climate change. Technological advances in earth observation have made tools available that enable identification and mapping livestock species that are at risk of exposure to heat stress due to climate change. Here, we present a methodology to map the current and likely future heat stress risk in pigs using R software by combining the effects of temperature and relative humidity. We applied the method to growing-finishing pigs in Uganda. We mapped monthly heat stress risk and quantified the number of pigs exposed to heat stress using 18 global circulation models and projected impacts in the 2050s. Results show that more than 800 000 pigs in Uganda will be affected by heat stress in the future. The results can feed into evidence-based policy, planning and targeted resource allocation in the livestock sector.
Chapter 3 deals with the topic of spatial case. It considers the range of spatial notions which can be reflected in the case system of a language, including configuration, directionality and distality. A particular emphasis is placed on Nakh-Daghestanian languages, which are characterized by especially rich spatial case systems. The question is raised as to whether an empty adposition analysis is appropriate for such languages. Does the case-marker make a truth-conditional contribution by specifying a certain spatial relation, or is this function fulfilled by a functional element which is present in the structure but not phonologically realized? The chapter also considers non-spatial uses of spatial cases, specifically, instances of metaphorical extension and reduced agentivity. Finally, we take a look at the interrelation between overt spatial prepositions and case-assignment in a number of Indo-European languages.