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What effect do natural disasters have on political participation? Some argue that natural disasters decrease political participation because of the way they reduce individual and group resources. Others argue that they stimulate political participation by creating new social norms. Previous studies have been limited both by their focus on a specific disaster type and a lack of regional variation. This article advances the literature by assessing the effect of the 2011 triple disaster in Japan on political participation at both the individual and district level. Drawing on multiple sources of data, I use a difference-in-differences identification strategy to show that the 2011 triple disaster in Japan resulted in a 6 percent increase in participation in political groups in regions heavily affected by the disaster, and a 2.5 percent increase in voter turnout in districts in prefectures that were significantly affected by the disaster. The results also show that the effect at the individual level is largely confined to individuals with large social networks, suggesting that the effect of natural disasters on political participation is a combination of their direct and indirect impact on variables that operate through different subpopulations. Directions for future studies are suggested.
We develop an integrative perspective on the role of coethnic ties and ties with foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) – normally studied in isolation of each other – on the perceived legitimacy of international new ventures (INVs) from emerging economies. Building on the notions of people (interpersonal diaspora ties) and pipelines (interorganizational MNE ties) in Lorenzen and Mudambi's connectivity theory of clusters, we argue that these could contribute to the focal INV's internal and external legitimacy, respectively, as it seeks to upgrade its capabilities. We go a step further by highlighting people within pipelines – coethnic managers working in foreign MNEs – as a potentially important catalyst of the focal INV's cross-border legitimacy. Using an illustration of an INV from Bangalore, we note that India offers a fruitful setting – and one that is distinct from China – for future INV research into the role of people, pipelines and, in particular, people within pipelines.
Rural-dwelling older adults experience significant shrinkage in their social networks and capital due to transitions in later life related to poor physical health, mobility difficulties and bereavements. Being rurally located adds an extra layer of disadvantage. This article explores how older adults may use community transport systems to not only facilitate important social tasks but also maintain friendships and other valued relationships. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 11 users of a rural transport community bus service in western Northern Ireland. The interviews identified that participants viewed the transport system as a highly valued conduit for helping escape isolation, maintaining autonomy, and providing an informal space for relationship building and accessing local news.
This chapter presents two applications of game theory in context-aware wireless networks and mobile services. The first application is regarding the game modeling of sponsored content of mobile services. In the sponsored content concept, content providers can sponsor the subscribers of a service provider, i.e., a mobile network operator, to access contents or services from the content providers with discounted prices. The context of users in terms of network effects, which is the influence of one user to other users, is an important factor affecting the decisions for service access. The game theoretic model that captures this factor is presented. The second application is on content caching for social networks. In the caching environment, content centers and cache centers are two types of players. The content centers look for cache centers that maximize the content delivery performance. Likewise, the cache centers seek for content centers that provide the best benefit. The matching game is formulated to address this issue.
A better understood chronological framework for the Middle Pleistocene of Britain has enabled archaeologists to detect a number of temporally-restricted assemblage-types, based not on ‘culture historical’ schemes of typological progression but on independent dating methods and secure stratigraphic frameworks, especially river-terrace sequences. This includes a consistent pattern in the timing of Clactonian and Levalloisian industries, as well as a number of handaxe assemblage types that belong to different interglacial cycles. In other words, Derek Roe’s hunch that the apparent lack of coherent ‘cultural’ patterning was due to an inaccurate and inadequate chronological framework was correct. Some variation in handaxe shape is culturally significant. Here we focus on twisted ovate handaxes, which we have previously argued to belong predominantly to MIS 11. Recent discoveries have enabled us to refine our correlations. Twisted ovate assemblages are found in different regions of Britain in different substages of MIS 11 (East Anglia in MIS 11c and south of the Thames in MIS 11a), the Thames, and the MIS 11b cold interval separating the two occurrences. These patterns have the potential to reveal much about hominin settlement patterns, behaviour, and social networks during the Middle Pleistocene.
of this study was to examine the Twitter experiences and networks of six adults with cognitive-communication disability after a traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Using mixed methods, the study integrated: (a) quantitative analysis of Twitter networks using computational and manual coding of tweets; and (b) narrative analysis of in-depth interviews.
Diverse experiences were evident, with two experienced and four novice users of the platform. However, all reported feeling connected and included, and identified both positive and negative experiences in their use of Twitter. Developing a supportive network facilitated higher frequency of tweets and increased feelings of enjoyment and connectedness. All expressed a desire to continue using or learning to use Twitter but novices lacked support from rehabilitation professionals or experienced Twitter users, and relied instead on a “trial and error” approach.
Proactive integration of Twitter use during rehabilitation after TBI is warranted to support safe, enjoyable, and meaningful use.
Acts of financial misconduct in business affect firms in many negative ways. Therefore, why do certain misdemeanants repeatedly commit these acts? We suggest that financial misdemeanants with different social networks will perceive the costs and benefits of committing financial frauds differently, thereby affecting the likelihood of committing financial frauds in the future. To be specific, we suggest that politically connected misdemeanants are less likely to recommit financial frauds, while misdemeanants at interlock network center are more likely to recommit financial frauds. In addition, we propose that misdemeanants are less likely to recommit financial frauds when their partners in the interlock network community are punished for financial frauds. To test our theory, we collected panel data from Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2014 and employed event history analysis (EHA).
Using recent substantive results on China and the West, we highlight some virtues to Mill's method of residues for comparative network research. The result is research that combines the emic-etic approaches discussed by Leung (2009) with the spirit of Whetten's (2009: 49) efforts to make ‘theory borrowing more context sensitive’. We draw on recent comparative research about the competitive advantage enjoyed by network brokers, trust facilitated by embedding a relationship in a closed network, the subset of Chinese relations that constitute guanxi, the idea of American and European guanxi, different business environments maintained by the same network mechanism, cocoon networks, small-world networks, the longer history apparent in Chinese networks, and job search via colleagues, friends, and family. We also illustrate the value of data graphs for the expository value of the method of residuals in comparative network analyses.
Drawing on the experience of firms of various sizes from Francophone Africa, we explore how the internationalization trajectories of frontier economy firms may vary from those predicted by theory. The firms studied followed social, linguistic, cultural, and institutional gradients to internationalize first to France, rather than to neighboring countries, and did so in search of not only markets and resources but also legitimacy. In turn, the sales, resources, and legitimacy acquired in France supported further international expansion, sometimes even to neighboring countries. Although our insights derive from the experience of Francophone firms from Africa, we argue that for firms from all former colonies, the internationalization trajectory leads through the colonial center. Our findings underline the roles of legitimacy-seeking and network ties in the internationalization of frontier market firms and serve as a salutatory reminder of the lingering influence of colonial ties on international business.
As of the beginning of 2016, out of 100,000 “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS)
fighters in Iraq, Syria, Sinai and North African Countries, one-third were foreign-born
fighters from European and Asian countries (AFP Tunis 2013). Although most of the men came
alone, seduced by advertised sexual adventures, the official guiding rule by the ISIS
Caliphate was to establish true marriage with real Muslim brides (Milton and Dodwell 2018).
The Western women were then addressed to come and help in administrative, teaching and
nursing tasks while also instituting families with jihadi fighters. Estimations are that at
least 450–500 Western women of different ages left their countries to join ISIS mujahedin.
For these mobilization efforts, social networks were utilized to serve as means of
communication, coordination and conversion of women’s minds. The skilled usage of different
levels of social networking tools, combined with precise audience targeting, turned the
efforts into powerful recruiting instruments for mobilization of women into terrorist
activities. The ISIS strategy included careful selection of different scenarios and
storyboards for different target audiences, thus maximizing the impact of the exposure to
the message and mobilization.
Social influence is frequently measured through an ego's direct ties. Although influence may also stem from an ego's indirect ties, reference group, and casual contacts, it is difficult to capture their impact using existing network methods. We identify and trace the influence stemming from an ego's “familiar others,” consisting of those socially similar individuals with whom the ego comes in contact at school, but does not necessarily share a relationship. To evaluate the role of familiar others, we investigate unhealthy weight behaviors in adolescence using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Our results demonstrate that familiar others' unhealthy weight-related behaviors are strong predictors of the ego's own weight behaviors, net of immediate alters' behaviors, and individual-level characteristics. Further, we find that this relationship is stronger and more robust than that between egos and their direct ties. These results suggest that familiar others constitute a key source of social influence that is distinct from the influence of network alters.
The conservation benefits of maintaining social groupings during and after animal translocations are unclear. Although some studies report improved post-release survival, others found no discernible influence on reintroduction success. Understanding the effects of social groupings is difficult because release methods can influence the animals’ ability to maintain social groups. We explored this relationship by first studying whether release protocols influenced post-release cohesion in the communal burrowing bettong Bettongia lesueur, and then investigating whether maintenance of social cohesion conferred any post-release advantage. We released bettongs into a small (8 ha) and large (2,600 ha) area and compared the proportion that maintained social groupings in the different settings. The proportion of bettongs sharing with previous warren co-occupants was higher than expected by chance in both areas, however, a significantly higher proportion of bettongs maintained social groupings in the small (75%) compared to the large release area (13%). This suggests bettongs prefer to maintain social groupings but are unable to locate members of their group in large release areas. Bettongs that did maintain social groupings showed no difference in reproductive or health outcomes compared to those that formed new social groupings, suggesting no benefit to reintroduction success. We conclude that release protocols can influence post-release cohesion, but that greater cohesion does not necessarily confer advantages to group-living animals. To test the importance of social cohesion, further research on reintroductions should compare post-release parameters for animals released using protocols that do and do not facilitate maintenance of social groupings.
Middle English religious vocabulary is radically different from that of the previous period: while Old English is characterised more by lexical pattern replication of Latin (and Greek) etyma, Middle English is the period of matter replication. Due to the intake of new French religious words, English lexemes and also whole word families undergo semantic transformation and lexical replacement. Other terms, however, survive from the Old English period into the present day, resisting contact-induced pressure. This study shows that the survival of old lexemes into Middle English is largely determined by the extent of their diffusion and frequency of occurrence before the Norman Conquest. It is postulated that two kinds of inherited Old English lexis should be distinguished in the Middle English period: (i) established terms that had belonged to the West Saxon standard and were still preserved in general use by the lower regular clergy, parish priests and the faithful at large, and (ii) terms of limited currency that had failed to spread outside local communities with strong ties and survived for a short time after the Conquest in smaller religious foundations. The innovation and spread of new francophone religious lexis was conditioned by the new preaching practices that began to develop in Europe in the wake of the Fourth Lateran Council and the emergence of mendicant orders. Preachers of the new type were the multilingual innovators who generated new lexis in English and at the same time were instrumental in its diffusion, serving as weak ties between the various levels of the medieval society. Urban middle classes, on the other hand, were the most likely English-speaking early adopters of new norms.
This article addresses corruption as a negative practice displaying the ‘darker side’ of social capital in Chinese guanxi and Russian blat/svyazi networks. It presents a conceptual framework integrating several research streams to establish a conceptual linkage between social network characteristics and three forms of corruption between business persons and public officials: cronyism, bribery, and extortion. We argue that the forms of corruption in a society are determined by the nature of social network ties and their underlying morality, with particularistic and general trust being key factors. Our framework depicts networks as three concentric circles representing three types of corruption resulting from their corresponding types of reciprocity: open, closed, and negative. We then apply the framework to the practice of guanxi in China and blat/svyazi in Russia. We propose that different network characteristics and different forms of corruption may help explain what we label the ‘China-Russia paradox’ of why corruption and high economic growth have co-existed in China, at least in the short term, but less so in Russia. We conclude with ethical and legal implications for doing business in those two transforming economies and offer suggestions for future research.
Despite the major cultural and political differences between the United States and China, in both countries access to jobs is supposed to be guided by fair and equitable procedures. In the US, there is a presumption of an open labor market in which potential employees compete on the basis of their qualifications, where the fairness of decisions is guided by anti-discrimination laws and normative organizational policies. In China, although there is a history of close relationships that guide the exchange of favors, following the 1949 revolution, Communist Party leaders were given the authority to allocate positions in ways that were supposed to eliminate special privileges of class and background. Yet recent research has suggested that social connections are an important part of getting a job in both the US and China for two-thirds to three-quarters of job seekers. In the US context, such connections are described as social capital. In the Chinese context, connections are defined as guanxi. In this article, we review research on labor market processes in both the US and China to address three important questions: (a) How can we understand the similar functioning of labor markets in such distinct cultural and political systems as the US and China? (b) What are the mechanisms or processes by which people find jobs in the US and China, and how are people able to access these mechanisms or processes in the context of constraining social structures and legal environments? and (c) What are the theoretical implications of the ‘generalized particularism’ that seems to shape labor markets in both the US and China.
This study aimed to examine factors associated with receipt of post-disaster support from network (eg, family or friends) and non-network (eg, government agencies) sources.
Participants (n=409) were from a population-based sample of Hurricane Sandy survivors surveyed 25-28 months post-disaster. Survivors were asked to imagine a future disaster and indicate how much they would depend on network and non-network sources of support. In addition, they reported on demographic characteristics, disaster-related exposure, post-traumatic stress, and depression. Information on the economic and social resources in survivors’ communities was also collected.
Multilevel multivariable regression models found that lack of insurance coverage and residence in a neighborhood wherein more persons lived alone were associated with survivors anticipating less network and non-network support. In addition, being married or cohabiting was significantly associated with more anticipated network support, whereas older age and having a high school education or less were significantly associated with less anticipated network support.
By having survivors anticipate a future disaster scenario, this study provides insight into predictors of post-disaster receipt of network and non-network support. Further research is needed to examine how these findings correspond to survivors’ received support in the aftermath of future disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:711-717)
It is well known that negative ageing perceptions have various detrimental effects on indicators of successful ageing, but less is known about the role of social support networks and loneliness in ageing perceptions. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the association of social networks, relationship quality and loneliness with negative ageing perceptions in late life. Cross-sectional data on 6,912 adults aged ⩾50 years from the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analysed. Ageing perceptions were assessed with the Brief Ageing Perceptions Questionnaire. Information on social support networks, loneliness and socio-demographics were obtained using standard questions. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to assess the associations. Social isolation, poor relationship quality (with spouse, children, other family members or friends) and loneliness were all significantly associated with negative ageing perceptions even after adjustment for all potential confounders including depressive symptoms. Our study indicates that targeting integration into social support networks and improving relationship quality may potentially reduce the extent to which older individuals adopt negative ageing perceptions. Future studies with prospective design are warranted to understand the temporal direction and causal association of social support networks and loneliness with negative ageing perceptions.
Detecting communities in large-scale social networks is a challenging task where each vertex may belong to multiple communities. Such behavior of vertices and the implied strong overlaps among communities render many detection algorithms invalid. We develop a Partial Community Merger Algorithm (PCMA) for detecting communities with significant overlaps as well as slightly overlapping and disjoint ones. It is a bottom-up approach based on properly reassembling partial information of communities revealed in ego networks of vertices to reconstruct complete communities. We propose a novel similarity measure of communities and an efficient merger process to address the two key issues—noise control and merger order—in implementing this approach. PCMA is tested against two benchmarks and overall it outperforms all compared algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency. It is applied to two huge online social networks, Friendster and Sina Weibo. Millions of communities are detected and they are of higher qualities than the corresponding metadata groups. We find that the latter should not be regarded as the ground-truth of structural communities. The significant overlapping pattern found in the detected communities confirms the need of new algorithms, such as PCMA, to handle multiple memberships of vertices in social networks.
Recent societal changes have increased the salience of non-kin relationships. It can be questioned whether network types that are more strongly non-kin-based give more informal care nowadays. We study how informal care use differs according to network type for three birth cohorts. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) on older adults aged 75–84 years, interviewed in 1992, 2002 and 2012, respectively (total sample size N = 2,151, analytical sample having functional limitations N = 926). We found four network types: restricted, family-focused with a partner, family-focused without a partner and wider community-focused diverse networks. Wider community-focused diverse networks are more common in the late birth cohort, whereas restricted networks and family-focused networks without a partner are less common. Logistic regression analyses reveal that those in a family-focused network with a partner use informal care more often than those in the other three network types, and insignificant interaction terms show that this does not differ by birth cohort. Irrespective of their network type, those in the late birth cohort use informal care less often. However, after controlling for need, predisposing and context factors, this cohort-difference is no longer significant. We conclude that despite large-scale societal changes, wider community-focused diverse networks do not provide more informal care than before and that among the functionally impaired, the odds of receiving informal care does not decline across birth cohorts.
Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue, or study design, e.g. fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Research has shown how FCD affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored. To study the impact of degree truncation on predictions of spreading process outcomes, we generated collections of synthetic networks containing specific properties (degree distribution, degree-assortativity, clustering), and used empirical social network data from 75 villages in Karnataka, India. We simulated FCD using various truncation thresholds and ran a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) process on each network. We found that spreading processes on truncated networks resulted in slower and smaller epidemics, with a sudden decrease in prediction accuracy at a level of truncation that varied by network type. Our results have implications beyond FCD to truncation due to any limited sampling from a larger network. We conclude that knowledge of network structure is important for understanding the accuracy of predictions of process spread on degree truncated networks.