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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important resource to the national economy and it is essential to assess the genetic diversity in existing sorghum germplasm for better conservation, utilization and crop improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of genetic diversity within and among sorghum germplasms collected from diverse institutes in Nigeria and Mali using Single Nucleotide Polymorphic markers. Genetic diversity among the germplasm was low with an average polymorphism information content value of 0.24. Analysis of Molecular Variation revealed 6% variation among germplasm and 94% within germplasms. Dendrogram revealed three groups of clustering which indicate variations within the germplasms. Private alleles identified in the sorghum accessions from National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Ibadan, Nigeria and International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Kano, Nigeria shows their prospect for sorghum improvement and discovery of new agronomic traits. The presence of private alleles and genetic variation within the germplasms indicates that the accessions are valuable resources for future breeding programs.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
Mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, which has a significant economic impact and is an animal welfare concern. This work examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNVs) with the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM). Using information from 16 half-sib pairs of Holstein-Friesian cows (32 animals in total) we searched for genomic regions that differed between a healthy (no incidence of CM) and a mastitis-prone (multiple incidences of CM) half-sib. Three cows with average sequence depth of coverage below 10 were excluded, which left 13 half-sib pairs available for comparisons. In total, 191 CNV regions were identified, which were deleted in a mastitis-prone cow, but present in its healthy half-sib and overlapped in at least nine half-sib pairs. These regions overlapped with exons of 46 genes, among which APP (BTA1), FOXL2 (BTA1), SSFA2 (BTA2), OTUD3 (BTA2), ADORA2A (BTA17), TXNRD2 (BTA17) and NDUFS6 (BTA20) have been reported to influence CM. Moreover, two duplicated CNV regions present in nine healthy individuals and absent in their mastitis-affected half-sibs overlapped with exons of a cholinergic receptor nicotinic α 10 subunit on BTA15 and a novel gene (ENSBTAG00000008519) on BTA27. One CNV region deleted in nine mastitis-affected sibs overlapped with two neighbouring long non-coding RNA sequences located on BTA12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with differential genotypes between a healthy and a mastitis-affected sib included 17 polymorphisms with alternate alleles in eight affected and healthy half-sib families. Three of these SNPs were located introns of genes: MET (BTA04), RNF122 (BTA27) and WRN (BTA27). In summary, structural polymorphisms in form of CNVs, putatively play a role in susceptibility to CM. Specifically, sequence deletions have a greater effect on reducing resistance against mastitis, than sequence duplications have on increasing resistance against the disease.
Birth weight is the earliest available growth trait with considerable impacts on lamb survivability and growth performance traits. This study was conducted to perform a genome-wide association study of birth weight in a meat-type sheep. A total of 132 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were selected based on estimated of breeding values (EBVs) for BW analyses. The selected animals were genotyped using Illumina Ovine SNP50 Bead Chip. After quality control, a total of 41 323 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 130 sheep were used for subsequent analyses. Plink 1.90 beta software was used for the analyses. Seven SNPs on chromosomes 1, 16, 19 and 22 were detected based on genome-wide unadjusted P-values (P <10−6), which jointly accounted for 1.2% of total genetic variation. However, based on Bonferroni-adjusted P-values, only three SNPs on chromosome 1 had significant associations with EBVs for birth weight (P <0.05), which jointly explained 0.8% of total genetic variation. A total of seven genes were found in 50 kb intervals from the three significant SNPs on chromosome 1, but only three genes, including RAB6B (a member of RAS oncogene family), Tf serotransferrin and GIGYF2 (a GRB10 interacting GYF protein 2), could be considered as candidate genes for birth weight in future studies. The results of this study may facilitate potential use of the genes involving in growth and production traits for genetic improvement of productivity in sheep.
Taihu pig breeds are the most prolific breeds of swine in the world, and they also have superior economic traits, including high resistance to disease, superior meat quality, high resistance to crude feed and a docile temperament. The formation of these phenotypic characteristics is largely a result of long-term artificial or natural selection. Therefore, exploring selection signatures in the genomes of the Taihu pigs will help us to identify porcine genes related to productivity traits, disease and behaviour. In this study, we used both intra-population (Relative Extend Haplotype Homozygosity Test (REHH)) and inter-population (the Cross-Population Extend Haplotype Homozygosity Test (XPEHH); F-STATISTICS, FST) methods to detect genomic regions that might be under selection process in Taihu pig breeds. As a result, we found 282 (REHH) and 112 (XPEHH) selection signature candidate regions corresponding to 159.78 Mb (6.15%) and 62.29 Mb (2.40%) genomic regions, respectively. Further investigations of the selection candidate regions revealed that many genes under these genomic regions were related to reproductive traits (such as the TLR9 gene), coat colour (such as the KIT gene) and fat metabolism (such as the CPT1A and MAML3 genes). Furthermore, gene enrichment analyses showed that genes under the selection candidate regions were significantly over-represented in pathways related to diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid and asthma diseases. In conclusion, several candidate genes potentially under positive selection were involved in characteristics of Taihu pig. These results will further allow us to better understand the mechanisms of selection in pig breeding.
The study reported in this Research Communication was conducted to investigate the molecular characterisation of buffalo SCAP gene, expression analysis, and the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and milk production traits in 384 buffaloes. Sequence analysis revealed the SCAP gene had an open reading frame of 3837 bp encoding 1279 amino acids. A ubiquitous expression profile of SCAP gene was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the mammary gland during early lactation. Moreover, eleven SNPs in buffalo SCAP gene were identified, six of them (g.1717600A>G, g.1757922C>T, g.1758953G>A, g.1759142C>T, g.1760740G>A, and g.1766036T>C) were found to be significantly associated with 305-day milk yield. Thus, buffalo SCAP could sever as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in buffalo and the identified SNPs might potentially be genetic markers.
Protected designation of origin dry-cured hams are obtained from heavy pigs (slaughtered at about 160 kg of live weight). A specific breeding program designed to improve meat quality for this production has included as key traits the level of intermuscular fat between the leg muscles and ham weight loss during the seasoning period together with a balance between fat and lean cuts. In this study we carried out genome-wide association studies for seven traits used in the genetic merit of Italian Duroc heavy pigs, five related to meat and carcass quality traits (visible intermuscular fat, ham weight loss at first salting, backfat thickness, ham weight and lean cuts), and two related to performance and efficiency traits (average daily gain and feed : gain ratio). A total of 573 performance-tested pigs were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and genome-wide association analyses were carried out using the Bayes B approach with the 1 Mb window option of GenSel and random residuals for each of the seven traits. Detected windows were supported by independent single nucleotide polymorphism analyses with a linear mixed model (LMM) approach on the same animals for the same traits. A total of 30 windows identifying different quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected and among those, 27 were confirmed by LMM in one of these traits. Among the confirmed windows, three QTL were reported for visible intermuscular fat, seven for ham weight loss at first salting and five and four for backfat thickness and lean cut, respectively. A total of eight QTL were detected for the other production traits. No overlapping QTL were reported except for one window on porcine chromosome 10 between lean cuts and ham weight that contained the CACNB2 gene that has been already associated with loin marbling score in other Duroc pigs. Several regions contained genes that have been already associated with production traits in other pig breeds, including Duroc lines, related to fat deposition or muscle structure. This work reports, for the first time, genome-wide association study results for several traits in Italian Duroc heavy pigs. These results will be useful to dissect the genetic basis for dry-cured ham production traits that determine the total genetic merit index of Italian Duroc pigs.
The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, the causative agent of crayfish plague, is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world, destroying the native crayfish populations throughout Eurasia. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of selected mitochondrial (mt) genes to track the diversity of the crayfish plague pathogen A. astaci. Two sets of primers were developed to amplify the mtDNA of ribosomal rnnS and rnnL subunits. We confirmed two main lineages, with four different haplogroups and five haplotypes among 27 studied A. astaci strains. The haplogroups detected were (1) the A-haplogroup with the a-haplotype strains originating from Orconectes sp., Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus astacus; (2) the B-haplogroup with the b-haplotype strains originating from the P. leniusculus; (3) the D-haplogroup with the d1 and d2-haplotypes strains originating from Procambarus clarkii; and (4) the E-haplogroup with the e-haplotype strains originating from the Orconectes limosus. The described markers are stable and reliable and the results are easily repeatable in different laboratories. The present method has high applicability as it allows the detection and characterization of the A. astaci haplotype in acute disease outbreaks in the wild, directly from the infected crayfish tissue samples.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) involves insertion/deletion (in/del) polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP) promoter region that are associated with vulnerability to disease progression. Recently, a second member of the prion gene family, prion-like protein gene (PRND), has been reported to show the PRND R132Q polymorphism, which is associated with the susceptibility to BSE in German Fleckvieh breeds. The objective of this study was to examine the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of PRND gene in Korean cattle and evaluate their susceptibility to BSE. We did this in 277 Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and 124 Korean dairy cattle (Holstein) by direct sequencing and compared the R132Q genotype frequency between BSE-affected German cattle and Korean cattle. The results indicated a total of 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including PRND c.149G > A (p.50Arg > His; R50H), PRND c.285C > T (C4819T), PRND c.395G > A (p.132Arg > Gln; R132Q) and PRND c.528T > A (T5063A) in the open reading frame (ORF) and c.602C > G in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of exon 2 in Korean Holstein and Hanwoo cattle. Except for c.149G > A, the remaining 4 SNPs showed significantly different genotype and allele frequencies between the Korean Holstein and Hanwoo (P < 0·01). There were no significant differences in genotype distribution of c.395G > A SNP between BSE-affected German and Korean Holstein cattle (P = 0·6778), but a significant difference was detected between BSE-affected German cattle and Hanwoo cattle (P = 0·0028). The results suggest that Hanwoo cattle may possess a relatively more BSE-resistant genotype than Korean Holstein cattle.
Compared with conventional identification methods, DNA-based genetic approaches such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and satellites are much more reliable for pig identification and meat traceability. In this study, multiallelic amplification fragments with multiple SNPs, incorporating the advantages of both SNPs and microsatellites, were explored for the first time for pig identification and meat traceability. Primer pairs for multiallelic fragments and their optimal SNPs were successfully selected and used for identification of individuals from Suzhong and Duroc populations. Meanwhile, the combined panel of the above mentioned primer pairs together with their optimal SNPs for Suzhong and/or Duroc pigs were validated for identification of the hybrids (Suzhong×Duroc). Therefore, we have successfully selected multiallelic amplification fragments with multiple SNPs to identify pigs and their meat samples from Suzhong, Duroc or their hybrids. Our study demonstrates that our method is more powerful for pig identification or meat traceability than SNPs or microsatellites.
Atrial septal defect is one of the most common CHD. The pathogenesis of atrial septal defect still remains unknown. Cx43 is the most prevalent connexin in the mammalian heart during development. Its genetic variants can cause several CHD. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of genetic variations of the Cx43 with sporadic atrial septal defect. A total of 450 paediatric patients were recruited, including 150 cases with atrial septal defect and 300 healthy controls. The promoter region of Cx43 was analysed by sequencing after polymerase chain reaction. All data were analysed by using the Statistic Package for Social Science 19.0 software. The frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2071166 was significantly higher in atrial septal defect cases than in healthy controls. The CC genotype at rs2071166 site in Cx43 was correlated with an increased risk for atrial septal defect (p<0.0001, odds ratio=3.891, 95% confidence interval 1.948–7.772) and the C allele was positively correlated with atrial septal defect (p=0.007, odds ratio=1.567, 95% confidence interval 1.129–2.175). In conclusion, our results confirmed that rs2071166 in Cx43 may be relevant with an increased atrial septal defect risk.
This Research Communication describes the association between genetic variation within the prolactin (PRL) gene and the milk production traits of Italian Mediterranean river buffalo (Bufala mediterranea Italiana). High resolution melting (HRM) techniques were developed for genotyping 465 buffaloes. The association of genetic polymorphism with milk production traits was performed and subsequently the effects of parity and calving season were evaluated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at exons 2 and 5 and at introns 1 and 2. All the SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and statistical analysis showed that the polymorphism of intron1 was significantly (P < 0·05) associated with milk yield, milk protein content and peak milk yield. The average contribution of the intron1 genotype (r2intron1) to total phenotypic variance in milk production traits was 0·09, and the TT genotype showed lower values than CC and CT genotypes. A nonsynonymous SNP was identified in exon 2, which resulted in an amino acid change from arginine to cysteine. Moreover, the polymorphism of exon 2 was associated significantly with milk fat content (P < 0·05), and the buffaloes with TT genotype showed higher total fat content than the buffaloes with CT genotype. These findings provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo PRL gene are associated with milk production traits and PRL can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo breeding.
Accurate genomic analyses are predicated on access to a large quantity of accurately genotyped and phenotyped animals. Because the cost of genotyping is often less than the cost of phenotyping, interest is increasing in generating genotypes for phenotyped animals. In some instances this may imply the requirement to genotype older animals with greater phenotypic information content. Biological material for these older informative animals may, however, no longer exist. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability to impute 11 129 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of non-genotyped animals (in this instance sires) from the genotypes of their progeny with or without including the genotypes of the progenys’ dams (i.e. mates of the sire to be imputed). The impact on the accuracy of genotype imputation by including more progeny (and their dams’) genotypes in the imputation reference population was also quantified. When genotypes of the dams were not available, genotypes of 41 sires with at least 15 genotyped progeny were used for the imputation; when genotypes of the dams were available, genotypes of 21 sires with at least 10 genotyped progeny were used for the imputation. Imputation was undertaken exploiting family and population level information. The mean and variability in the proportion of genotypes per individual that could not be imputed reduced as the number of progeny genotypes used per individual increased. Little improvement in the proportion of genotypes that could not be imputed was achieved once genotypes of seven progeny and their dams were used or genotypes of 11 progeny without their respective dam’s genotypes were used. Mean imputation accuracy per individual (depicted by both concordance rates and correlation between true and imputed) increased with increasing progeny group size. Moreover, the range in mean imputation accuracy per individual reduced as more progeny genotypes were used in the imputation. If the genotype of the mate of the sire was also used, high accuracy of imputation (mean genotype concordance rate per individual of 0.988), with little additional benefit thereafter, was achieved with seven genotyped progeny. In the absence of genotypes on the dam, similar imputation accuracy could not be achieved even using genotypes on up to 15 progeny. Results therefore suggest, at least for the SNP density used in the present study, that it is possible to accurately impute the genotypes of a non-genotyped parent from the genotypes of its progeny and there is a benefit of also including the genotype of the sire’s mate (i.e. dam of the progeny).
In the present study, we used genomic data, generated with a medium density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) array, to acquire more information on the population structure and evolutionary history of the synthetic Frizarta dairy sheep. First, two typical measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were estimated at various physical distances that were then used to make inferences on the effective population size at key past time points. Population structure was also assessed by both multidimensional scaling analysis and k-means clustering on the distance matrix obtained from the animals’ genomic relationships. The Wright’s fixation FST index was also employed to assess herds’ genetic homogeneity and to indirectly estimate past migration rates. The Wright’s fixation FIS index and genomic inbreeding coefficients based on the genomic relationship matrix as well as on runs of homozygosity were also estimated. The Frizarta breed displays relatively low LD levels with r2 and |Dʹ| equal to 0.18 and 0.50, respectively, at an average inter-marker distance of 31 kb. Linkage disequilibrium decayed rapidly by distance and persisted over just a few thousand base pairs. Rate of LD decay (β) varied widely among the 26 autosomes with larger values estimated for shorter chromosomes (e.g. β=0.057, for OAR6) and smaller values for longer ones (e.g. β=0.022, for OAR2). The inferred effective population size at the beginning of the breed’s formation was as high as 549, was then reduced to 463 in 1981 (end of the breed’s formation) and further declined to 187, one generation ago. Multidimensional scaling analysis and k-means clustering suggested a genetically homogenous population, FST estimates indicated relatively low genetic differentiation between herds, whereas a heat map of the animals’ genomic kinship relationships revealed a stratified population, at a herd level. Estimates of genomic inbreeding coefficients suggested that most recent parental relatedness may have been a major determinant of the current effective population size. A denser than the 50k SNP panel may be more beneficial when performing genome wide association studies in the breed.
Angus and Hereford beef is marketed internationally for apparent superior meat quality attributes; DNA-based breed authenticity could be a useful instrument to ensure consumer confidence on premium meat products. The objective of this study was to develop an ultra-low-density genotype panel to accurately quantify the Angus and Hereford breed proportion in biological samples. Medium-density genotypes (13 306 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were available on 54 703 commercial and 4042 purebred animals. The breed proportion of the commercial animals was generated from the medium-density genotypes and this estimate was regarded as the gold-standard breed composition. Ten genotype panels (100 to 1000 SNPs) were developed from the medium-density genotypes; five methods were used to identify the most informative SNPs and these included the Delta statistic, the fixation (Fst) statistic and an index of both. Breed assignment analyses were undertaken for each breed, panel density and SNP selection method separately with a programme to infer population structure using the entire 13 306 SNP panel (representing the gold-standard measure). Breed assignment was undertaken for all commercial animals (n=54 703), animals deemed to contain some proportion of Angus based on pedigree (n=5740) and animals deemed to contain some proportion of Hereford based on pedigree (n=5187). The predicted breed proportion of all animals from the lower density panels was then compared with the gold-standard breed prediction. Panel density, SNP selection method and breed all had a significant effect on the correlation of predicted and actual breed proportion. Regardless of breed, the Index method of SNP selection numerically (but not significantly) outperformed all other selection methods in accuracy (i.e. correlation and root mean square of prediction) when panel density was ⩾300 SNPs. The correlation between actual and predicted breed proportion increased as panel density increased. Using 300 SNPs (selected using the global index method), the correlation between predicted and actual breed proportion was 0.993 and 0.995 in the Angus and Hereford validation populations, respectively. When SNP panels optimised for breed prediction in one population were used to predict the breed proportion of a separate population, the correlation between predicted and actual breed proportion was 0.034 and 0.044 weaker in the Hereford and Angus populations, respectively (using the 300 SNP panel). It is necessary to include at least 300 to 400 SNPs (per breed) on genotype panels to accurately predict breed proportion from biological samples.
Genomic and genetic variation among six Italian chicken native breeds (Livornese, Mericanel della Brianza, Milanino, Bionda Piemontese, Bianca di Saluzzo and Siciliana) were studied using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variants (CNV) as markers. A total of 94 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array (Affymetrix) were used in the analyses. The results showed the genetic and genomic variability occurring among the six Italian chicken breeds. The genetic relationship among animals was established with a principal component analysis. The genetic diversity within breeds was calculated using heterozygosity values (expected and observed) and with Wright’s F-statistics. The individual-based CNV calling, based on log R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was done by the Hidden–Markov Model (HMM) of PennCNV software on autosomes. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied in each population according to the absence or presence of definite CNV regions (CNV were grouped by overlapping of at least 1 bp). The CNV map was built on a total of 1003 CNV found in individual samples, after grouping by overlaps, resulting in 564 unique CNV regions (344 gains, 213 losses and 7 complex), for a total of 9.43 Mb of sequence and 1.03% of the chicken assembly autosome. All the approaches using SNP data showed that the Siciliana breed clearly differentiate from other populations, the Livornese breed separates into two distinct groups according to the feather colour (i.e. white and black) and the Bionda Piemontese and Bianca di Saluzzo breeds are closely related. The genetic variability found using SNP is comparable with that found by other authors in the same breeds using microsatellite markers. The CNV markers analysis clearly confirmed the SNP results.
In major depressive disorder (MDD), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in monoaminergic genes may impact disease susceptibility, treatment response, and brain volume. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of such polymorphisms on hippocampal volume in patients with treatment-resistant MDD and healthy controls. Candidate gene risk alleles were hypothesised to be associated with reductions in hippocampal volume.
A total of 26 outpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 27 matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping for six SNPs in monoaminergic genes [serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2), serotonin 1A and 2A receptors (HTR1A and HTR2A), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)]. Hippocampal volume was estimated using an automated segmentation algorithm (FreeSurfer).
Hippocampal volume did not differ between patients and controls. Within the entire study sample irrespective of diagnosis, C allele-carriers for both the NET−182 T/C [rs2242446] and 5-HT1A−1019C/G [rs6295] polymorphisms had smaller hippocampal volumes relative to other genotypes. For the 5-HTTLPR (rs25531) polymorphism, there was a significant diagnosis by genotype interaction effect on hippocampal volume. Among patients only, homozygosity for the 5-HTTLPR short (S) allele was associated with smaller hippocampal volume. There was no association between the 5-HT2A, COMT, and BDNF SNPs and hippocampal volume.
The results indicate that the volume of the hippocampus may be influenced by serotonin- and norepinephrine-related gene polymorphisms. The NET and 5-HT1A polymorphisms appear to have similar effects on hippocampal volume in patients and controls while the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism differentially affects hippocampal volume in the presence of depression.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. In the present study, we selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n = 24 and AB; n = 24), trickle-infected them with A. suum from 8 weeks of age until necropsy 8 weeks later, and tested the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, fecal egg counts (FEC), number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels). Pigs of the AA genotype had lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2·4 vs 19·3; P = 0·06), lower mean total worm burden (26·5 vs 70·1; P = 0·09) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 PI (mean number of eggs/g feces: 238 vs 1259; P = 0·14) than pigs of the AB genotype, as expected based on prior associations. The pigs were also genotyped at another locus (SNP ARNT) which showed a similar trend. This study provides suggestive evidence that resistant pigs may be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and provides further support to the quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4.
Adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and possibly fetal growth. Our aim was to assess the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and the birth sizes. We investigated four SNPs of ADIPOQ (rs182052, rs2241766, rs1501299, and rs266729) and birth height and weight in 237 healthy full-term neonates. The neonates with the rs182052 G allele had a greater birth weight (p = .043 in the dominant model) and a higher ponderal index (p = .028 in the additive model). The rs2241766 G allele was associated with a greater birth weight (p = .016 in the recessive model). In a logistic regression analysis, the homozygotes for the rs182052 G allele and those for the rs2241766 G allele showed a significant association with a greater birth weight above 90 percentile (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.13–6.70 and OR 5.15, 95% CI 1.66–15.99, respectively). In conclusion, we found an association between rs182052 and rs2241766 and birth weight and ponderal index among healthy neonates and suggested that adiponectin might have some roles in fetal growth.
In this work, the genetic variation of milk FA was investigated in three different bovine breeds, the Jersey, the Piedmontese and the Valdostana, and at different lactation stages. All animals were genotyped for 21 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms located within nine candidate genes involved in lipid synthesis: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 (DGAT1, 2); stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD); growth hormone receptor (GHR); fatty acid synthase (FASN); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD); fatty acid binding protein (FABP4); lipoprotein lipase (LPL); and leptin gene (LEP). The highest milk-fat Jersey breed also showed the highest content of saturated FA. Throughout lactation, the breeds showed a similar variation in the FA, with a decrease in the short-chain, this was accompanied by a general increase in the long chain FA at the end of lactation. The increase in long chain saturated FA was particularly evident in the case of the Jersey. The effect of SCD gene on the C14 desaturation index was confirmed; the DGAT1 gene was polymorphic only in the Jersey breed, but its effect was confirmed only on milk fat content; three further potential candidate genes were identified: first, the FABP4 gene, which was found to influence medium and long chain FA in all the breeds, but not the desaturation indices; second, the FASN gene, which was found to influence the amount of PUFA in the Piedmontese and the Valdostana, and third, the LPL gene, which was found to affect fat content in the Piedmontese.