Incompressible flows with zero Reynolds number can be modeled by the Stokes equations. When numerically solving the Stokes flow in stream-vorticity formulation with high-order accuracy, it will be important to solve both the stream function and velocity components with the high-order accuracy simultaneously. In this work, we will develop a fifth-order spectral/combined compact difference (CCD) method for the Stokes equation in stream-vorticity formulation on the polar geometries, including a unit disk and an annular domain. We first use the truncated Fourier series to derive a coupled system of singular ordinary differential equations for the Fourier coefficients, then use a shifted grid to handle the coordinate singularity without pole condition. More importantly, a three-point CCD scheme is developed to solve the obtained system of differential equations. Numerical results are presented to show that the proposed spectral/CCD method can obtain all physical quantities in the Stokes flow, including the stream function and vorticity function as well as all velocity components, with fifth-order accuracy, which is much more accurate and efficient than low-order methods in the literature.