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A private nuisance is an act or omission by D which constitutes a violation of C’s real property rights, entailing either an interference with C’s legal interest in the land (including some easement or other right which C possesses in connection with that land) or an interference with the amenity of the land, i.e., C’s right to use and enjoy that land.
It is unclear whether olfactory deficits improve after remission in depressed patients. Therefore, we aimed to assess in drug-free patients the olfactory performance of patients with major depressive episodes (MDE) and its change after antidepressant treatment.
In the DEP-ARREST-CLIN study, 69 drug-free patients with a current MDE in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed for their olfactory performances and depression severity, before and after 1 (M1) and 3 (M3) months of venlafaxine antidepressant treatment. They were compared to 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Olfaction was assessed with a psychophysical test, the Sniffin’ Sticks test (Threshold: T score; Discrimination: D score; Identification: I score; total score: T + D + I = TDI score) and Pleasantness (pleasantness score: p score; neutral score: N score; unpleasantness score: U score).
As compared to HCs, depressed patients had lower TDI olfactory scores [mean (s.d.) 30.0(4.5) v. 33.3(4.2), p < 0.001], T scores [5.6(2.6) v. 7.4(2.6), p < 0.01], p scores [7.5(3.0) v. 9.8(2.8), p < 0.001)] and higher N scores [3.5(2.6) v. 2.1(1.8), p < 0.01]. T, p and N scores at baseline were independent from depression and anhedonia severity. After venlafaxine treatment, significant increases of T scores [M1: 7.0(2.6) and M3: 6.8(3.1), p < 0.01] and p scores [M1: 8.1(3.0) and M3: 8.4(3.3), p < 0.05] were evidenced, in remitters only (T: p < 0.01; P: p < 0.01). Olfaction improvement was mediated by depression improvement.
The olfactory signature of MDE is restored after venlafaxine treatment. This olfaction improvement is mediated by depression improvement.
The validity of network observations is sometimes of concern in empirical studies, since observed networks are prone to error and may not represent the population of interest. This lack of validity is not just a result of random measurement error, but often due to systematic bias that can lead to the misinterpretation of actors’ preferences of network selections. These issues in network observations could bias the estimation of common network models (such as those pertaining to influence and selection) and lead to erroneous statistical inferences. In this study, we proposed a simulation-based sensitivity analysis method that can evaluate the robustness of inferences made in social network analysis to six forms of selection mechanisms that can cause biases in network observations—random, homophily, anti-homophily, transitivity, reciprocity, and preferential attachment. We then applied this sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of inferences for social influence effects, and we derived two sets of analytical solutions that can account for biases in network observations due to random, homophily, and anti-homophily selection.
From 1989 to 2014, Iran was known as a country with a successful family planning programme, and has experienced a sharp decline in fertility over recent decades. This led to the introduction of pronatalist policies in 2014 and the restriction of family planning services. The aim of this study was to explore men’s views on their access to contraceptive information and services and the socio-cultural barriers to such access in Tehran. The qualitative study was conducted in 2014 using in-depth interviews with 60 married men of varying ages and socioeconomic status from across Tehran. The data were analysed with a basic interpretive approach using MAXQDA10. Although the majority of the men acknowledged the importance of family planning and contraceptive use, they reported that their access to contraceptive information and services was limited. Discussion of sexual matters and contraception among men was identified as being somewhat embarrassing. Three main issues were identified: (1) men’s poor awareness of contraceptive use; (2) men’s poor access to high-quality health care services; and (3) cultural taboos and gender norms as barriers to contraception use by men. Socio-cultural and gender norms were found to significantly affect the men’s contraceptive use. The study results support the growing call for gender-transformative approaches to family planning and reproductive health service delivery in Iran, to involve men and facilitate their greater participation.
This paper is concerned with identifying and accounting for cases where the epistemic standard is raised inappropriately. The first section is concerned with identifying a notion of a variable epistemic standard that is neutral regarding a range of theoretical issues. The second section argues that the possibility the epistemic standard could be raised in some epistemic inappropriate way warrants further investigation. The third section outlines and provides a partial explanation of such a case: one in which a climate change denier attempts to raise the epistemic standard in order to shut down inquiry.
This work explores the uncertainty of the inferred maize pollen emission rate using measurements and simulations of pollen dispersion at Grignon in France. Measurements were obtained via deposition of pollen on the ground in a canopy gap; simulations were conducted using the two-dimensional Lagrangian Stochastic Mechanistic mOdel for Pollen dispersion and deposition (SMOP). First, a quantitative evaluation of the model's performance was conducted using a global sensitivity analysis to analyse the convergence behaviour of the results and scatter diagrams. Then, a qualitative study was conducted to infer the pollen emission rate and calibrate the methodology against experimental data for several sets of variable values. The analysis showed that predicted and observed values were in good agreement and the calculated statistical indices were mostly within the range of acceptable model performance. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mean settling velocity and vertical leaf area index are the main variables affecting pollen deposition in the canopy gap. Finally, an estimated pollen emission rate was obtained according to a restricted setting, where the model studied includes no deposition on leaves, no resuspension and with horizontal pollen fluctuations either taken into account or not. The estimated pollen emission rate obtained was nearly identical to the measured quantity. In conclusion, the findings of the current study show that the described methodology could be an interesting approach for accurate prediction of maize pollen deposition and emission rates and may be appropriate for other pollen types.
Early life stress has been associated with emotional dysregulations and altered architecture of limbic-prefrontal brain systems engaged in emotional processing. Serotonin regulates both, developmental and experience-dependent neuroplasticity in these circuits. Central serotonergic biosynthesis rates are regulated by Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and transgenic animal models suggest that TPH2-gene associated differences in serotonergic signaling mediate the impact of aversive early life experiences on a phenotype characterized by anxious avoidance.
The present study employed an imaging genetics approach that capitalized on individual differences in a TPH2 polymorphism (703G/T; rs4570625) to determine whether differences in serotonergic signaling modulate the effects of early life stress on brain structure and function and punishment sensitivity in humans (n = 252).
Higher maltreatment exposure before the age of 16 was associated with increased gray matter volumes in a circuitry spanning thalamic-limbic-prefrontal regions and decreased intrinsic communication in limbic-prefrontal circuits selectively in TT carriers. In an independent replication sample, associations between higher early life stress and increased frontal volumes in TT carriers were confirmed. On the phenotype level, the genotype moderated the association between higher early life stress exposure and higher punishment sensitivity. In TT carriers, the association between higher early life stress exposure and punishment sensitivity was critically mediated by increased thalamic-limbic-prefrontal volumes.
The present findings suggest that early life stress shapes the neural organization of the limbic-prefrontal circuits in interaction with individual variations in the TPH2 gene to promote a phenotype characterized by facilitated threat avoidance, thus promoting early adaptation to an adverse environment.
The effects of resistant starch on glycemic control are controversial. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of results from 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to illustrate the effects of resistant starch on glycemic control. A literature search was conducted on Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane electronic databases for related publications from inception to April 6th, 2020. Key inclusion criteria were: RCTs; resistant starch as intervention substances; reporting glucose and insulin related endpoints. Exclusion criteria were: using type I resistant starch or a mixture of resistant starch and other functional food ingredients as intervention; using substances other than digestible starch as controls. The effect of resistant starch on fasting plasma glucose was significant [effect size (ES): -0.09 mmol/L, 95% CI: (-0.13 mmol/L, -0.04 mmol/L), p=0.001] compared with digestible starch. Subgroup analyses revealed that the effect size was larger when the dosage of resistant starch was more than 28 g/d [ES: -0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI: (-0.24 mmol/L, -0.08 mmol/L), p<0.001] or the intervention period was more than 8 weeks [ES: -0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI: (-0.18 mmol/L to -0.06 mmol/L), p<0.001]. The effect on HOMA-IR was significant [ES: -0.33, 95% CI: (-0.51, -0.14), p=0.001]. However, the effects on other insulin-related endpoints were not significant, including fasting plasma insulin, four endpoints from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, disposition index and glucose effectiveness) and HOMA-β. The current study indicated moderate effects of resistant starch on improving glycemic control.
We evaluated whether early-life protein restriction alters structural parameters that affect β-cell mass on the 15th day and 20th day of gestation in control pregnant (CP), control non-pregnant (CNP), low-protein pregnant (LPP) and low-protein non-pregnant (LPNP) rats from the fetal to the adult life stage as well as in protein-restricted rats that recovered after weaning (recovered pregnant (RP) and recovered non-pregnant). On the 15th day of gestation, the CNP group had a higher proportion of smaller islets, whereas the CP group exhibited a higher proportion of islets larger than the median. The β-cell mass was lower in the low-protein group than that in the recovered and control groups. Gestation increased the β-cell mass, β-cell proliferation frequency and neogenesis frequency independently of the nutritional status. The apoptosis frequency was increased in the recovered groups compared with that in the other groups. On the 20th day of gestation, a higher proportion of islets smaller than the median was observed in the non-pregnant groups, whereas a higher proportion of islets larger than the median was observed in the RP, LPP and CP groups. β-Cell mass was lower in the low-protein group than that in the recovered and control groups, regardless of the physiological status. The β-cell proliferation frequency was lower, whereas the apoptosis rate was higher in recovered rats compared with those in the low-protein and control rats. Thus, protein malnutrition early in life did not alter the mass of β-cells, especially in the first two-thirds of gestation, despite the increase in apoptosis.
Prior theory and research has implicated disgust as relevant to some, but not all phobias.
The current study examined whether anxiety sensitivity is more relevant to certain specific phobias and whether disgust sensitivity is more relevant to other specific phobias.
Participants (n = 201) completed measures of anxiety sensitivity, disgust sensitivity and measures of aversive reactions in the presence of two fear-relevant stimuli (i.e. heights and small, enclosed spaces) and two disgust-relevant stimuli (i.e. spiders and blood/injury).
Results of multiple linear regression analyses revealed that disgust sensitivity showed significant associations with aversive reactions in all four stimulus domains after controlling for anxiety sensitivity. After controlling for disgust sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity showed associations with the two fear-relevant phobias but not with the two disgust-relevant phobias included in this study. Anxiety sensitivity also showed an association with variance specific to one of the two fear-relevant specific phobias included in the study. Disgust sensitivity also showed associations with variance specific to both of the disgust-relevant phobias included in the study but not with variance specific to either of the fear-relevant specific phobias.
These results provide evidence that the distinction between fear-relevant and disgust-relevant specific phobias is meaningful and also implicate disgust sensitivity as relevant to aversive reactions to all stimuli included in this study.
The test-negative design (TND) has become a standard approach for vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies. However, previous studies suggested that it may be more vulnerable than other designs to misclassification of disease outcome caused by imperfect diagnostic tests. This could be a particular limitation in VE studies where simple tests (e.g. rapid influenza diagnostic tests) are used for logistical convenience. To address this issue, we derived a mathematical representation of the TND with imperfect tests, then developed a bias correction framework for possible misclassification. TND studies usually include multiple covariates other than vaccine history to adjust for potential confounders; our methods can also address multivariate analyses and be easily coupled with existing estimation tools. We validated the performance of these methods using simulations of common scenarios for vaccine efficacy and were able to obtain unbiased estimates in a variety of parameter settings.
Depression is a major cause of disability in adolescents. Higher dietary fibre intake has been associated with lower depressive symptoms in adults, but there is a lack of research in adolescents. We examined the association between dietary fibre intake (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) FFQ) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth) in adolescents with prospective data from the Raine Study Gen2 14- and 17-year follow-ups (n 1260 and 653). Odds of moderate/extreme (clinically relevant) depressive symptoms by quartile of fibre intake were calculated using mixed-effects logistic regression for all participants, in a paired sample without moderate/extreme depressive symptoms at 14 years and in a sub-sample of participants with available inflammatory data at the ages of 14 and 17 years (n 718 and 547). Odds of moderate/extreme depressive symptoms were lower in the fourth (highest) quartile of overall fibre intake (OR 0·273, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·81) compared with the first (lowest) quartile, adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, adiposity, and family and lifestyle factors. However, further adjustment for dietary patterns attenuated the results. Associations of depressive symptoms with cereal or fruit and vegetable fibre intake were not significant in the final model. Adjustment for inflammation had no effect on OR. The association between a higher dietary fibre intake and lower odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms may be more reflective of a high-fibre diet with all its accompanying nutrients than of an independent effect of fibre.
Various issues related to training methods and outcomes of intercultural training are reviewed by employing a typology of intercultural training that integrates aspects of culture-specific and culture-general training with didactic and experiential learning styles. This is followed by a brief discussion of the process of experiential learning, issues pertaining to cognitive affective and behavioral training, how context shapes the selection of methods, and how traditional methods can be updated with technology to meet modern needs. The role of culture in shaping the choice of methods and issues related to training across and about cultures is discussed. How knowledge, skill and attitudes shape the selection of intercultural training methods, and the significance of personal and cultural preferences in mediating training outcomes, and the interaction between desired outcomes, participant data, and situational factors are noted. In addition, 20 intercultural methods – lectures, written materials, online-based training, films, self-assessment, case studies, and critical incidents, role playing, simulation games, and intercultural exercises, contrast culture training, culture assimilator, cross-cultural analysis, cross-cultural dialogues, areas studies, immersion, visual imagery, and art and culture – that are currently employed are analyzed to examine current trends in training, the contexts in which methods are applied, and the factors that affect the choice of one method over another. The analyses include an assessment of strengths and weaknesses, typical outcomes, adaptability, ways the methods have or could be used, availability of the method in off-the-shelf versions, and resources for finding out more about it. Trainers are encouraged to master a variety of methods because no single method will work all of the time in producing the desired outcomes that best suit their client’s needs.
Building on concepts introduced by Edward Stewart in the original 1971 edition of American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-Cultural Perspective and expanded by Milton Bennett and him in its 1991 revision, this chapter presents an observational framework for comparing typical forms of “perceptual representation” among a broad range of regional cultural groupings. The underlying idea is that sensory stimuli can be experienced at various levels of abstraction, and cultural groups that need to coordinate meaning and action will represent experience in ways that systematically differ from some other groups. The labeling of different modes of perceptual representation is presented as an etic observational category, which means that the category is not suitable for describing single cultures or individuals. Etic categories allow observation of the interaction among cultures – both the abstract dynamic of contrasting cultural patterns and the concrete interactional space that is opened when people with different cultural worldviews attempt to communicate. For intercultural professionals, etic categories allow useful comparisons among cultural worldviews for purposes of training and coaching. For participants in cross-cultural encounters, etic categories can form doorways into the experience of alternative worldviews. That empathic experience allows events to be perceived differently and the resulting alternative experience to guide more interculturally adaptive behavior.
We performed the cohort study to evaluate the association between BMI, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy phenotype in Chinese adults.
Metabolically healthy was defined as participants without history of metabolic diseases and with normal fasting blood glucose level, glycated Hb A1c level, blood pressure, lipid profile, serum uric acid level and liver ultrasonographic findings at baseline. Participants were either classified into normal weight (18·5 ≤ BMI < 24·0 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24·0 kg/m2) based on baseline BMI, or low (<1 mg/l) and high (≥1 mg/l) groups based on baseline hs-CRP. The conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy phenotype was deemed if any of the metabolic abnormalities had been confirmed twice or more during 5 years of follow-up.
Included were 4855 (1942 men and 2913 women, aged 36·0 ± 8·9 years) metabolically healthy Chinese adults. We identified 1692 participants who converted to metabolically unhealthy phenotype during the follow-up. Compared with their counterparts, the adjusted hazards ratio of the conversion was 1·19 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·33) for participants with overweight, while it was 1·15 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·29) for those with high hs-CRP level (≥1 mg/l). Further adjustment of hs-CRP did not materially change the association between BMI and the conversion. However, the association between hs-CRP and the conversion was not significant after further adjustment of BMI. The sensitivity analysis generated similar results to main analysis.
BMI was associated with the risk of the conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy status in Chinese adults.
This study consisted of six field experiments was conducted in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate the tolerance of four corn hybrids (P9998AM, P9840AM, DKC42-60RIB and DKC43-47RIB) to the tankmix of tolpyralate + atrazine with a commercial glyphosate formulation. At 1 WAA, two corn hybrids (P9998AM and P9840AM) exhibited more injury from tolpyralate + atrazine (2X rate) applied alone and in combination with glyphosate than DKC42-60RIB and DKC43-47RIB; but all corn hybrids responded similarly with respect to visible injury 2, 4 and 8 WAA, stand loss and yield. Application of tolpyralate + atrazine or glyphosate + tolpyralate + atrazine at the 2X rate caused greater corn injury (up to 27%) than tolpyralate + atrazine or glyphosate + tolpyralate + atrazine at the 1X rate (up to 8%) at 1 WAA. The addition of commercial glyphosate with tolpyralate + atrazine did not enhance injury symptoms. Results of this study show that there is a wide margin of corn safety with tolpyralate + atrazine applied alone and in combination with a commercial formulation of glyphosate.
Tolpyralate is a new 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide for weed control in corn. Previous research has reported efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine on several annual grass and broadleaf weed species; however, no studies have evaluated weed control of tolpyralate + atrazine depending on time-of-day (TOD) of application. Six field experiments were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) near Ridgetown, ON to determine if there is an effect of TOD of application on tolpyralate + atrazine efficacy on common annual grass and broadleaf weeds. An application was made at three-hour intervals beginning at 06:00 h and the last application at 24:00 h. There was a slight TOD effect on velvetleaf, pigweed species and common ragweed control with tolpyralate + atrazine; however, the magnitude of change throughout the day was ≤3% at 2, 4 or 8 WAA. There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine on the control of lambsquarters, barnyardgrass and green foxtail. All weed species were controlled ≥88% 8 WAA. There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine application on corn yield. Results of this study show no evidence of a TOD effect on weed control efficacy with tolpyralate + atrazine.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined as a reproductive endocrine disease that results in a low-grade inflammatory and pro-oxidant state. Dietary factors, including n-3 fatty acids, may have a key role in improving metabolic disorders in PCOS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress (OS) markers in patients with PCOS. A systematic literature search of Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Lilacs, until November 2019, was conducted. Randomised clinical trials that reported inflammatory and OS markers as endpoints in women with PCOS receiving n-3 fatty acid supplementation were included. The pooled estimates of the weighted mean differences (WMD) and the standard mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Random effects models were adopted to measure the pooled outcomes. Among the 323 studies retrieved, ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria for a meta-analysis. We founded a significant decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (SMD –0·29 (95 % CI –0·56, –0·02) mg/l) and an increase in adiponectin (WMD 1·42 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·76) ng/ml) concentrations in the intervention group when compared with the placebo group. No statistically significant results were found in the meta-analysis for visfatin, nitric oxide, GSH or malondialdehyde levels or total antioxidant capacity. The data suggest that supplementation of n-3 fatty acids could reduce the inflammatory state in women with PCOS, through a decrease in hs-CRP and an increase in adiponectin levels.
Human infants are born well prepared to acquire language, with impressive speech perception abilities well before the onset of productive language. Over the first years of life, these perceptual capacities are tuned to the native language. Rich social experience interacts with intrinsic neurobiological systems to scaffold perceptual abilities that support language acquisition. At birth – indeed, as early as 26 weeks gestation, prior to input from developing auditory pathways – the basic neural architecture is in place for processing language. Experience and further development lead to an elaboration and refinement of this architecture. At birth, perceptual biases are in place that predispose infants to listen more attentively when they hear speech and to look toward human faces – two core communicative sensitivities that lay the foundation for acquiring the native language. A variety of learning mechanisms are operative that enable infants to become experts at perceiving and ultimately producing their native language(s).
The purpose of this paper is to disclose improved crystal based frequency source system covering design techniques and experimental methodologies for the stabilization of phase noise performance of X-band phase-locked loop (PLL) at 10.6 GHz. Phase noise performance of PLL-based unit under test (UUT) is prone to disturbance occurred in random vibration profile frequency spectrum. UUT self-resonance plays vital role in occurrence of disturbance in random vibration profile. The stabilization of phase noise performance during dynamic (random) vibration condition is achieved by following methodologies, i.e. vibration-isolator compensation techniques, purification tactic for reference crystal of PLL, and spatial location analysis for finding out mounting position of reference crystal. Spatial analysis helps to filter out UUT self-resonance frequency from random vibration spectrum which leads to reduction of frequency resonance pickups during random vibration testing.