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The article studies the contexts in which the idea of a separation of the Casamance from the rest of Senegal arose during the process of decolonization. The idea was an outgrowth of colonial representations forged since the end of the nineteenth century. It was first formulated by the French authorities in secret discussions with the representatives of the Casamance in the context of the 1958 referendum. It was taken over by local political leaders who saw it as a possible answer to the debates over representation that arose in the post-war process of democratization, and later by proponents of political mobilization at the sub-regional level after independence. By examining this little-known moment of possibility, the article shows that the claims of the current armed independence movement are in fact part of a longer, more ambivalent history in which a separatist imaginary of the Casamance took shape.
Hip hop, reggae/raggamuffin, and fusions between these genres, emerged in the Italian island of Sardinia in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, we examine the ways in which these transnational music forms have found fertile terrain in post-colonial Sardinia across generations and cultures through the music of the historic hip hop crew, Sa Razza, the next generation ‘rappamuffin’ artist, Randagiu Sardu, and the Senegalese-Sardinian Afro-reggae musician, Momar Gaye. Through the analysis of selected tracks and video clips we explore how overlapping cultural, social, and political discourses of decolonisation are framed and narrated through language, music, and images as a means of expressing cultural and political agency, critiquing the impacts of exploitation and colonisation, and consciously and self-reflexively reinterpreting and celebrating marginality.
To investigate trends in child anthropometry in Senegal between 1990 and 2015 and relate them with potential causes. Several hypotheses were tested: changes in health status, income, diet and socio-economic status.
Statistical analysis of trends in anthropometric data: height, weight, BMI and associated Z-scores calculated with the CDC-2000 standard (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention): height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). Trends were fitted with linear regression models and were related with changes in health and socio-economic status.
Nine nationally representative samples of Senegalese children aged 12–59 months, taken between 1986 and 2017 by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS).
Children aged 12–59 months.
Over the 25 years of investigation, the average height of children increased by +1·88 cm, their average weight by +0·10 kg, but their BMI decreased by −0·53 kg/m2. Corresponding changes expressed in Z-scores were +0·454 in HAZ, +0·109 in WAZ and −0·302 in WHZ. This pattern of decreasing stunting while increasing wasting was correlated with decreasing child mortality, despite small changes in income per capita and in adult heights or BMI. Largest improvements in HAZ were among the lower socio-economic strata, while largest declines in WHZ were among higher socio-economic strata.
Decline in stunting appeared associated primarily with the control of infectious diseases, also responsible for the mortality decline. Increase in wasting was surprising. It appears associated with small changes in income per capita, and therefore in diet, in a context of increasing height.
Contemporary dance in Senegal emerged and thrives at the interstices of the local and the global. Multiple expectations and values, of which gender and sexuality are no small part, converge at the site of creation and production, enlisting choreographers to navigate oftentimes conflicting ideologies. Based on ethnographic research, this article examines three works by Senegalese men that employ gender and sexual transgressions alongside the artists’ seemingly contradictory verbal articulations of their work. Using the local-global entanglement as an analytical framework, I argue that these works offer ambiguous assemblages of masculinities that challenge conventional masculinity in Senegal, thereby elucidating the potentiality for contemporary dance to transcend singular meaning-making capacity.
The life of Ayuba Sulayman Diallo (also known as Job ben Solomon) receives a fresh examination in this article, based primarily on his own writings. The son of an Imam from Bundu in Senegambia, Diallo was enslaved in 1731 and transported to America. He survived to gain his freedom, make his mark in London society, and return to Africa in 1734. This article offers an analysis of documents from the British Library, including items that have not been previously analysed and are here translated into English for the first time. In addition, they bring together what is known of his archive, including the letters he wrote before, during, and after his time in London, the Qur'ans he scribed there, and the scraps and snippets created as he discussed the Arabic language with friends.
A close analysis of Diallo's writings reveals new information about his life history; his relationships with the elites in both Bundu and London; his scholarly abilities; and the history of Bundu itself. Diallo used the technology of writing to direct the course of his own life and career, converting a disastrous course of events into favourable opportunities for himself.
The introduction begins with Ghana’s president Kwame Nkrumah (1957-1966) laying the foundation stone of the first reactor building at the new Ghana Atomic Energy Commission in Kwabenya. He promoted “scientific equity” and access to science for all citizens. The nuclear energy project, headed by the engineering professor R.P. Baffour, topped Nkrumah’s plans for scientific development. Nkrumah sent Baffour to the Soviet Union to negotiate with Prime Minister Khrushchev to see what resources Ghana might provide in exchange for technical assistance and a reactor. Nkrumah and his closest advisors asserted a new African vision for nuclear power, predicated on the idea that all countries had citizens with equal intellectual capabilities. Nkrumah expressed, “no country has monopoly of ability.” Ghana was among several independent African nations interested in nuclear energy and the peaceful uses of the atom including Tanzania, Libya, and Nigeria. Julius Nyere and Kenya’s Ali Mazuri stressed that Africans would be more capable of managing nuclear energy than Europeans. The introduction interrogates this assertion through a discussion of scientific equity, manpower and human capacity, and urban dynamics at Atomic Junction. It locates Ghana’s story within scholarship on the rise of nuclear power elsewhere, especially in India and South Africa.
This article examines the effect of geographical proximity on targeting patterns during Ebola-era xenophobic outbursts by Senegalese against a migrant Peul population of Guinean origins. It highlights the limited extent to which epidemics shape the micro-dynamics of outbreaks of xenophobia during public health crises, demonstrating that epidemics are not defining events that inflect inter-group relations. They mostly reinforce long-persisting patterns of exclusion. The conclusion is that the contours of xenophobia in contexts marked by public health crises and in those situations in which these issues of public health do not constitute a major concern tend to mirror each other.
This article critically analyses the reparations and asset forfeiture framework at the Extraordinary African Chambers and its application in the case against Hissène Habré. It identifies obstacles to implementing the reparations awarded and calls for states and international organizations to support their realization for the sake of Habré’s victims, without whose efforts the tribunal might not exist. It argues that international(ized) criminal tribunals should more readily utilize fines and forfeiture as penalties to alleviate the pressure on trust funds to implement reparations awards, particularly in cases where convicted persons possess substantial assets. Lastly, in light of the requirement that assets susceptible to forfeiture orders be derived directly or indirectly from the crime(s) of which a person is found guilty, the article questions the failure of the prosecutor to charge Habré with the war crime of pillage, despite its availability in the tribunal's statute and the finding that the suffering of many of Habré’s victims entitled to individual compensation resulted from pillage.
In the Global South since the 1980s, when economic downturns under pressure from the forces of neoliberalism eroded social relations, sport and athletes’ bodies have become major loci where masculinity is constituted and debated. Sport masculinity now fills a vacuum left by the evacuation of traditional forms of masculinity, which are no longer available to the new generations of men. For them, the possibility of employment in the sport industries in the Global North has had a transformative effect, despite the extremely limited probability of success. During the same period of time, the world of sport has become commoditized, mediatized, and corporatized, transformations that have been spearheaded by the growing importance of privatized media interests. Professional athletes have become neoliberal subjects responsible for their own destiny in an increasingly demanding and unpredictable labor market. In Cameroon, Fiji, and Senegal, athletic hopefuls prospectively embody this new gendered subjectivity by mobilizing locally available instruments that most closely resemble neoliberal subjectivity, such as Pentecostalism and maraboutism. Through the conduit of sport, the masculine self has been transformed into a neoliberal subject in locations where this is least expected. What emerges is a new approach to masculinity that eschews explanations based on the simple recognition of diverse and hierarchically organized masculinities, and instead recognizes masculinity in its different manifestations as embedded, scalar, relational, and temporally situated.
Knowing the burden of influenza is helpful for policy decisions. Here we estimated the contribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) visits associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza among all clinic visits in a Senegal sentinel network. ILI data from ten sentinel sites were collected from January 2013 to December 2015. ILI was defined as an axillary measured fever of more than 37.5 °C with a cough or a sore throat. Collected nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza viruses by rRT-PCR. Influenza-associated ILI was defined as ILI with laboratory-confirmed influenza. For the influenza disease burden estimation, we used all-case outpatient visits during the study period who sought care at selected sites. Of 4030 ILI outpatients tested, 1022 were influenza positive. The estimated proportional contribution of influenza-associated ILI was, per 100 outpatients, 1.2 (95% CI 1.1–1.3), 0.32 (95% CI 0.28–0.35), 1.11 (95% CI 1.05–1.16) during 2013, 2014, 2015, respectively. The age-specific outpatient visits proportions of influenza-associated ILI were higher among children under 5 years (0.68%, 95% CI: 0.62–0.70). The predominant virus during years 2013 and 2015 was influenza B while A/H3N2 subtype was predominant during 2014. Influenza viruses cause a substantial burden of outpatient visits particularly among children under 5 of age in Senegal and highlight the need of vaccination in risk groups.
Since the construction of the Diama Dam (1985), the epidemiology of schistosomiasis along the Senegal River Basin (SRB) has been extremely dynamic with outbreaks of both intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis. In the early 2000s, technicians reported cases of suspected urogenital schistosomiasis in adults from the local hospital in Richard-Toll, Lower SRB. The genetic analysis of schistosome miracidia isolated from 11 patients in 2012 from two neighbourhoods (Campement and Gaya) of Richard-Toll confirmed infection with Schistosoma haematobium but also S. haematobium/S. bovis hybrids. Thirty-seven per cent of the miracidia were S. bovis/S. haematobium hybrids and 63% were pure S. haematobium. The data are discussed in relation to the ongoing dynamic epidemiology of the schistosomes in Senegal and the need to treat non-target individuals.
Many breeding programs have been implemented in developing countries, many of which have been unsuccessful. To better understand the failure of these breeding programs, it is proposed to analyze their adequacy with innovations that are actually adopted by smallholders. The proposed methodology takes account of these innovations, the reasons for their adoption and the objectives of livestock keeping. The N’Dama cattle-breeding program in Senegal was used as a case study. Surveys were carried out among 54 farmers: 27 breeders who participated in this program, 17 of whom recently resigned, and 27 breeders who have never participated. Feeding was the most frequently cited area of innovation, followed by infrastructure. Genetics, animal health and reproduction held the third rank. Milk production appeared as an important objective of breeders, although the context remains one of strong multifunctionality. Principal component analysis highlighted three categories of breeders according to the innovations they adopted: institutional, modernizing, and integrating innovators. The groups of institutional and modernizing innovators dominate, gathering each 41% of the farmers. In the first category, breeders have organized themselves in an association and use N’Dama sires, livestock aiming at an insurance objective. In the second category, artificial insemination with exotic breeds and other technical innovations (cowshed, vaccination, urea treatment of straw) are used to improve production of milk and meat. The third group is termed ‘integrating innovators,’ since their innovations aim at integrating livestock and crop production. Gathering 18% of the sampled breeders, this group presents intermediate features between the two previous groups, using animals as draught power and for manure production. These results indicate that a process of intensification is at play and that the genetic improvement through the selection of N’Dama cattle for production criteria does not meet the breeders’ demand. However, the N’Dama’s adaptive traits justify its use as part of the breeding strategy of farmers, either in pure-breeding or in crossbreeding. The study thus tends to show the interactive link between genetic improvement and other innovations. It suggests that the success of a breeding program depends on its adequate positioning within the set of innovations adopted by breeders and proposes a method to inform breeding programs accordingly.
Since the commodity boom of the early 2000s, the visibility of ‘artisanal’ or ‘small-scale’ mining has grown in media coverage and development policies focused on Africa. This article argues that the regulatory category of ‘artisanal’ mining in Africa originated during the colonial period as ‘customary mining’. I build this case through a regional case study of mining policies in the colonial federation of French West Africa, where a single decree accorded African subjects ‘customary rights’ to seasonally mine gold and rock salt in restricted areas. By contrast, colonial citizens, mostly Europeans, accessed stable mining titles. Customary mining rights never codified actual African mining ‘customs’, as colonial officials argued. Rather, this law marked the boundary between the technological status of French subjects and citizens. Core elements of this colonial legal framework have been incorporated into postcolonial policies governing the rights of citizens to mineral resources in Africa.
Catholic school alumni played a crucial role in shaping Senegal and Benin in the first decades after independence.1 Though they came from a variety of religious and socioeconomic backgrounds, they nevertheless strongly identified with their Catholic schooling experience. Indeed, these West African alumni composed a distinct social group that had been inculcated in the habits and values of ‘Catholic civism’, an ideology based around public service, self-discipline, moral restraint, honesty, and community. While many studies of educated youth emphasize their political activism, Catholic school youth engaged in the subtler process of shaping their new countries by transforming colonial-era institutions from within. Beyond politics, students who graduated in the early independence era used Catholic civism as both a social marker and an implicit social critique.
Hybridization events between Schistosoma species (Digenea, Platyhelminthes) are reported with increasing frequency, largely due to improved access to molecular tools. Nevertheless, little is known about the distribution and frequency of hybrid schistosomes in nature. Screening for hybrids on a large scale is complicated by the need for nuclear and mitochondrial sequence information, precluding a ‘simple’ barcoding approach. Here we aimed to determine and understand the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in the Senegal River Basin. From ten villages, distributed over the four main water basins, we genotyped a total of 1236 schistosome larvae collected from human urine samples using a partial mitochondrial cox1 fragment; a subset of 268 parasites was also genotyped using ITS rDNA. Hybrid schistosomes were unevenly distributed, with substantially higher numbers in villages bordering Lac de Guiers than in villages from the Lampsar River and the Middle Valley of the Senegal River. The frequency of hybrids per village was not linked with the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in that village. However, we did find a significant positive association between the frequency of hybrids per village and the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni. We discuss the potential consequences of adopting a barcoding approach when studying hybrids in nature.
This paper investigates the extent to which being born to a single mother affects a child’s survival rate in Senegal, a context where girls’ premarital sexual relationships are still widely stigmatized. It also examines whether any negative effect persists up to affecting the survival rate of children of higher birth order born after the mother has married. Using data from Demographic and Health Survey, we find that the mortality rate is higher for first-born boys, but not for first-born daughters, whose mother was single at the time of their birth, and lower for second-born children whose sister, but not brother, was born out of wedlock. The latter effect is actually driven by children from older cohorts of women. Therefore, strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of the stigma associated with a premarital birth seem to exist but vary with the gender of the child born premarital in Senegal. In addition, persisting negative effects appear to have decreased over time. Potential channels through which boys born from a single mother are at a higher risk of death in the country are discussed. Overall, our findings indicate that social programs targeting single mothers, especially when they gave birth to a boy, would help avoiding dramatic events as the death of a child.
How do non-Western societies envisage the relationship between the body and ageing? The present work aimed to shed light on this question by exploring how adult men and women of different ages living in Dakar, Senegal, view their bodies. A quantitative methodology was selected, and this study was carried out on a sample of 1,000 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 20 and older. This sample was constructed using the quota method in order to strive for representativeness. Results indicate that appearance was highly important for Senegalese women and men, and for younger and older adults alike. As in Western cultures, beauty and youth were strongly connected. The large majority of Senegalese women and men were satisfied with their looks across the lifespan. However, older women were slightly less satisfied, consistent with the double standard hypothesis. Little discrepancy was found between felt age and chronological age throughout the entire lifecourse, arguing against an ageless self hypothesis in this African population. The mask of ageing hypothesis was also rejected, as men's and women's identification with their body did not diminish significantly across age. These observations from an African perspective call for greater attention to the ageing process in non-Western societies in order to challenge hypotheses developed in Western societies and understand more broadly the role of culture.
Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.