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We present the first comprehensive detrital zircon U–Pb age dataset from Palaeozoic sandstones of Saudi Arabia, which provides new insights into the erosion history of the East African Orogen and sediment recycling in northern Gondwana. Five main age populations are present in varying amounts in the zircon age spectra, with age peaks at ~625 Ma, ~775 Ma, ~980 Ma, ~1840 Ma and ~2480 Ma. Mainly igneous rocks of the Arabian–Nubian Shield are suggested to be the most prominent sources for the Ediacaran to middle Tonian zircon grains. Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean grains may be xenocrystic zircons or they have been recycled from older terrigenous sediment. A primary derivation from Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean basement is also possible, as rocks of such age occur in the vicinity. Approximately 4 % of the detrital zircons show Palaeozoic (340–541 Ma) ages. These grains are likely derived from Palaeozoic post-orogenic and anorogenic igneous rocks of NE Africa and Arabia. A few single grains gave up to Eoarchaean (3.6–4.0 Ga) ages, which are the oldest zircons yet described from Arabia and its vicinity. Their origin, however, is yet unknown. Detrital zircons with U–Pb ages of ~1.0 Ga are present in varying amounts in all of the samples and are a feature of terrigenous sediment belonging to the Gondwana super-fan system with an East African – Arabian zircon province.
Lake sediments are key archives for paleoenvironmental investigation as they provide continuous records of the depositional history of the lake and its watershed. Lake Futalaufquen (42.8°S) is an oligotrophic waterbody located in Los Alerces National Park in the Andes of northern Patagonia, South America. A sedimentary sequence covering 1600 years was recovered to analyze the potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the last millennia. Integration of different geochemical and mineralogical parameters and comparison with climatic reconstructions from other Patagonian records give clues for the identification of a warm period around AD 800–1000, associated with the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. The high frequency of tephra layers beginning in the mid-sixteenth century precludes identification of the Little Ice Age, recorded in northern Patagonia as a cold period from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. Furthermore, the parameters analysed do not provide evidence of late-twentieth-century global warming. However, Zn deposition, a long-distance atmospheric transport process of anthropogenic origin, was identified during the last century.
We investigate the turbulence statistics in a multiphase plume made of heavy particles (particle Reynolds number at terminal velocity is 450). Using refractive-index-matched stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, we measure the locations of particles whose buoyancy drives the formation of a multiphase plume, together with the local velocity of the induced flow in the ambient salt–water. Measurements of the mean axial flow in the plume centreplane follow Gaussian profiles and that of the mean radial flow is consistent with integral plume theory. The turbulence characteristics resemble those measured in a bubble plume, including strong anisotropy in the normal Reynolds stresses. However, we observe structural differences between the two multiphase plumes. First, the skewness of the probability density function of the axial velocity fluctuations is not that which would be predicted by simply reversing the direction of a bubble plume. Second, in contrast to a bubble plume, the particle plume has a non-negligible fluid-shear production term in the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget. Third, the radial decay of all measured terms in the TKE budget is slower than those in a bubble plume. Despite these dissimilarities, a bigger picture emerges that applies to both flows. The TKE production by particles (or bubbles) roughly balances the viscous dissipation, except near the plume centreline. The one-dimensional power spectra of the velocity fluctuations show a
power law that puts both the particle and bubble plume in a category different from single-phase shear-flow turbulence.
Grain-scale discrete element simulations of bidisperse mixtures during bedload transport are used to understand, and model, bedload transport and particle-size segregation in granular media. For an initial distribution of fine particles on top of a coarse granular bed, this paper investigates the gravity driven percolation/segregation of the fine particles down into the quasi-static part of the bed. The segregation is observed to be driven by the inertial number at the bottom of the fine particle layer, and is independent of the number of fine particles. A novel travelling wave solution for the evolving concentration distribution is constructed using the continuum particle-size segregation model of Thornton, Gray & Hogg (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 550, 2006, pp. 1–25) and Gray & Chugunov (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 569, 2006, pp. 365–398). The observed behaviour is shown to be related to a local equilibrium between the influence of the concentration and of the inertial number. The existence of the exact solution relies on the segregation flux and the diffusion coefficient having the same dependency on the inertial number. This functional dependence allows the continuum model to quantitatively reproduce the discrete simulations. These results significantly improve on our understanding of the size segregation dynamics and represent a step forward in the up-scaling process to polydisperse granular flows in the context of turbulent bedload transport.
Internal solitary and solitary-like waves (ISW) play an important role in mixing and sediment resuspension in naturally occurring stratified fluids, primarily through various instabilities and wave-breaking mechanisms. When shoaling into shallow waters, waves of depression may either fission into a packet of waves of elevation over mild slopes or break over steep slopes. The fissioning process is generally considered a less efficient transport and resuspension mechanism, compared to wave breaking, since very little turbulent mixing or energy dissipation occurs during this process. In the present work, however, we found that this is not always the case, at least in the particular context of ISW boundary-layer interaction. Using high-resolution numerical simulations performed in a domain representing a tilted laboratory tank, we found that boundary-layer instability in the form of a separation bubble consistently occurs during the fissioning process. The separation bubble is generated beneath the wave of elevation that emerges from the fissioning process, and is vitally influenced by currents induced by the leading wave of depression. As the waves shoal further, the growth and breakdown of the separation bubble leads to significant cross-boundary-layer transport. The results suggest that the fissioning process, which occurs over a considerable geographical region in the ocean, can be as efficient as wave breaking when it comes to cross-boundary-layer transport.
Detrital zircon populations from six samples of upper Triassic sandstone (Algarve Basin) were analysed, yielding mostly Precambrian ages. zircon age populations of the Triassic sandstone sampled from the western and central sectors of the basin are distinct, suggesting local recycling and/or lateral changes in their sources. Our findings and the available detrital zircon ages from the Palaeozoic terranes of SW Iberia, Nova Scotia and NW Morocco were jointly examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and multidimensional scaling diagrams. The obtained results enable direct discrimination of competing Laurussian-type and Gondwanan-type sediment sources, involving recycling and mixing relationships. The detrital zircon populations of the Algarve Triassic sandstone are very different from those of the lower–upper Carboniferous Mértola and Mira formations (South Portuguese Zone), upper Devonian – lower Carboniferous Horta da Torre, Represa and Santa Iria formations (Pulo do Lobo Zone), and the late Carboniferous Santa Susana and early Permian Viar basins, which are ruled out as potential sources. The detrital zircon populations of Triassic sandstone from the central sector and those from the Ossa–Morena Zone Ediacaran–Cambrian siliciclastic rocks, upper Devonian – Carboniferous Ronquillo, Tercenas, Phyllite-Quartzite and Brejeira formations (South Portuguese Zone), and Frasnian siliciclastic rocks of the Pulo do Lobo Zone are not statistically distinguishable. Thus, sedimentation in the central sector was influenced by Gondwanan- and Laurussian-type putative sources exposed in SW Iberia, in contrast to the western sector, where Meguma Terrane and Sehoul Block Cambrian siliciclastic rocks allegedly constituted the main (Laurussian-type) sources. These findings provide insights into the denudation of distinctive source terranes distributed along the late Palaeozoic suture zone that juxtaposed the Laurussian and Gondwanan margins.
This chapter focuses on the factors that influence the erosion, transport, and storage of sediment at global and drainage-basin scales. It examines global variations in sediment fluxes by rivers and the factors that influence these variations, including human effects. It introduces the concepts of the sediment delivery ratio and the sediment budget, and demonstrates how estimation of sediment budgets provides insight into spatial patterns of sediment production, storage, and transport within drainage basins. It also shows how sediment budgets have been used to understand human impacts on sediment dynamics at drainage-basin scales and discusses the value of sediment budgets for watershed management. It reviews approaches that have been used to try to examine sediment movement at watershed scales, such as various fine-sediment tracing technologies, and addresses challenges to estimating sediment dynamics at large scales, including the sediment-budget closure problem.
This chapter focuses on river confluences as a distinctive type of river planform. Topics covered in the chapter include the characteristics of confluence planform geometry, the distinction of confluence types based on planform symmetry, the factors controlling flow structure and patterns of sediment transport in confluences, current understanding of flow structure and patterns of sediment transport in confluences, dynamic changes in bed morphology in relation to changes in hydrological conditions of incoming flows, mixing downstream of confluences, changes in channel geometry at confluences, and changes in confluence planform over time.
Sediment transport in rivers provides a dynamic linkage between flow and channel form. Topics examined in this chapter include differences among wash load, suspended bed-material load, and bedload; entrainment of particles on the bed into motion and into suspension; flow competence; the influence of particle mixtures on entrainment relations; the major factors influencing concentration profiles of suspended sediment in river flows; mechanisms of bedload transport and approaches to the development of bedload and bed-material transport equations; and factors that complicate understanding and prediction of bed-material transport in rivers, including armoring, bedforms, modality, particle–particle interactions, spatial-temporal variability, turbulence, and the validity of transport threshold relations. The use of particle-tracing methods in combination with information on channel change to estimate bed-material transport is also presented.
Different types of biogenic remains, ranging from siliceous algae to carbonate precipitates, accumulate in the sediments of lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Unicellular algae called diatoms, which form a siliceous test or frustule, are an ecologically and biogeochemically important group of organisms in aquatic environments and are often preserved in lake or marine sediments. When diatoms accumulate in large numbers in sediments, the fossilized remains can form diatomite. In sedimentological literature, “diatomite” is defined as a friable, light-coloured, sedimentary rock with a diatom content of at least 50%, however, in the Quaternary science literature diatomite is commonly used as a description of a sediment type that contains a “large” quantity of diatom frustules without a precise description of diatom abundance. Here we pose the question: What is diatomite? What quantity of diatoms define a sediment as diatomite? Is it an uncompacted sediment or a compacted sediment? We provide a short overview of prior practices and suggest that sediment with more than 50% of sediment weight comprised of diatom SiO2 and having high (>70%) porosity is diatomaceous ooze if unconsolidated and diatomite if consolidated. Greater burial depth and higher temperatures result in porosity loss and recrystallization into porcelanite, chert, and pure quartz.
We experimentally characterize turbulence in boundary layers generated by different levels of nearly isotropic homogeneous turbulence over flat impervious boundaries and over non-cohesive sediment beds with and without ripples. We use randomly actuated synthetic jet arrays (RASJA – Variano & Cowen, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 604, 2008, pp. 1–32) to generate high Reynolds number (
) turbulence with negligible secondary mean flows or mean bed shear. The isotropic region and the boundary layer connecting this isotropic region to the bed are investigated using particle image velocimetry measurements. Surprisingly, we observe the development of ripples on the sediment bed (
). We draw comparisons between the mean shear free turbulent boundary layer formed above a flat stationary solid boundary (Johnson & Cowen, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 835, 2018, pp. 217–251) and its sediment counterpart by considering statistical metrics including root mean square velocity fluctuations, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rates, production, integral scales, Reynolds stresses and spatial spectra. Using an 8 × 8 RASJA, we find the damping of turbulence and dissipation rates at flat and rippled sediment beds with low levels of suspended sediments relative to an impermeable glass bed, whereas with a 16 × 16 RASJA we find the enhancement of turbulence and dissipation rates of a resuspending sediment bed relative to an impermeable glass bed. We hypothesize that this may be a result of a change in direction of the bed-normal mean flows at the porous boundary. We explore a relationship between the integral length scale of the turbulence with the resulting sediment ripple spacing by varying the mean on-time of the RASJA algorithm.
We conduct Eulerian–Lagrangian simulations to study double-diffusive sedimentation in stratified flows. The results show the pattern of double-diffusive sedimentation and the transition to the pattern of Rayleigh–Taylor instability when the size of particles increases. In cases of double-diffusive sedimentation, our simulation results show little variation in the temperature-to-particle flux ratio among cases with various particle sizes and initial concentrations, which is consistent with previous theoretical derivations and experimental observations. The energy budget is analysed to show that the settling enhancement is a result of the thermal effect combined with shear dissipation and that the thermal contribution decreases as the size increases. Based on the balance of the energy budget, velocity scaling was derived for the quasi-steady state in the thermally controlled region, which can be used to characterize the plumes’ final velocity of double-diffusive sedimentation. Moreover, adopting some values from the simulation results yields a velocity criterion with which to distinguish different sedimentation patterns. Finally, we investigate changes in the particle-laden plumes below the region of the apparent temperature gradient at which secondary instabilities occur in the form of significant horizontal flow motion. We show that the resulting initial shift of the dominant modes can be approximated with the existing theoretical analysis of collective instabilities for salt fingers. A simple scaling argument for the change in the total cross-sectional area of particle-laden plumes is presented, which is then used to scale the resulting enhanced sedimentation.
We use interface-resolved direct numerical simulations to study the dynamics of a single sediment particle in a turbulent open channel flow over a fixed porous bed. The relative strength of the gravitational acceleration, quantified by the Galileo number, is varied so as to reproduce the different modes of sediment transport – resuspension, saltation and rolling. The results show that the sediment dynamics at lower Galileo numbers (i.e. resuspension and saltation) are mainly governed by the mean flow. Here, the regime of motion can be predicted by the ratio between the gravity and the shear-induced boundary force. In these cases, the sediment particle rapidly takes off when exposed to the flow, and proceeds with an oscillatory motion. Increasing the Galileo number, the frequency of these oscillations increases and their amplitude decreases, until the transport mode switches from resuspension to saltation. In this case, the sediment travels by short successive collisions with the bed. Further increasing the Galileo number, the particle rolls without detaching from the bed. Differently from the previous modes, the motion is triggered by extreme turbulent events, and the particle response depends on the specific initial conditions, at fixed Reynolds number. The results reveal that close to the onset of sediment motion, only turbulent sweeps can effectively trigger the particle motion by increasing the stagnation pressure upstream. We show that for the parameters in this study, a criterion based on the streamwise flow-induced force can successfully predict the incipient movement.
Twenty-four new optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon ages from sediment cores in nine lakes associated with the Shipshewana and Sturgis moraines in northern Indiana and southern Michigan estimate when recession of the Saginaw Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was underway in the southern Great Lakes region, USA. Average OSL ages of 23.4 ± 2.2 ka for the Shipshewana Moraine and 19.7 ± 2.2 ka for the Sturgis Moraine are considered minimum limiting deglacial ages for these recessional moraines. The much younger radiocarbon ages are consistent with other regional radiocarbon ages from lakes, and record climate amelioration around ~16.5 cal ka BP. Early recession of the interlobate Saginaw Lobe was well underway by 23.4 ± 2.2 ka, when the adjacent Lake Michigan and Huron-Erie lobes were a few hundred kilometers farther south and near their maximum southerly limits. The results provide the first time constraints when sediment from the Lake Michigan and Huron-Erie lobes began filling the accommodation space left by the Saginaw Lobe. The difference between the oldest radiocarbon and OSL age is 7400 yr for the Shipshewana Moraine and 3400 yr for the Sturgis Moraine.
Approximately 74 ka, Toba caldera in Sumatra, Indonesia, erupted in one of the most catastrophic supereruptions in Earth's history. Resurgent uplift of the caldera floor raised Samosir Island 700 m above Lake Toba, exposing valuable lake sediments. To constrain sediment chronology, we collected 173 discrete paleomagnetic 8 cm3 cubes and 15 radiocarbon samples from six sections across the island. Bulk organic 14C ages provide an initial chronostratigraphic framework ranging from ~12 to 46 ka. Natural and laboratory magnetizations were studied using alternating field demagnetization. A generally well-defined primary magnetization is isolated using principal component analysis. Comparison of inclination, and to a lesser degree declination, across independently dated sections suggests paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) is recorded. Average inclination of −6° is more negative than a geocentric axial dipole would predict, but consistent with an eastward extension of the negative inclination anomaly observed in the western equatorial Pacific. The 14C- and PSV-derived age model constrains resurgent uplift, confirming faster uplift rates to the east and slower rates to the west, while suggesting that fault blocks moved differentially from each other within a generally trapdoor-type configuration.
A physical oceanographic, geophysical and marine geological survey of Edward VIII Gulf, Kemp Coast, collected data from conductivity–temperature–depth casts, multi-beam bathymetric swath mapping and 3.5 kHz sub-bottom surveying. Modified circumpolar deep water (mCDW) is observed in Edward VIII Gulf, as well as notable bathymetric features including mega-scale glacial lineations and a 1750 m-deep trough. Sedimentological, geochemical, rock-magnetic and micropalaeontological analysis of two kasten cores document regional palaeoclimate and palaeo-oceanographic conditions over the past 8000 years, with a warm period occurring from c. 8 to 4 ka and a shift to cooler conditions beginning at c. 4 ka and persisting until at least 0.9 ka. Sediment packages > 40 m thick within deep troughs in Edward VIII Gulf present potential targets for higher-resolution Holocene and deglacial climate studies. Despite the presence of mCDW on the shelf, inland bed topography consisting of highland terrain suggests the likelihood of relative stability of this sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
We propose a one-way coupled model that tracks individual primary particles in a conceptually simple cellular flow set-up to predict flocculation in turbulence. This computationally efficient model accounts for Stokes drag, lubrication, cohesive and direct contact forces on the primary spherical particles, and allows for a systematic simulation campaign that yields the transient mean floc size as a function of the governing dimensionless parameters. The simulations reproduce the growth of the cohesive flocs with time, and the emergence of a log-normal equilibrium distribution governed by the balance of aggregation and breakage. Flocculation proceeds most rapidly when the Stokes number of the primary particles is
. Results from this simple computational model are consistent with experimental observations, thus allowing us to propose a new analytical flocculation model that yields improved agreement with experimental data, especially during the transient stages.
We present a sediment-mixing process model of till genesis based on data from surface tills of the Saginaw lobe terrain in lower Michigan. Our research uses a spatial approach to understanding glacial landsystems and till genesis. We sampled calcareous till at 336 upland sites and at 17 sites in lacustrine sediment of the Saginaw Lake plain. The loamy tills have bimodal grain-size curves, with a fine-texture mode near the silt–clay boundary and a sand mode. Spatial grouping analysis suggests that tills can be divided into six groups, each with different textures and clay mineral compositions that vary systematically down-ice. The similarity among groups with respect to the silt–clay mode and clay mineralogy argues for a common origin for the fines—illite-rich lacustrine sediment of the Saginaw Lake plain. Fine-textured sediments were probably entrained, transported, and deposited down-ice as till, which also becomes sandier and enriched in kaolinite, reflecting increasing mixing with shallow sandstone bedrock with distance from the lacustrine clay source. Clayey tills on the flanks of the Saginaw terrain may reflect proglacial ponding against nearby uplands. A process model of progressive down-ice mixing of preexisting fine lake sediments with crushed/abraded sandstone bedrock helps to better explain till textures compared with a purely crushing/abrasion process model.
A geochemical and biostratigraphic approach has been applied to investigate the spatial and stratigraphic variability of Palaeogene sandstones from key wells in Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Chronostratigraphic control is predominantly based on miospore zonation, while differences in the composition of Paleocene and Eocene sandstones are supported by geochemical evidence. Stratigraphic changes are manifested by a significant decrease in Na2O across the New Zealand miospore PM3b/MH1 early Eocene zonal boundary, at approximately 53.5 Ma. The change in Na2O is associated with a decrease in baseline concentrations of many other major (MnO, CaO, TiO2) and trace elements, and is interpreted to reflect a significant change in sandstone maturity. Paleocene sandstones are characterized by abundant plagioclase (albite and locally Na–Ca plagioclase), significant biotite and a range of heavy minerals, while Eocene sandstones are typically quartzose, with K-feldspar dominant over plagioclase, low mica contents and rare heavy minerals comprising a resistant suite. This change could reflect a change in provenance from local plutonic basement during the Paleocene Epoch to relatively quartz- and K-feldspar-rich granitic sources during Eocene time. However, significant quartz enrichment of Eocene sediment was also likely due to transportation reworking/winnowing along the palaeoshoreface and enhanced chemical weathering, driven in part by long-term global warming associated with the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. The broad-ranging changes in major-element composition overprint local variations in sediment provenance, which are only detectable from the immobile trace-element geochemistry.
To tackle the problem of soil erosion and moisture stress, the government of Ethiopia introduced a yearly mass campaign where communities get together and implement various soil and water conservation (SWC) and water harvesting (WH) practices. Although the interventions are believed to have reduced soil erosion/sediment yield and enhanced surface and ground water, quantitative information on the impacts of various options at different scales is scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts different land uses, SWC and WH interventions on water and suspended sediment yield (SSY) at plot and watershed scales in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Standard erosion plot experiments and hydrological stations were used to monitor the daily water and SSY during 2014 to 2017. The results show differences between treatments both at plot and watershed scales. Runoff and soil loss were reduced by an average 27 and 37%, respectively due to SWC practices at the plot level. Overall, SWC practices implemented at the watershed level reduced sediment yield by about 74% (in the year 2014), although the magnitude of sediment reduction due to the SWC interventions reduced over time. At both scales it was observed that as the number of years since SWC measures have been in place increased, their effectiveness declined due to the lack of maintenance. This study also revealed that extrapolating of plot data to watershed scale causes over or under estimation of net erosion.