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In this paper, we study the tail risk measures for several commonly used multivariate aggregate loss models where the claim frequencies are dependent but the claim sizes are mutually independent and independent of the claim frequencies. We first develop formulas for the moment (or size biased) transforms of the multivariate aggregate losses, showing their relationship with the moment transforms of the claim frequencies and claim sizes. Then, we apply the formulas to compute some popular risk measures such as the tail conditional expectation and tail variance of the multivariate aggregated losses and to perform capital allocation analysis.
We solve non-Markovian optimal switching problems in discrete time on an infinite horizon, when the decision-maker is risk-aware and the filtration is general, and establish existence and uniqueness of solutions for the associated reflected backward stochastic difference equations. An example application to hydropower planning is provided.
Risk measures are used to give a numerical value, measuring risk, to a random variable representing losses. In this chapter, we introduce several risk measures, including the two most commonly used in risk management: Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall. The risk measures are tested for ‘coherence’ based on a list of properties that have been proposed as desirable for risk measures used in internal and regulatory risk assessment. We consider computational issues – including estimating risk measures – and standard errors from Monte Carlo simulation.
A method for the construction of Stein-type covariance identities for a nonnegative continuous random variable is proposed, using a probabilistic analogue of the mean value theorem and weighted distributions. A generalized covariance identity is obtained, and applications focused on actuarial and financial science are provided. Some characterization results for gamma and Pareto distributions are also given. Identities for risk measures which have a covariance representation are obtained; these measures are connected with the Bonferroni, De Vergottini, Gini, and Wang indices. Moreover, under some assumptions, an identity for the variance of a function of a random variable is derived, and its performance is discussed with respect to well-known upper and lower bounds.
The Scenario Weights for Importance Measurement (SWIM) package implements a flexible sensitivity analysis framework, based primarily on results and tools developed by Pesenti et al. (2019). SWIM provides a stressed version of a stochastic model, subject to model components (random variables) fulfilling given probabilistic constraints (stresses). Possible stresses can be applied on moments, probabilities of given events, and risk measures such as Value-At-Risk and Expected Shortfall. SWIM operates upon a single set of simulated scenarios from a stochastic model, returning scenario weights, which encode the required stress and allow monitoring the impact of the stress on all model components. The scenario weights are calculated to minimise the relative entropy with respect to the baseline model, subject to the stress applied. As well as calculating scenario weights, the package provides tools for the analysis of stressed models, including plotting facilities and evaluation of sensitivity measures. SWIM does not require additional evaluations of the simulation model or explicit knowledge of its underlying statistical and functional relations; hence, it is suitable for the analysis of black box models. The capabilities of SWIM are demonstrated through a case study of a credit portfolio model.
In Finance and Actuarial Science, the multivariate elliptical family of distributions is a famous and well-used model for continuous risks. However, it has an essential shortcoming: all its univariate marginal distributions are the same, up to location and scale transformations. For example, all marginals of the multivariate Student’s t-distribution, an important member of the elliptical family, have the same number of degrees of freedom. We introduce a new approach to generate a multivariate distribution whose marginals are elliptical random variables, while in general, each of the risks has different elliptical distribution, which is important when dealing with insurance and financial data. The proposal is an alternative to the elliptical copula distribution where, in many cases, it is very difficult to calculate its risk measures and risk capital allocation. We study the main characteristics of the proposed model: characteristic and density functions, expectations, covariance matrices and expectation of the linear regression vector. We calculate important risk measures for the introduced distributions, such as the value at risk and tail value at risk, and the risk capital allocation of the aggregated risks.
This work is devoted to a vast extension of Sanov’s theorem, in Laplace principle form, based on alternatives to the classical convex dual pair of relative entropy and cumulant generating functional. The abstract results give rise to a number of probabilistic limit theorems and asymptotics. For instance, widely applicable non-exponential large deviation upper bounds are derived for empirical distributions and averages of independent and identically distributed samples under minimal integrability assumptions, notably accommodating heavy-tailed distributions. Other interesting manifestations of the abstract results include new results on the rate of convergence of empirical measures in Wasserstein distance, uniform large deviation bounds, and variational problems involving optimal transport costs, as well as an application to error estimates for approximate solutions of stochastic optimization problems. The proofs build on the Dupuis–Ellis weak convergence approach to large deviations as well as the duality theory for convex risk measures.
Using risk-reducing properties of conditional expectations with respect to convex order, Denuit and Dhaene [Denuit, M. and Dhaene, J. (2012). Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 51, 265–270] proposed the conditional mean risk sharing rule to allocate the total risk among participants to an insurance pool. This paper relates the conditional mean risk sharing rule to the size-biased transform when pooled risks are independent. A representation formula is first derived for the conditional expectation of an individual risk given the aggregate loss. This formula is then exploited to obtain explicit expressions for the contributions to the pool when losses are modeled by compound Poisson sums, compound Negative Binomial sums, and compound Binomial sums, to which Panjer recursion applies. Simple formulas are obtained when claim severities are homogeneous. A couple of applications are considered: first, to a peer-to-peer insurance scheme where participants share the first layer of their respective risks while the higher layer is ceded to a (re)insurer; second, to survivor credits to be shared among surviving participants in tontine schemes.
A method to hedge variable annuities in the presence of basis risk is developed. A regime-switching model is considered for the dynamics of market assets. The approach is based on a local optimization of risk and is therefore very tractable and flexible. The local optimization criterion is itself optimized to minimize capital requirements associated with the variable annuity policy, the latter being quantified by the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) risk metric. In comparison to benchmarks, our method is successful in simultaneously reducing capital requirements and increasing profitability. Indeed the proposed local hedging scheme benefits from a higher exposure to equity risk and from time diversification of risk to earn excess return and facilitate the accumulation of capital. A robust version of the hedging strategies addressing model risk and parameter uncertainty is also provided.
We propose an approximation scheme for the computation of the risk measures of guaranteed minimum maturity benefits (GMMBs) and guaranteed minimum death benefits (GMDBs), based on the evaluation of single integrals under conditional moment matching. This procedure is computationally efficient in comparison with standard analytical methods while retaining a high degree of accuracy, and it allows one to deal with the case of additional earnings and the computation of related sensitivities.
A non-parametric test based on nested L-statistics and designed to compare the riskiness of portfolios was introduced by Brazauskas et al. (2007). Its asymptotic and small-sample properties were primarily explored for independent portfolios, though independence is not a required condition for the test to work. In this paper, we investigate how performance of the test changes when insurance portfolios are dependent. To achieve that goal, we perform a simulation study where we consider three different risk measures: conditional tail expectation, proportional hazards transform, and mean. Further, three portfolios are generated from exponential, Pareto, and lognormal distributions, and their interdependence is modelled with the three-dimensional t and Gaussian copulas. It is found that the presence of strong positive dependence (comonotonicity) makes the test very liberal for all the risk measures under consideration. For types of dependence that are more common in an insurance environment, the effect of dependence is less dramatic but the results are mixed, i.e., they depend on the chosen risk measure, sample size, and even on the test’s significance level. Finally, we illustrate how to incorporate such findings into sensitivity analysis of the decisions. The risks we analyse represent tornado damages in different regions of the United States from 1890 to 1999.
We discuss some properties of a class of multivariate mixed Erlang distributions with different scale parameters and describes various distributional properties related to applications in insurance risk theory. Some representations involving scale mixtures, generalized Esscher transformations, higher-order equilibrium distributions, and residual lifetime distributions are derived. These results allows for the study of stop-loss moments, premium calculation, and the risk allocation problem. Finally, some results concerning minimum and maximum variables are derived and applied to pricing joint life and last survivor policies.
Spectral expansion techniques have been extensively exploited for the pricing of exotic options. In this paper, we present novel applications of spectral methods for the quantitative risk management of variable annuity guaranteed benefits such as guaranteed minimum maturity benefits and guaranteed minimum death benefits. The objective is to find efficient and accurate solution methods for the computation of risk measures, which is the key to determining risk-based capital according to regulatory requirements. Our example calculations show that two spectral methods used in this paper are highly efficient and numerically more stable than conventional known methods. Hence these approaches are more suitable for intensive calculations involving death benefits.
The UK Pension Protection Fund (PPF) was established in April 2005 to protect the pensions of members of UK private sector defined benefit pension schemes which have insufficient assets and whose corporate sponsor fails. The Fund takes over the pension scheme assets and assumes responsibility for the payment of compensation to the former members of the scheme. The PPF is funded by a levy on the population of eligible schemes. This paper discusses the application of Enterprise Risk Management principles and techniques to the unique situation of the PPF. The elements of the financial management of the Fund have been developed by reference to practice within proprietary insurance institutions and within pension funds. The paper will be of interest and, we hope, of some value to students, researchers and analysts and also to the PPF's own stakeholder groups that have a stake in an effective pension protection regime.
In this paper we calculate premiums which are based on the minimization of the Expected Tail Loss or Conditional Tail Expectation (CTE) of absolute loss functions. The methodology generalizes well known premium calculation procedures and gives sensible results in practical applications. The choice of the absolute loss becomes advisable in this context since its CTE is easy to calculate and to understand in intuitive terms. The methodology also can be applied to the calculation of the VaR and CTE of the loss associated with a given premium.
We discuss classes of risk measures in terms both of their axiomatic definitions and of the economic theories of choice that they can be derived from. More specifically, expected utility theory gives rise to the exponential premium principle, proposed by Gerber (1974), Dhaene et al. (2003), whereas Yaari's (1987) dual theory of choice under risk can be viewed as the source of the distortion premium principle (Denneberg, 1990; Wang, 1996). We argue that the properties of the exponential and distortion premium principles are complementary, without either of the two performing completely satisfactorily as a risk measure. Using generalised expected utility theory (Quiggin, 1993), we derive a new risk measure, which we call the distortion-exponential principle. This risk measure satisfies the axioms of convex measures of risk, proposed by Föllmer & Shied (2002a,b), and its properties lie between those of the exponential and distortion principles, which can be obtained as special cases.
This paper demonstrates actuarial applications of modern statistical methods that are applied to detailed, micro-level automobile insurance records. We consider 1993-2001 data consisting of policy and claims files from a major Singaporean insurance company. A hierarchical statistical model, developed in prior work (Frees and Valdez (2008)), is fit using the micro-level data. This model allows us to study the accident frequency, loss type and severity jointly and to incorporate individual characteristics such as age, gender and driving history that explain heterogeneity among policyholders.
Based on this hierarchical model, one can analyze the risk profile of either a single policy (micro-level) or a portfolio of business (macro-level). This paper investigates three types of actuarial applications. First, we demonstrate the calculation of the predictive mean of losses for individual risk rating. This allows the actuary to differentiate prices based on policyholder characteristics. The nonlinear effects of coverage modifications such as deductibles, policy limits and coinsurance are quantified. Moreover, our flexible structure allows us to “unbundle” contracts and price more primitive elements of the contract, such as coverage type. The second application concerns the predictive distribution of a portfolio of business. We demonstrate the calculation of various risk measures, including value at risk and conditional tail expectation, that are useful in determining economic capital for insurance companies. Third, we examine the effects of several reinsurance treaties. Specifically, we show the predictive loss distributions for both the insurer and reinsurer under quota share and excess-of-loss reinsurance agreements. In addition, we present an example of portfolio reinsurance, in which the combined effect of reinsurance agreements on the risk characteristics of ceding and reinsuring company are described.
Motivated by the observation
that the gain-loss criterion, while offering economically meaningful prices of contingent claims,
is sensitive to the reference measure governing the underlying stock price process (a situation
referred to as ambiguity of measure), we propose a gain-loss pricing model robust to shifts in the reference measure.
Using a dual representation property of polyhedral risk measures
we obtain a one-step, gain-loss criterion based theorem of
asset pricing under ambiguity of measure, and illustrate its use.
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