The first experiment was a central composite rotatable design with calculated calcium levels of 6.2, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0, and 11.8 g/kg diet and total phosphorus levels of 5.2, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, and 10.8 g/kg diet (2.8 g phytin-P/kg by analysis). This design involved three replicates for each rotatable point and fifteen replicates of the central point. The second experiment was a 4 × 4 factorial design with calculated Ca levels of 8.0, 10.0, 12.0, and 14.0 g/kg diet and calculated total P levels of 7.0, 9.0, 11.0, and 13.0 g/kg diet (2.5 g phytin-P/kg by analysis). There were four replicates for each treatment. In both 16 d experiments maize–soya-bean diets were used and each replicate consisted of one pen containing 10-d-old broad-breasted, white tom turkeys. The Ca and total P requirements for optimum growth were estimated to be 12.5 and 10.0 g/kg diet respectively. Bone ash was adequate at these levels of Ca and total P, but maximum bone ash was not achieved until much higher levels of Ca and total P were employed. At the required levels of Ca and total P for growth the incidences of Ca- and P-deficiency rickets were very low. There were no treatment effects on feed efficiency. Increasing dietary Ca decreased the incidence of the Ca-deficiency lesion. There was a quadratic response due to dietary total P on both P-deficiency rickets and plasma dialysable P; intermediate levels of dietary P resulted in low incidence of the P-deficiency lesion and high levels of plasma dialysable P. There was a strong negative correlation between the incidence of P-deficiency rickets and plasma dialysable P. Percentage retention was very low at high levels of dietary P and low levels of Ca which corresponded with slightly higher P-deficiency rickets and low plasma dialysable P. No such obvious relationships existed between Ca retention, incidence of Ca-deficiency rickets, and plasma Ca. The incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia was very low in the present study. There were pronounced dietary treatment effects on phytin-P retention; at 14 d percentage phytin-P retention treatment means ranged from 18 to 46 in Expt 1 and from 0 to 40 in Expt 2 with the highest retention of phytin-P at low levels at both Ca and total P.
Calcium: Phosphorus: Phytin-phosphorus retention: Rickets: Tibial dyschondroplasia: Turkey