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The MMPI has been a mainstay of psychological assessment for nearly eight decades, a testament to the richness and clinical utility of the test. We begin this chapter by tracing the history and evolution of the MMPI instruments, including the rationale for and development of the MMPI-2-RF. First, we provide an overview of the test scales and the documents available to guide its administration, scoring, and interpretation. Next, we give an overview of the psychometric features of the MMPI-2-RF scales and a review of the literature on its use in a broad of applied settings. We then review the literature on multicultural considerations when using the MMPI-2-RF. A brief description of the adolescent version of the inventory, the MMPI-A-RF, is followed by a concluding section that illustrates MMPI-2-RF interpretation with a case study.
This paper presents compact rectenna arrays for ambient RF energy harvesting on the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The arrays are based on four and nine series-connected rectenna cells. Each cell is composed of a stacked fractal antenna and an RF-to-dc conversion circuit. The antenna is a compact third Koch fractal shape, fed by a coaxial probe for more compactness. The conversion circuit is a full-wave rectifier with a differential output, each DC polarity is provided by a two-stage Dickson voltage multiplier. Measurement results show a significant increase of the output DC voltage for the one, four, and nine cells rectenna arrays. They provide, for power density of 1.7 μW/cm2, an output DC voltage of 0.9, 2.2, and 4.1 Volts, respectively. The 9 cells rectenna array is used in a remote supply experiment of a temperature and acceleration wireless sensor, where the data are transmitted via a Bluetooth low energy link to a distant smartphone every 1 min.
A novel flexible radio frequency (RF) sensor is designed to facilitate the accurate testing of various samples used in the biomedical industry at the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band. The proposed RF biosensor comprises a liquid channel-loaded interdigitated capacitor, which is integrated on a coplanar waveguide structure. The prototype of the sensor is fabricated on a 0.13 mm thin biodegradable polyethylene terephthalate polyester film to perform the testing of various bio-graded samples by recording the corresponding resonant frequency. It is observed that there is a noticeable change between the measured resonant frequencies of these samples, which primarily occurs due to the difference in their dielectric properties. The designed sensor was used to monitor and investigate the quality of glycerol, which is the most commonly used raw ingredient in the biomedical and food industry. The determination of glucose concentration in base fluids is considered to ease the challenges faced by doctors and biochemists regarding the monitoring of glucose concentration. It is found that the proposed sensor can quantify the glycerol purity up to the minimum specified adulteration level of 2 and 1% corresponding to toxic contaminants diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, respectively, and the glucose concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.
This paper presents a novel assessment method that minimizes test-fixture-induced errors in non-coaxial power combiner measurement by extending the port reduction method. This method involves terminating certain ports to acquire the scattering matrix of an N-port network from the scattering matrix measured at a reduced port order. The entire DUT scattering matrix is obtained from multiple scanning measurements, which are taken from partial coaxial accessible ports, based on a set of configurable terminating states. This advantage is leveraged to exclude a major portion of coaxial launch structures that would otherwise be incorporated in the conventional multiport test fixture. An analogous concept here is applied to measure a waveguide traveling-wave power combiner. A sandwiched twin structure, containing a divider/combiner pair with certain auxiliary through-type components cushioned between them, is utilized to assess the combiner characteristics. A theoretical framework of the proposed method was established to test its potential precision. Thereafter, an in-situ implementation was conducted to test its practical application on a traveling-wave combined amplifier prototype operating at the Q-band (33–39 GHz).
We investigate the frequency diverse array (FDA) for joint radar and communication systems. The basic idea is to use the transmitter/receiver modules of the radar system for communication purpose during listening mode as a secondary function. The radar will be performing its routine functions during the active mode as a primary function. An FDA at the transmitter side will be used to produce an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal, which is proposed for the communication system. The directivity of the radar antenna, FDA in this case, provides an additional advantage to mitigate the interferences other than the Direction of Interest (DoI). The proposed technique allows two beampatterns to be transmitted sequentially from the same FDA structure. Due to the communication signal transmission in the mainlobe of the second beampattern, the bit error rate achieved in the mainlobe is better than the existing techniques using the sidelobe transmission for communications. At the receiver, both incoming signals of radar and communication will share a different spatial angle. Simulation results indicate the novelty of the idea to suppress the interferences in terms of DoI. Furthermore, we analyzed the signal-to-interference ratio and Cramer–Rao lower bounds for angle and range estimation for the proposed technique.
A broadband linear polarized antenna is designed for radio frequency energy harvesting. The antenna covers the frequency range from 1 up to 6 GHz with relative impedance bandwidth of 126% at −6 dB reflection coefficient |S11| and extended from 1.1 to 3.3 GHz and from 4.2 to 5.6 GHz at |S11| ≤ −10 dB. A 2 × 2 dual linear polarized (DLP) antenna array is designed based on the antenna element by using equal phase and equal power divider 1-to-4 Wilkinson power divider with 180° phase shifter. The DLP antenna array covers the frequency band from 1.8 to 2.9 GHz. This frequency band covers a wide range of modern wireless communication standards, including GSM 1800, UMTS 2100, Wi-Fi 2.4, and most of LTE bands. The developed array prototype was then used to experimentally validate the simulation results. The horizontally and vertically polarized gain of the designed array were found to be quite similar across the 1.8–2.9 frequency band with an average gain value of 5.5 dBi.
High-intensity electron linacs have severe space-charge effects that lead to the production of beam halo which degrade the beam quality. For a given charge per bunch, hollow beams have a weaker nonlinear space-charge force. In this paper, we have investigated the possibility of using hollow beam to control halo growth in linacs. We simulate the dynamics of such a beam in a 17 MeV radio frequency linac using ASTRA beam dynamics code and show that it experiences a smaller emittance growth as well as reduced beam halo. The results suggest that using a hollow beam, high charge per bunch could be propagated and accelerated in a radio frequency linac.
Microwave power transfer (MPT) can solve certain types of problems. For example, Internet of Things requires a flexible configuration of sensor networks, which is hindered by wired-charging sensors. This problem can be overcome by MPT techniques. However, the transmission efficiency of MPT is lower than that of wired transmission. This study focuses on the operation of rectifiers having a pulse-modulated input signal. Although a pulse-modulated wave is effective for improving the RF-DC conversion efficiency, the output voltage waves of rectifiers have a high ripple content. Moreover, the harmonic balance method cannot be used to simulate the operation of a pulse-modulated rectifier. To reduce the ripple content, a smoothing capacitor should be connected in parallel to an output load. We investigated the influence of a smoothing capacitor, the general characteristics of rectifiers under pulse-modulated waves, and the effectiveness of using pulse-modulated waves for improving RF-DC conversion efficiency. In conclusion, we reveal a necessary condition of the smoothing capacitor for improvement, demonstrate the effectiveness of pulse modulation, and show that the optimum impedance with a pulse-modulated wave input is an inverse of duty ratio times as compared to that with continuous wave input.
In recent years, millimeter wave (MMW) has received tremendous interest among researchers, which offers systems with high data rate communication, portability, and finer resolution. The design of the antenna at MMWs is challenging as it suffers from fabrication and measurement complexities due to associated smaller dimensions. Current state-of-the-art MMW dual-band antenna techniques demand high precision fabrication, which increases the overall cost of the system. Henceforth, the design of an MMW antenna with fabrication and measurement simplicity is quite challenging. In this paper, a simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed single-band MMW antenna operating at 94 GHz (W band) and a dual-band MMW antenna operating concurrently at 60 GHz (V band) and 86 GHz (E band) have been designed, fabricated, and measured. A 50 Ω CPW-to-microstrip transition has also been designed to facilitate probe measurement compatibility and to provide proper feeding to the antenna. The fabricated single frequency 94 GHz antenna shows a fractional bandwidth of 11.2% and E-plane (H-plane) gain 6.17 dBi (6.2 dBi). Furthermore, the designed MMW dual-band antenna shows fractional bandwidth: 2/6.4%, and E-plane (H-plane) gain: 7.29 dBi (7.36 dBi)/8.73 dBi (8.68 dBi) at 60/86 GHz, respectively. The proposed antenna provides a simple and cost-effective solution for different MMW applications.
In this contribution, the impact of extreme environmental conditions in terms of energy-level radiation of protons on silicon–germanium (SiGe)-integrated circuits is experimentally studied. Canonical representative structures including linear (passive interconnects/antennas) and non-linear (low-noise amplifiers) are used as carriers for assessing the impact of aggressive stress conditions on their performances. Perspectives for holistic modeling and characterization approaches accounting for various interaction mechanisms (substrate resistivity variations, couplings/interferences, drift in DC and radio frequency (RF) characteristics) for active samples are down to allow for optimal solutions in pushing SiGe technologies toward applications with harsh and radiation-intense environments (e.g. space, nuclear, military). Specific design prototypes are built for assessing mission-critical profiles for emerging RF and mm-wave applications.
A multi-octave receiver chain is presented for the use in a monolithic integrated vector network analyzer. The receiver exhibits a very wide frequency range of 1–32 GHz, where the gain meets the 3 dB-criterion. The differential receiver consists of an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier, an active mixer and an output buffer and exhibits a maximum conversion gain (CG) of 16.6 dB. The main design goal is a very flat CG over five octaves, which eases calibration of the monolithic integrated vector network analyzer. To realize variable gain functionality, without losing much input matching, an extended gain control circuit with additional feedback branch is shown. For the maximum gain level, a matching better than −10 dB is achieved between 1–28 GHz, and up to 30.5 GHz the matching is better than −8.4 dB. For both, the input matching and the gain of the LNA, the influence of the fabrication tolerances are investigated. A second gain control is implemented to improve isolation. The measured isolations between RF-to-LO and LO-to-RF are better than 30 dB and 60 dB, respectively. The LO-to-IF isolation is better than 35 dB. The noise figure of the broadband receiver is between 4.6 and 5.8 dB for 4–32 GHz and the output referred 1-dB-compression-point varies from 0.1 to 4.3 dBm from 2–32 GHz. The receiver draws a current of max. 66 mA at 3.3 V.
The contribution of this paper is to propose a novel rat-race hybrid coupler of arbitrary coupling coefficient. Traditionally, the rat-race hybrid couplers are built by various loop-alike transmission-lines of multiple quarter-wavelength, and in this paper, we approach the coupler design by using a circular substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity (SIWC). The employed SIWC supports two mutually orthogonal degenerate modes, and cavity field is formed by the two modes in an arbitrary weighting ratio which defines the proposed rat-race coupler's coupling coefficient. The cavity is excited by a microstrip combined coupling slot with the microstrip along a specifically chosen direction. The energy of each degenerate mode can be solely extracted by an associated subminiature version A (SMA) whose position is carefully determined. The isolation between the coupling slots is assured by their perpendicular layout, and the isolation between the SMA probes is obtained by the orthogonality of the two degenerate modes. Experiments are conducted on the 3- and 10-dB coupling coefficient samples to verify this novel rat-race coupler design. The measurements agree well with the simulations, and circuit's good performance is observed in terms of coupling precision, isolations, and small phase imbalances.
This paper presents a fully-integrated direct-conversion fundamentally-operated mixer-first quadrature receiver module with a tunable LO in the 219–266 GHz band. It has been implemented in a 0.13-μm SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. It includes an on-chip LO path driven externally from the printed circuit board (PCB) connector level at 13.6–16.7 GHz. A hybrid coupler generates the quadrature LO signal, which drives a pair of double-balanced fundamentally-operated down-conversion mixers, whose RF ports are connected to a wideband lens-integrated on-chip ring antenna. The chip-on-lens assembly is placed in the recess of a high-speed PCB and wire-bonded. To compensate the inductive behavior of the wire-bond interconnection between the chip and the PCB at the high-speed IF outputs, an on-board 8-section step-impedance low-pass filter has been implemented. The module shows a 47 GHz 3-dB radio frequency/local oscillator operation bandwidth (BW), a peak conversion gain of 7.8 dB, a single-side-band noise figure of 11.3 dB, and a 3-dB IF BW of 13 GHz. The in-phase and quadrature amplitude imbalance stays below 1.58 dB for the 210–280 GHz band. The down-conversion and the baseband stages consume together 75.5 mW, while the LO path 378 mW. The maximum data-rate achieved with this receiver in combination with the transmitter presented in [1–3] is 60 Gbps for quadrature phase shift keying modulation.
A next generation of active electronically scanned array (AESA) antennas will be challenged with the need for lower size, weight, power, and cost. This leads to enhanced demands especially with regard to the integration density of the radio frequency-part inside a T/R module. The semiconductor material GaN has proven its capacity for high-power amplifiers (HPA), robust receive components as well as switch components for separation of transmit and receive mode. This paper will describe the design and measurement results of a GaN-based single-chip T/R module frontend (HPA, low noise anplifier, and single-pole double-throw (SPDT)) using UMS GH25 technology and covering the frequency range from 8 GHz to 12 GHz. The key performance parameters of the frontend are 13 W minimum transmit (TX) output power over the whole frequency range with peak power up to 17 W. The frontend in receive (RX) mode has a noise figure below 3.2 dB over the whole frequency range, and can survive more than 5 W input power. The large signal insertion loss of the used SPDT is below 0.9 dB at 43 dBm input power level.
This paper presents the design and characterization of a D-band (110–170 GHz) monolithic microwave integrated direct carrier quadrature modulator and demodulator circuits with on-chip quadrature local oscillator (LO) phase shifter and radio frequency (RF) balun fabricated in a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS process with ft/fmax of 250 GHz/400 GHz. These circuits are suitable for low-power ultra-high-speed wireless communication and can be used in both homodyne and heterodyne architectures. In single-sideband operation, the modulator demonstrates a maximum conversion gain of 9.8 dB with 3-dB RF bandwidth of 33 GHz (from 119 GHz to 152 GHz). The measured image rejection ratio (IRR) and LO suppression are 19 dB and 31 dB, respectively. The output P1dB is −4 dBm at 140 GHz RF and 1 GHz intermediate frequency (IF) and the chip consumes 53 mW dc power. The demodulator, characterized as an image reject mixer, exhibits 10 dB conversion gain with 23-dB IRR. The measured 3-dB RF bandwidth is 36 GHz and the IF bandwidth is 18 GHz. The active area of both the chips is 620 µm × 480 µm including the RF and LO baluns. A 12-Gbit/s QPSK data transmission using 131-GHz carrier signal is demonstrated on modulator with measured modulator-to-receiver error vector magnitude of 21%.
An integrated reconfigurable antenna capable of spectrum sensing along with various reconfiguration features such as polarization, frequency, bandwidth, and radiation pattern is proposed here. The proposed antenna senses the spectrum by UWB antenna from 2 to 11 GHz to identify the spectrum conditions. After identifying the direction of maximum traffic or interference, the proposed antenna accordingly reconfigures its radiation pattern in order to mitigate the interference using switchable shorting posts. The antenna can reconfigure its polarization state using a switchable slot in the circular antenna. Frequency reconfigurability is obtained by using a varactor diode from 2 to 4 GHz. The antenna can reconfigure its bandwidth from UWB to NB by switching the active ports state. Measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna shows very good agreement, hence, validating the proposed design.
A novel topology of high-gain millimeter-wave antenna compatible with substrate integration is presented. The antenna is composed of a planar discrete lens laid on top of a core dielectric, while the planar focal source is assembled on the bottom side. The antenna can be fabricated as a single, robust and compact module using standard low-cost PCB technologies, and is compatible with IC integration such as a transceiver circuit for fully integrated millimeter-wave front-end modules. The proposed architecture is studied with two compact V-band antennas (32 mm × 32 mm × 13.2 mm). The main design rules are demonstrated for unit cells, focal source, and planar lens at V-band. Promising performances in terms of gain (17.6 and 20.4 dBi), aperture efficiency (14 and 26%), and fractional 3-dB gain bandwidth (17 and 18%) are obtained experimentally for the two considered compact antennas.
The study aimed to examine the effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting (RF) on substrate oxidation, energy production, blood lipids and glucose as well as body composition. Nine healthy Muslim men (fasting (FAST) group) and eight healthy non-practicing men (control (CNT) group) were assessed pre- and post-RF. FAST were additionally assessed at days 10, 20 and 30 of RF in the morning and evening. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry, substrate oxidation and energy production by indirect calorimetry, blood metabolic profile by biochemical analyses and energy balance by activity tracker recordings and food log analyses. A significant group×time interaction revealed that chronic RF reduced body mass and adiposity in FAST, without changing lean mass, whereas CNT subjects remained unchanged. In parallel to these findings, a significant main diurnal effect (morning v. evening) of RF on substrate oxidation (a shift towards lipid oxidation) and blood metabolic profile (a decrease in glucose and an increase in total cholesterol and TAG levels, respectively) was observed, which did not vary over the course of the Ramadan. In conclusion, although RF induces diurnal metabolic adjustments (morning v. evening), no carryover effect was observed throughout RF despite the extended daily fasting period (18·0 (sd 0·3) h) and changes in body composition.
This paper proposes a unique, first of its kind fabrication technique for the making of textile antennas. A novel method that provides scope for automation in textile antenna production is presented here. A completely integrated textile antenna fabrication method that eliminates the tasks of positioning and fastening of the various components of a patch antenna is discussed. The technique employs multilayer weaving for the production of a wearable antenna on a cotton substrate. Silver yarn is used for the conductive regions of the textile antenna. Two layers of woven cotton serve to isolate the radiating patch from the ground plane of the antenna. The designed antenna was chosen to operate at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for Wireless Local Area Network. The built prototype resonated at 2.43 GHz with a |S11|of −18.62 dB. The integrated textile antenna exhibited a gain of 1.06 dBi at 2.43 GHz.