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Inspiring Stars (IS) is an itinerant international exhibition promoted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to disseminate world initiatives addressing inclusion in astronomy at the professional level. It encompasses (but is not limited to) outreach, teaching and professional aspects of astronomy, with the ultimate goal of evolving from a levelling the playing field to egalitarian participation by all. Here we present the work-in-progress, a framework of bridging activities and inclusion in the social context, which may provide Inspiring Stars with the potential to motivate the next generation and to document comparable data on inclusion in astronomy.
Psychological and social resources such as extraversion, optimism, social support, or social networks contribute to adaptation and to successful aging. Building on assumptions derived from successful aging and from the developmental adaptation models, this study aims to analyze the joint impact of different psychosocial resources, such as personality, social relations, health, and socio-demographic characteristics on life satisfaction in a group of people aged 65 years-old and older from Spain.
A cross-sectional survey using non-proportional quota sampling was carried out. The sample comprised 406 community-dwelling older adults (M = 74.88, SD = 6.75). In order to collect the data, face-to-face interviews were individually conducted. A structural equation model (SEM) was carried out using the PLS software.
The results of the SEM model showed that, within this sample, psychosocial variables explain 47.4% of the variance in life satisfaction. Social relations and personality, specifically optimism, were strongly related with life satisfaction, while health status and socio-demographic characteristics were modestly associated with life satisfaction.
Findings support the view that psychosocial resources are important for successful aging and therefore should be included in successful aging models. Furthermore, interventions aimed at fostering successful aging should take into account the role of psychosocial variables.
Research on entrepreneurship remains fragmented in business history. A lack of conceptual clarity inhibits comparisons between studies and dialogue among scholars. To address these issues, we propose to reinvent entrepreneurial history as a research field. We define “new entrepreneurial history” as the study of the creative processes that propel economic change. Rather than putting actors, hierarchies, or institutions at the center of the analysis, we focus explicitly on three distinct entrepreneurial processes as primary objects of study: envisioning and valuing opportunities, allocating and reconfiguring resources, and legitimizing novelty. The article elaborates on the historiography, premises, and potential contributions of new entrepreneurial history.
Both the idea of feasibility and the role that it might play within political theory are controversial. Recent discussions have attempted to specify an appropriate overall conceptualization of feasibility. This essay offers a more nuanced account of a number of interrelated aspects of feasibility and argues for a more realistic view of feasibility. Four aspects of feasibility are identified and discussed: resource feasibility, value feasibility, human feasibility, and institutional feasibility.
Surprisingly, the strategic management literature has had little to say of an explicit nature on the topic of capitalism. However, the discourse on capitalism is vast in economics and many would say the writings of some economists on the topic of capitalism have been inordinately influential. Bearing this in mind, the differences between three world renowned economists on the topic of capitalism are examined with the intention of identifying where scope exists for strategic management to contribute to the discourse on capitalism. The paper concludes that strategic management is well placed to develop its own organization-centric discourse on the subject.
This paper identifies the resource needs of international entrepreneurs and examines the role of government and industry networks as providers of resource opportunities deemed essential by international entrepreneurs for international growth. Unique resource challenges confront international entrepreneurs in their pursuit of international markets. Our qualitative study of Australian entrepreneurs in the health industry reveals that international entrepreneurs emphasise information, knowledge and relational resources as crucial for international market entry. Although government networks provide essential resources at the planning and pre-entry stage of internationalisation, at the postentry stage industry networks offer more relevant resource opportunities. Both networks, however, fall short of expectations in affording knowledge and relational resources that are instrumental in entering international markets.
In this article, the authors describe the development, piloting and evaluation of a parenting programme delivered to Aboriginal families of young children in remote NSW. The parenting programme was based on Parents as Teachers, an evidence-based early intervention and prevention home visiting programme that draws on child development theory, and was developed in collaboration with representatives from the local Aboriginal community. The impetus for the programme came from concern about the poor early learning and child wellbeing indicators in this community, pointing to the need for early parenting support that could be effectively delivered by trained Aboriginal workers in a remote area where early childhood resources were very limited. The sessions, implemented within a group setting, were structured and intensive. Six topics identified as being most important to parents of children aged from birth to 18 months, and six topics for parents of children aged from 18 months to 3 years were presented, with three sessions developed for each topic. An evaluation of the programme to date revealed that parent satisfaction with the programme was very high, as were reports of increased knowledge of child development and parenting skills, and increased connection with other families. Aboriginal staff valued the structured programme and resources that were developed. They reported increased knowledge of child development and how to run groups effectively, and observed positive changes in the participating families.
The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.
Year 9 students from a Melbourne metropolitan secondary school (N = 176) completed the specific version of the Adolescent Coping Scale and a Resources Questionnaire on 10 resources valued by young people. Having and valuing of the 10 resources was associated with productive coping by adolescents. Having fewer resources and greater resource loss was related to use of nonproductive coping. Girls and boys managed their resources differently as part of their coping efforts. Investing in and gaining resources was reported by girls who coped productively and focused on solving their problems, but not by productively coping boys, nonproductively coping girls, or girls who reported avoiding negative emotional states when dealing with problems. The indications are that in counseling and in designing interventions aimed to improve resilience in young people, gender may have an impact on particular resources of value to the person, and the approach taken to developing resources may similarly vary.
A modified version of the conservation of Resources Evaluation (CORE) developed to measure adult resources to cope with stress was applied to young people. In this exploration of the relationship between the resources identified by young people and their coping styles, a sample of 172 secondary students completed the modified version of the Conservation of Resources Evaluation (CORE) and the long version of the Adolescent Coping Scale, focussed on a specific concern (ACS). The modified instrument was validated in the study, and a relationship was found between the degree to which students held the resources under consideration and the coping styles they used. Young people high in resources tended to use productive ACS strategies, while those young people with fewer resources report using fewer and more nonproductive ACS strategies. A resources approach to young people's adaptation to their circumstances has educational and therapeutic implications.
This commentary targets the core ideas of the composition-based view (CBV). First, we argue that the deployment of compositional capabilities (CCs) to combine ordinary resources fits the resource-based view (RBV) and that there is therefore no need for a CBV. Second, we argue that the CCs should be presented as a specific type of dynamic capability (DC). We show that even where ordinary resources are being combined, superior combinatory capabilities are needed as competitive advantage cannot otherwise be achieved. Third, we argue that Luo and Child (2015) focused too much on the emerging economy enterprises (EEEs) as the conceptual setting. We conclude with a future research agenda to prepare the ground for research on compositional capabilities within the composition-based view of the firm.
Very old individuals seem to present an admirable capacity to overcome adversities and adapt to the challenges of advanced age. However, studies focusing successful pattern of centenarians found that they may easily fail to be categorized as successful agers when objective criteria are applied. The present study examines if centenarians can be considered successful agers. Following Rowe and Kahn's successful aging model, the primary goal was to clarify whether centenarians are able to be successful agers according to objective and subjective criteria of no major disease and disability, high cognitive and physical functioning and engagement with life. The second goal was to investigate whether socio-demographic factors, psychological, social, and economic resources are related to objective and subjective successful aging profiles.
We examined different profiles of successful aging in a high selected sample of individuals aged 100 and more years old from the population-based Oporto Centenarian Study.
Main findings reveal that centenarians do not represent the prototype of successful aging, but self-ratings demonstrate that many of them feel successful, despite not being objectively considered as so. Those who were considered successful agers presented higher values of self-efficacy, hope, and purpose in life, as well as few difficulties in covering financial expenses.
As a basis for strengthening the existing model, the value of subjectivity should be explored and psychological resources promoted in interventions to foster positive adaptation in very old age.
Since the beginning of the recent Ebola outbreak, a sense of fear has developed among the public due to the novelty of our exposure to the virus and the ill-equipped nature of our health care systems. Media sensationalism, coupled with improper knowledge of Ebola, may have contributed to mass hysteria. Most support to tackle Ebola has been direct monetary aid. However, others are working on innovative methods to control the epidemic, including the development of rapid detection methods, experimental treatments, and a viable vaccine. Rapid screening and vaccine ideas are promising, but it is unlikely that they will be ready in the coming months. This raises the question of what other tools and technological innovation can be developed to effectively stem the spread of the outbreak. Although we hope the continued outpouring of aid and health care workers to West Africa will greatly reduce the impact of Ebola, communication, screenings, treatment, and vaccine are of central importance to stop this outbreak. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:595–597)
This paper offers a critical appraisal of the growing body of philosophical work on questions of justice in the exploitation of natural resources. It argues that failure to treat property as a distinct set of considerations from those of distributive justice has led to an impoverished philosophical analysis. Moreover, it demonstrates how a property-based approach contributes to a more complete view of the interests at stake in resource exploitation by drawing attention to aspects of human relationships with the physical environment that cannot be captured through the allocation of wealth, such as environmental and cultural integrity. The reason that philosophers have not, by and large, appreciated this contribution rests on mistaken views about the function of property rules that could be rectified through legal understanding. In pursuing this line of argument, the paper considers a recent proposal that seems promising on this front: Leif Wenar’s analysis of the resource curse. Wenar’s proposal is unique in suggesting that questions of resource justice be analysed and resolved through settled principles of property law, rather than through a theory of distributive justice. However, he makes several key tactical errors. Examining where the proposal goes wrong and why provides important insights into the use of legal concepts to analyse intractable questions of justice in political philosophy, and into the place of property in particular—methodological issues that have not received adequate attention, despite the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of scholarship in this area.
Property-based models of the ownership of body parts are common. They are inadequate. They fail to deal satisfactorily with many important problems, and even when they do work, they rely on ideas that have to be derived from deeper, usually unacknowledged principles. This article proposes that the parent principle is always human dignity, and that one will get more satisfactory answers if one interrogates the older, wiser parent instead of the younger, callow offspring. But human dignity has a credibility problem. It is often seen as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. These accusations are often just. But a more thorough exegesis exculpates dignity and gives it its proper place at the fountainhead of bioethics. Dignity is objective human thriving. Thriving considerations can and should be applied to dead people as well as live ones. To use dignity properly, the unit of bioethical analysis needs to be the whole transaction rather than (for instance) the doctor-patient relationship. The dignity interests of all the stakeholders are assessed in a sort of utilitarianism. Its use in relation to body part ownership is demonstrated. Article 8(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights endorses and mandates this approach.