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Under the assumption of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) components, the problem of the stochastic comparison of a coherent system having used components and a used coherent system has been considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions on structure functions have been provided for the stochastic comparison of a coherent system having used/inactive i.i.d. components and a used/inactive coherent system. As a consequence, for r-out-of-n systems, it has been shown that systems having used i.i.d. components stochastically dominate used systems in the likelihood ratio ordering.
By considering k-out-of-n systems with independent and nonidentically distributed components, we discuss stochastic monotone properties of the residual life and the inactivity time. We then present some stochastic comparisons of two systems based on the residual life and inactivity time.
In this paper, we investigate k-out-of-n systems with independent and identically distributed components. Some characterizations of the IFR(2), DMRL, NBU(2) and NBUC classes of life distributions are obtained in terms of the monotonicity of the residual life given that the (n-k)th failure has occurred at time t ≥ 0. These results complement those reported by Belzunce, Franco and Ruiz (1999). Similar conclusions based on the residual life of a parallel system conditioned by the (n-k)th failure time are presented as well.
It is shown that a set of random variables with increasing and convex (concave) survival functions are stochastically increasing and convex (concave) in the sample path sense. This stochastic convexity (concavity) result is then used to establish convexity (concavity) results for (i) a single-server queueing system with a time-out control policy, (ii) residual life, (iii) stationary renewal excess life and (iv) M/G/1 queues. These results are new and could not be derived without the direct or indirect aid of the above stochastic convexity (concavity) result. Furthermore, we illustrate that the above stochastic convexity (concavity) result can be applied to obtain new bounds for queueing systems. Specifically, let be the waiting time of the nth customer in a GI/G/1 queue with inter-arrival time survival function and service time survival function . Using the above convexity result it is shown that if and for some such that then for all increasing convex functions φ, whenever the expectations exist. A similar result for and is also obtained. Other examples are also included.
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