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This review aims to give dietary recommendations to reduce the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in foods and in vivo to reduce the body’s AGE/ALE pool. A healthy diet, food reformulation and good culinary practices may be feasible for achieving the goal. A varied diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, non-added sugar beverages containing inhibitors of the Maillard reaction, and foods prepared by steaming and poaching as culinary techniques is recommended. Intake of supplements and novel foods with low sugars, low fats, enriched in bioactive compounds from food and waste able to modulate carbohydrate metabolism and reduce body’s AGE/ALE pool is also recommended. In conclusion, the recommendations made for a healthy eating by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Harvard University seem to be adequate to reduce dietary AGE/ALE, body’s AGE/ALE pool and to achieve a sustainable nutrition and health.
Remarkable increases in the production of dairy animals have negatively impacted their tolerance to heat stress (HS). The evaluation of the effect of HS on milk yield is based on the direct impact of HS on performance. However, in practical terms, HS also exerts its influence during gestation (indirect effect). The main purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to HS during the last 60 days of gestation (THI_g) and also the HS postpartum (THI_m) over first lactation milk production of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A total of 389 127 test day milk yield (TD) records from 1572 first lactation Holstein cows born in Brazil (daughters of 1248 dams and 70 sires) and the corresponding temperature–humidity index (THI) obtained between December 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed using different random regression models. Cows in the cold environment (THI_g = 64 to 73) during the last 60 days of gestation produced more milk than those cows in a hot environment (THI_g = 74 to 84), particularly during the first 150 days of lactation (DIM). The heritabilities (h2) of TD were similar throughout DIM for cows in THI_g hot (0.11 to 0.20) or (0.10 to 0.22), while the genetic correlations (rg) for TD between these two environments ranged from 0.11 to 0.52 along the first 250 DIM. The h2 estimates for TD across THI_m were similar for cows in THI_g hot (0.07 to 0.25) and THI_g cold (0.08 to 0.19). The rg estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.42 along THI_m between TD of cows in cold and hot THI_g. The results were consistent in demonstrating the existence of an additional source of G × E for TD due to THI_g and THI_m. The present study is probably the first to provide evidence of this source of G × E; further research is needed because of its importance when the breeding objective is to select animals that are more tolerant to HS.
Q-conditional (non-classical) symmetries of the known three-component reaction-diffusion (RD) system [K. Aoki et al. Theor. Popul. Biol. 50, 1–17 (1996)] modelling interaction between farmers and hunter-gatherers are constructed for the first time. A wide variety of Q-conditional symmetries are found, and it is shown that these symmetries are not equivalent to the Lie symmetries. Some operators of Q-conditional (non-classical) symmetry are applied for finding exact solutions of the RD system in question. Properties of the exact solutions (in particular, their asymptotic behaviour) are identified and possible biological interpretation is discussed.
Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak.
Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00–2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23–3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60–2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50–3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33–0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33–0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress.
Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.
Ionic liquids are organic salts with potential for intensification of liquid–liquid processes. The structures of a range of significant ionic liquids are presented. The focus is on intensification of classical organic reactions and separations using ionic liquids in liquid–liquid systems. Their role as reaction media is briefly reviewed. Phase equilibrium properties of several liquid–liquid systems involving ionic liquids are described, demonstrating their potential for azeotrope breakage in vapor–liquid and liquid–liquid systems. Application of ionic liquid technology to phase-transfer catalysis is discussed, with inclusion of the classic example of the dimerization of butene to iso-octenes. The potential role of ionic liquids for the exploitation of biocatalytic processes is highlighted, with discussion of the potentially toxic effects on living biomass and on the activity of enzymes. The significance of the toxicity of some ionic liquids is summarized, together with a short discussion of potentially wider environmental impacts. The degradability of ionic liquids is an important part of environmental assessment that is also considered.
Extreme weather conditions such as cold stress influence the productivity and survivability of beef cattle raised on pasture. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the extent of the impact of genotype by environment interaction due to cold stress on birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) in a composite beef cattle population. The effect of cold stress was modelled as the accumulation of total cold load (TCL) calculated using the Comprehensive Climate Index units, considering three TCL classes defined based on temperature: less than −5°C (TCL5), −15°C (TCL15) and −25°C (TCL25). A total of 4221 and 4217 records for BW and WW, respectively, were used from a composite beef cattle population (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais and 25% Tarentaise) between 2002 and 2015. For both BW and WW, a univariate model (ignoring cold stress) and a reaction norm model were implemented. As cold load increased, the direct heritability slightly increased in both BW and WW for TCL5 class; however, this heritability remained consistent across the cold load of TCL25 class. In contrast, the maternal heritability of BW was constant with cold load increase in all TCL classes, although a slight increase of maternal heritability was observed for TCL5 and TCL15. The direct and maternal genetic correlation for BW and maternal genetic correlation for WW across different cold loads between all TCL classes were high (r > 0.99), whereas the lowest direct genetic correlations observed for WW were 0.88 for TCL5 and 0.85 for TCL15. The Spearman rank correlation between the estimated breeding value of top bulls (n = 79) using univariate and reaction norm models across TCL classes showed some re-ranking in direct and maternal effects for both BW and WW particularly for TCL5 and TCL15. In general, cold stress did not have a big impact on direct and maternal genetic effects of BW and WW.
The intelligence war had had minimal impact on the IRA’s campaign by June 1972. Various factors explain the limited infiltration by intelligence services of the city and rural areas where the IRA was operating at that time. In urban areas, IRA support increased following the active role played by republicans in defending nationalist areas, indiscriminate British Army actions against the nationalist community and the lack of political and socio-economic reform by Stormont and Westminster. Other factors unique to rural areas restricted intelligence, included republicans’ long-term sense of injustice at being forced into a unionist-dominated Northern Ireland state in the 1920s. British forces also conducted various indiscriminate security operations in nationalist areas, such as in County Tyrone. These operations provoked further tension. The failure to coordinate British military and RUC Special Branch intelligence on a consistent basis made containing the IRA harder. In addition, IRA barricades in Derry City and Belfast, and the ability of some rural IRA units to use the border to evade detection, meant that surveillance of the IRA via vehicle- or personality-checking systems was difficult. The intelligence war’s failure to significantly erode the IRA’s capacity for conflict partly explains why the British government talked to the IRA in June 1972.
This chapter examines the historical development and cultural significance of what has become known as “extreme violence” in western cinema: the visual depiction of violent action and its physical effects in a way that is particularly explicit when compared with cinematic norms and therefore more impactful. While there are myriad ways in which screen violence could be considered extreme, the three primary elements that usually come into play are: (1) visual—the explicit detail of physical bodily damage, often achieved through close-ups and detailed make-up special effects; (2) temporal—an uncomfortable duration in which the violence is held on screen for a period of time longer than would typically be considered narratively important; and (3) emotional—intense depiction of suffering and pain, often through close-ups of the human face in agony and the sounds of screaming. Throughout the history of western cinema various films have achieved levels of violence considered to be “extreme,” although not all of those films are still defined as such, having been surpassed by even more extreme levels of violence in contemporary filmmaking. How those definitions have changed tells us much about the interrelationships of social and political sensibilities, changing ethics, and the ever-evolving aesthetics of western filmmaking.
The binary metal oxides are increasingly used as supercapacitor electrode materials in energy storing devices. Particularly NiCo2O4 has shown promising electrocapacitive performance with high specific capacitance and energy density. The electrocapacitive performance of these oxides largely depends on their morphology and electrical properties governed by their energy band-gaps and defects. The morphological structure of NiCo2O4 can be altered via the synthesis route, while the energy band-gap could be altered by doping. Also, doping can enhance crystal stability and bring in grain refinement, which can further improve the much-needed surface area for high specific capacitance. Given the above, this study evaluates the electrochemical performance of Ca-doped Ni1-xCaxCo2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) compounds. This stipulates promising applications for electrodes in future supercapacitors.
Protocols for conducting in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reactions using an environmental TEM with dry gases have been well established. However, many important reactions that are relevant to catalysis or high-temperature oxidation occur at atmospheric pressure and are influenced by the presence of water vapor. These experiments necessitate using a closed-cell gas reaction TEM holder. We have developed protocols for introducing and controlling water vapor concentrations in experimental gases from 2% at a full atmosphere to 100% at ~17 Torr, while measuring the gas composition using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) on the return side of the in situ gas reactor holder. Initially, as a model system, cube-shaped MgO crystals were used to help develop the protocols for handling the water vapor injection process and confirming that we could successfully inject water vapor into the gas cell. The interaction of water vapor with MgO triggered surface morphological and chemical changes as a result of the formation of Mg(OH)2, later validated with mass spectra obtained with our RGA system with and without water vapor. Integrating an RGA with an in situ scanning/TEM closed-cell gas reaction system can thus provide critical measurements correlating gas composition with dynamic surface restructuring of materials during reactions.
MoS2(1-x)Te2x, the alloy of MoS2 and MoTe2 was fabricated with just co-sputtering and the combination of co-sputtering with following thermal treatment in chalcogen ambient. Phase separation, where MoTe2 was segregated rather than S and Te being uniformly distributed, was observed for some samples. From the physical structure evaluation using XRD, it was shown that the samples that was sulfurized after unintentional oxidation during shelf time exhibited no phase separation. It was suggested that oxidation of Mo or amorphous nature of the film at the chalcogenization stage may prevent the phase separation. In addition, some samples were stored in desiccator for stability evaluation. It was revealed that the samples undergo oxidation to different extent depending on the carrier gas used in tellurization. Finally, the bandgap and band structure was evaluated for samples with different Te concentration. The bandgap showed bowing behavior for different Te concentration with the bowing parameter b = -1.21 eV. Combined with the bandgap evaluation, the valence analysis with XPS showed that the band structure shifted according to the Te concentration. The shift in bandgap allows flexible band alignment which is expected to expand the materials applicability.
Bulk production by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of ultra-long Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) with lengths greater than several centimeters is desirable for materials applications, but is not presently feasible. A principal reason for this limitation is cessation of CNT growth due to erosion of the nano-sized catalyst particles from which the CNTs nucleate and grow: at elevated CVD growth temperatures, atoms of catalytic metal detach and diffuse away from the particles, resulting in erosion and eventual deactivation of the particles. Recently, a novel idea was introduced to slow this diffusion and erosion by including heavy refractory metals with the catalyst metals in the nanoparticles. Here are presented recent and ongoing investigations into this method. The metal system investigated uses iron as catalyst and rhenium as diffusion inhibitor. Results show that inclusion of Re in the catalyst particles will substantially increase the catalysts particle lifetimes, and hence the growth time of the CNTs produced. These results are compared to previous results obtained using the iron/molybdenum system of catalyst/inhibitor.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been shown to exhibit semiconducting and piezoelectric dual properties. This has led to a large commercial demand on ZnO for optoelectronics that operate at the blue-ultraviolet regions. Consequently, varying techniques have been devised to create different nanostructures of ZnO. Here, the single step synthesis of ZnO nanostructures was performed on Si(100) substrates with a thin ZnO seed-layer. A modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was developed to accomplish the structure formation. Sb doping of the structures in the gas phase was performed to study its effects on structure and optoelectronic properties. Different structures were realized including nanofilaments, nanoparticles, microflowers, nanorods, nanotubes, and nanocolumns. Only nanorods/columns, and nanotubes are shown in this work. Morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used for structural studies. Optoelectronic properties were explored using room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL data show the relative decrease in the number of defects and increase in crystal quality upon increasing reaction time. Significant structural effects were also observed upon doping. Some structural defects might be attributed to the diffusion of Sb ions into the lattices of ZnO, replacement of Zn by Sb, and ionic radii difference. These stacking faults are most likely the reason behind the dominance and broadening of DLE peak.
Chapter 9 looks beyond CODA in two ways. On the one hand, CODA is only one among many established ways to examine human thought; linguistic analysis can be easily and fruitfully combined with other methods. The first half of this chapter addresses triangulation with performance and other observable data as well as subtler measures such as reaction times and eye movements, and also includes brief discussions of cognitive modelling and corpus linguistic methods. On the other hand, CODA is rarely used purely for its own sake; more often than not, linguistic analysis is part of a wider goal. Results can be used for a multitude of applications and purposes, including implementation in automatic systems that support human everyday needs. Therefore, the second half of Chapter 9 concludes the book with a discussion of practical applications for the methodology in academia and beyond, in applied and interdisciplinary fields such as architecture and artificial intelligence, and also looks at how CODA results can be made more accessible using suitable visualisation tools. The final section provides a brief wrap–up of the book's main messages.
Four putative knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations have been documented in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene of Cimex hemipterus from several countries. However, no information regarding kdr mutations in any Chinese tropical bed bug population is available to date. In this study, a double-mutation（M918I + L1014F）kdr allele was identified in six C. hemipterus populations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. The frequency of this allele was 100% in all the six examined populations. In addition, only two cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene haplotypes, with one synonymous nucleotide variation, were identified in a total of 48 individuals from six locations. The fixation and broad geographic distribution of this resistant allele questions the continued use of pyrethroids in the treatment of tropical bed bug infestations. The very low genetic diversity within and among these populations indicates that these bed bugs may have a single origin.
This chapter shows how active transport (for example, by an electrical field, molecular and cellular motors, running, swimming or flying, all in response to external cues) can be incorporated into the stochastic diffusion and reaction–diffusion algorithms we have introduced in Chapters 4 and 6. The resulting stochastic diffusion–advection and reaction–diffusion–advection models are analysed. Applications include systems consisting of many interacting “particles”, where individual particles can range in size from small ions and molecules to individual cells and animals. Three examples illustrate this: mathematical modelling of ions and ion channels, modelling bacterial chemotaxis, and studying collective behaviour of social insects. The chapter concludes with the discussion of the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm, which can be used to compute stationary (equilibrium) properties of complicated diffusion–advection problems.
This chapter discusses stochastic approaches for modelling chemical reactions (introduced in Chapter 1) and molecular diffusion at the same time. The presented stochastic reaction–diffusion processes add chemical reactions to the two position-jump models of molecular diffusion that are introduced in Chapter 4: the compartment-based approach (described by the reaction–diffusion master equation) and the SDE-based approach, which gives the Brownian dynamics. Basic principles of each approach are explained using an example that includes only zeroth- and first-order chemical reactions. This is followed by discussion of more complicated systems when some chemical species are subject to higher-order chemical reactions. The reaction radius, reaction probability and the choice of the compartment size are studied in detail. The chapter concludes with the discussion of applications to pattern formation in biology, including stochastic French flag model and stochastic Turing patterns.
Using evanescent wave (EW)–based optical detection methods coupled with video microscopy, we investigated in situ trajectories, diffusion, and interaction energies of ∼140 nm ceria particles near a glass surface at pH 3, 5, and 7. Trajectories of a single ceria particle in a 2D (x–y) plane were obtained by linking its time-sequenced positions. Diffusion coefficients of several single ceria particles were calculated from their respective mean-square displacement (MSD) versus time curves, and the results were interpreted based on the interaction potential energy curves obtained from Boltzmann statistics of the EW scattering intensity fluctuations of the particles. The types and characteristics of particle motions were determined by analyzing the MSD curves. Whereas both confined or subdiffusive and Brownian motions of the particles were observed at pH 7, only confined motion was seen at pH 3 and 5, and their corresponding diffusion coefficients are similar to those reported by several authors.
Research on human intelligence from a psychological perspective has mainly focused on higher-order cognitive abilities leading to the development and validation of psychometric measures of intelligence such as the IQ test. Despite the success of this movement, there is a lack of understanding on how intelligence measured by IQ tests develops. As such, recent research has focused on studying the basic underlying processes of intelligence. These measures are often referred to as measures of processing speed and collectively as elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs). In this chapter, we review research on two of the most prominent ECTs found in the intelligence literature: reaction time (RT) and inspection time (IT). We describe these measures and variants of these measures in detail and report on studies examining relationships between RT, IT, and intelligence. We describe theories relating to these measures and attempt to understand whether relationships between RT, IT, and intelligence are best described by top-down (strategic) or bottom-up (basic) processes. We outline exciting new areas using pharmacological and neuroimaging techniques that could contribute to this body of knowledge.