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This chapter provides a brief review of missions using X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of planetary surfaces. This chapter presents the history of planetary radiation measurements, including significant discoveries. Summary tables with links to the archived data provide a resource for readers interested in working in this field. Upcoming missions and possible future directions are described.
Neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays are used to measure the subsurface elemental composition of Solar System bodies, providing insights into their formation and evolution. Neutrons and gamma rays are highly penetrating particles made by the steady bombardment of the regolith of airless bodies by galactic cosmic rays. Gamma rays are also made by the decay of natural radioelements. The escaping radiation can be detected in close-proximity orbits and analyzed to determine subsurface elemental composition to depths of a few decimeters. Because the radiation sensors have nearly omnidirectional response, spatial resolution depends on orbital altitude. X-ray fluorescence is induced by solar X-rays. Consequently, X-ray spectroscopy is most useful for studies of objects in the inner Solar System. Characteristic elemental X-rays are made within the uppermost ~100 micrometers of the surface. The suite of elements analyzed overlaps that of nuclear spectroscopy, providing complementary geochemical information. Because X-rays are easily collimated, relatively high spatial resolution measurements are possible. This chapter presents the fundamentals of neutron, gamma-ray, and X-ray production, transport, and detection along with an overview of the measurement principles, including modeling, analysis, and mapping methods.
Chapter Five examines the problematic nature of expertise in psychical investigation, and the equally troublesome question of whether skills in the physical sciences were relevant to and useful in such investigations. Although spiritualists, psychologists and conjurors disagreed about many other psychical-related issues, all three kinds of audience shared grave misgivings about physical scientists in sites of psychical enquiry. This chapter argues that while psychologists sought to exclude physicists from psychical enquiry because they perceived huge differences between ‘tricky’ psychical instruments and reliable instruments of physics, leading physical-psychical scientists sought to collapse this distinction: they often believed that their experience of and skills in handling ‘tricky’ instruments of physics gave them important qualities to bring to the psychical expert.
Melatonin-rich and 1,8-cineole-rich extracts have been successfully obtained from yellow mustard (YM) and small cardamom (SC) seeds, respectively, employing green technology of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction. Chemical profiling confirmed the presence of melatonin and 1,8-cineole and co-extractants in the respective extracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy attested strong antioxidant activities of the extracts foregoing pan-assay interference compounds involved in spectroscopic analysis. These extracts also exhibited synergistic efficacies greater than unity confirming antioxidant synergy among the co-extracted bioactives therein. To ascertain hypocholesterolaemic efficacies, these extracts were co-administered orally with Triton X (at the pre-optimised dose of 175 mg/kg body weight (BW)) to Wistar albino rats at doses of 550, 175 and 55 mg/kg BW. Serum total cholesterol levels in the rats were monitored on days 3, 7, 15 and 21. On day 21, total cholesterol level reduced appreciably by 49·44 % in rats treated with YM seed extract and by 48·95 % in rats treated with SC seed extract, comparable with atorvastatin-administered rats (51·09 %). Either extract demonstrated inhibitory effects on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. A molecular docking exercise identified specific compounds in the extracts which possessed binding affinities comparable with therapeutically used HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. In silico and in vivo studies concertedly concluded that the consortium of bioactive components in the extracts cannot be considered as invalid metabolic panaceas and therefore these ‘green’ extracts could be safely subjected to clinical studies as preventive biotherapeutics for hypercholesterolaemia. These extracts could be consumed per se as hypocholesterolaemic supplements or could be ingredients of new spice-based therapeutic foods.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected relatively hard X-ray emission from the central stars of several planetary nebulae (PNe). A subset has no known late-type companions, making it very difficult to isolate which of several competing mechanisms may be producing the X-ray emission. The central star of NGC 2392 is one of the most vexing members, with substantial indirect evidence for a hot white dwarf (WD) companion. Here we report on the results of a radial velocity (RV) monitoring campaign of its central star with the HERMES échelle spectrograph of the Flemish 1.2 m Mercator telescope. We discover a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 1.902208 ± 0.000013 d and an RV semi-amplitude of 9.96 ± 0.13 km s−1. The high degree of nebula ionisation requires a WD companion (M ≳ 0.6M⊙), which the mass-function supports at orbital inclinations ≲ 7°, in agreement with the nebula orientation of 9°. The hard component of the X-ray spectrum may be explained by the companion accreting mass from the wind of the Roche lobe filling primary, while the softer component may be due to colliding winds. A companion with a stronger wind than the primary could produce the latter and would be consistent with models of the observed diffuse X-ray emission detected in the nebula. The diffuse X-rays may also be powered by the jets of up to 180 km s−1, and active accretion would imply that they may be the first active jets of a post-common-envelope PN, potentially making NGC 2392 an invaluable laboratory to study jet formation physics. The 1.9 d orbital period rules out a double-degenerate merger leading to a Type Ia supernova, and the weak wind of the primary likely also precludes a single-degenerate scenario. We suggest that a hard X-ray spectrum, in the absence of a late-type companion, could be a powerful tool to identify accreting WD companions.
In this paper, the possibility of using neural networks for fast tomographic reconstructions of tokamak plasma soft X-ray (SXR) emissivity is investigated. Indeed, the radiative cooling of heavy impurities like tungsten could be detrimental for the plasma core performances of ITER, thus developing robust and fast SXR diagnostic tools is a crucial issue to monitor the impurities and to mitigate in real-time their central accumulation. As preliminary work, a database of emissivity phantoms with associated synthetic measurements is used to train the neural network to solve the inversion problem. The inversion method, training process, and first tomographic reconstructions are presented with the perspectives about our future work.
We investigate the interstellar medium towards seven TeV gamma-ray sources thought to be pulsar wind nebulae using Mopra molecular line observations at 7 mm [CS(1–0), SiO(1–0, v = 0)], Nanten CO(1–0) data and the Southern Galactic Plane Survey/GASS Hi survey. We have discovered several dense molecular clouds co-located to these TeV gamma-ray sources, which allows us to search for cosmic rays coming from progenitor SNRs or, potentially, from pulsar wind nebulae. We notably found SiO(1–0, v = 0) emission towards HESS J1809–193, highlighting possible interaction between the adjacent supernova remnant SNR G011.0–0.0 and the molecular cloud at d ∼ 3.7 kpc. Using morphological features, and comparative studies of our column densities with those obtained from X-ray measurements, we claim a distance d ∼ 8.6 − 9.7kpc for SNR G292.2–00.5, d ∼ 3.5 − 5.6 kpc for PSR J1418–6058 and d ∼ 1.5 kpc for the new SNR candidate found towards HESS J1303–631. From our mass and density estimates of selected molecular clouds, we discuss signatures of hadronic/leptonic components from pulsar wind nebulae and their progenitor SNRs. Interestingly, the molecular gas, which overlaps HESS J1026–582 at d ∼ 5 kpc, may support a hadronic origin. We find however that this scenario requires an undetected cosmic-ray accelerator to be located at d < 10 pc from the molecular cloud. For HESS J1809–193, the cosmic rays which have escaped SNR G011.0–0.0 could contribute to the TeV gamma-ray emission. Finally, from the hypothesis that at most 20% the pulsar spin down power could be converted into CRs, we find that among the studied pulsar wind nebulae, only those from PSR J1809–1917 could potentially contribute to the TeV emission.
In this study, we investigate a new simple scheme using a planar undulator (PU) together with a properly dispersed electron beam (
beam) with a large energy spread (
) to enhance the free-electron laser (FEL) gain. For a dispersed
beam in a PU, the resonant condition is satisfied for the center electrons, while the frequency detuning increases for the off-center electrons, inhibiting the growth of the radiation. The PU can act as a filter for selecting the electrons near the beam center to achieve the radiation. Although only the center electrons contribute, the radiation can be enhanced significantly owing to the high-peak current of the beam. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that this method can be used for the improvement of the radiation performance, which has great significance for short-wavelength FEL applications.
The apparent lack of cold molecular gas in blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies is at variance with their intense star-formation episode. The CO molecule, often used a tracer of H2 through a conversion function, is selectively photodissociated in dust-poor environments and, as a result, a potentially large fraction of H2 is expected to reside in the so-called CO-dark gas, where it could be traced instead by infrared cooling lines [CI], [CII], and [OI]. Although the fraction of CO-dark gas to total molecular gas is in theory expected to be relatively large in metal-poor galaxies, many uncertainties remain due to the difficulty in identifying the main heating mechanism associated to the cooling lines observed in such galaxies.
Investigations of the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS; Madden et al.2013) show that the heating mechanism in the neutral gas of BCDs cannot be dominated by the photoelectric effect on dust grains below some threshold metallicity due to the low abundance of dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, implying that other heating mechanisms need to be invoked, along with a new interpretation of the corresponding infrared line diagnostics. In the study presented here and in Lebouteiller et al. (2017), we use optical and infrared lines to constrain the physical conditions in the HII region + HI region of the BCD I Zw 18 (18 Mpc; ≍2% solar metallicity) within a consistent photoionization and photodissociation model. We show that the HI region is entirely heated by a single ultraluminous X-ray source with important consequences on the applicability of [CII] to trace the star-formation rate and to trace the CO-dark gas. We derive stringent upper limits on the size of H2 clumps that may be detected in the future with JWST and IRAM/NOEMA. We also show that the nature of the X-ray source can be inferred from the corresponding signatures in the ISM. Finally we speculate that star formation may be quenched in extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies due to X-ray photoionization.
The hosts of long Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are places of intense star-formation, which, at low redshift, are primarily low-mass dwarf starburst galaxies. Spatially resolved studies of these galaxies are still sparse, even more so at high spectral resolution where we can probe gas kinematics, in- and outflows and differences in abundance between different components. Here we present the first high resolution IFU sample of six low redshift GRB hosts, all dwarf starbursts. All galaxies in our sample show evidence for excess emission or broad emission components, with velocities of 100-200 km s−1. For GRB 030329, outflowing gas had also been observed in absorption in spectra of the GRB afterglow. The high velocity emission is usually blue shifted, connected to the brightest star-forming regions and more metal rich than the narrow component associated with the emission of the general host ISM. This gives strong indications that the excess emission/broad component is indeed associated to a starburst wind as observed in many field star-burst galaxies and a sign for the intense ongoing star-formation in those galaxies.
Low-mass dwarf irregular galaxies are subject to outflows, in which cosmic rays may play a very important role; they can be traced via their electron component, the cosmic ray electrons (CRe), in the radio continuum as non-thermal synchrotron emission. With the advent of sensitive low-frequency observations, such as with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), we can trace CRe far away from star formation sites. Together with GHz-observations, such as with the Very Large Array (VLA), we can study spatially resolved radio continuum spectra at matched angular resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present results from our 6-GHz VLA survey of 40 nearby dwarf galaxies and our LOFAR study of the nearby starburst dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10. We explore the relation of RC emission with star formation tracers and study in IC 10 the nature of a low-frequency radio halo, which we find to be the result of a galactic wind.
We report an investigation of the properties of dwarf galaxies (Mr < -15) inside 26 clusters at z = 0.15 – 0.25, using the X-ray data from the Chandra archive, and optical images taken with Subaru Suprime-Cam. Our results include: 1. Investigation of the dwarf galaxy density distribution is sensitive to the background galaxies and the choice of colour selection of galaxies. 2. Cluster-centric dwarf-to-giant ratio is highly sensitive to the level of subtracted background galaxies. 3. A certain fraction of faint galaxies always remain undetected by the detection algorithm near the center of clusters, even after carefully treating the halo or extra diffuse light created by bright galaxies. The number of ‘undetected’ faint galaxies varies significantly from cluster to cluster, and even from pointing to pointing. 4. Dwarf galaxies extend up to 2 Mpc from the center in most clusters. Meanwhile, the distribution of blue dwarf galaxies extends more to the outside. 5. For a given colour, the spatial distributions of dwarf galaxies and giant galaxies become similar. Namely, the most of the radial distribution comes from the colour, rather than the size, of galaxies. 6. Relative to the NFW profile, all of the galaxy populations are showing a deficit near the cluster core (r < 0.3 Mpc). 7. The dwarf-to-giant ratio shows no variation against cluster measures such as the richness and X-ray luminosity, as well as various cluster X-ray characteristics related to possible dynamical status of clusters.
Two radiocarbon (14C) excursions are caused by an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short time scale found in the Late Holocene (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994), which are widely explained as due to extreme solar proton events (SPE). In addition, a larger event has also been reported at 5480 BC (Miyake et al. 2017a), which is attributed to a special mode of a grand solar minimum, as well as another at 660 BC (Park et al. 2017). Clearly, other events must exist, but could have different causes. In order to detect more such possible events, we have identified periods when the 14C increase rate is rapid and large in the international radiocarbon calibration (IntCal) data (Reimer et al. 2013). In this paper, we follow on from previous studies and identify a possible excursion starting at 814–813 BC, which may be connected to the beginning of a grand solar minimum associated with the beginning of the Hallstatt period, which is characterized by relatively constant 14C ages in the period from 800–400 BC. We compare results of annual 14C measurements from tree rings of sequoia (California) and cedar (Japan), and compare these results to other identified excursions, as well as geomagnetic data. We note that the structure of the increase from 813 BC is similar to the increase at 5480 BC, suggesting a related origin. We also assess whether there are different kinds of events that may be observed and may be consistent with different types of solar phenomena, or other explanations.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
We present here the results of a search for new microquasars at low galactic latitudes, based on a cross-identification between the ROSAT all sky Bright Source Catalog (RBSC) and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and follow-up observations. The results obtained up to now suggest that persistent/silent microquasars such as LS 5039 are rare objects in our Galaxy, and indicate that future deeper surveys, and harder than the RBSC in X-rays, will play a fundamental role in order to discover them.
We study the interaction between the Be-star disk and the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries by three dimensional SPH simulations. We find that, the resonant, truncation of the Be disk works except for systems with extremely high orbital eccentricity or large misalignment angles between the Be disk and the orbital plane. Owing to the truncation, the mass-capture rate by the neutron star is sensitive both to the orbital eccentricity and to the angle of misalignment. It is single-peaked in coplanar systems and in systems with small misalignment angles, whereas it, becomes double-peaked in systems with large misalignment angles.
Although CI Cam, which showed an outburst in April 1998, has been regarded as a soft X-ray transient (SXT) harboring a, black hole, it has some characteristics that can hardly be reconciled with the SXT picture. In this paper, we propose a white dwarf as the central accreting star in CI Cam.
We have monitored the quasi-persistent neutron-star X-ray transient MXB 1659-29 in quiescence using Chandra. The purpose of our observations was to monitor the quiescent behavior of the source after its last prolonged outburst episode and to study the cooling curve of the neutron star in this system. We discuss the results obtained and how they constrain the properties of the neutron star in MXB 1659-29.