Cuyaite (IMA2019-126), Ca2Mn3+As3+14O24Cl, is a new arsenite mineral from near Cuya in the Camarones Valley, Arica Province, Chile. It is associated with anhydrite, native arsenic, arsenolite, calcite, claudetite, ferrinatrite, gajardoite-3R, leiteite, magnesiocopiapite, phosphosiderite, pyrite, realgar and talmessite and formed from the oxidation of As-bearing primary phases and alteration by saline fluids derived from evaporating meteoric water under hyperarid conditions. Cuyaite occurs as pale brown thin needles (elongated on ), typically in divergent sprays and subparallel intergrowths. The streak is white. Crystals are transparent with adamantine lustre; subparallel intergrowths exhibit silky lustre. The mineral has Mohs hardness of 2½, is brittle, exhibits no cleavage and has irregular fracture. The calculated density is 4.140 g cm–3. Cuyaite is optically biaxial (–), with α = 1.87(1), β = 1.956(calc) and γ = 1.98(1), determined in white light; 2Vmeas = 60(1)°; and orientation: X = b and Y ^ a = 53° in obtuse β. Electron microprobe analyses provided the empirical formula Ca2.03Mn3+0.95(As3+13.66Sb3+0.65)Σ14.31O24Cl0.88. The six strongest powder X-ray diffraction lines are [dobs Å(I)(hkl)]: 4.73(45)(111,
14), 3.035(28)(213), 3.004(37)(204), 2.931(90)(
15, 312) and 2.779(28)(020). Cuyaite is monoclinic, Pn, a = 14.7231(6), b = 5.58709(19), c = 17.4185(12) Å, β = 112.451(8)°, V = 1324.23(14) Å3 and Z = 2. In the crystal structure of cuyaite (R1 = 0.0369 for 2095 I > 2σI reflections), AsO3 pyramids share O corners to form a ‘loose’ 3D framework; Jahn–Teller distorted Mn3+O6 octahedra and CaO8 polyhedra link by edges and corners to form columns; the columns also link by edge- and corner-sharing to the AsO3 pyramids in the framework; Cl occupies channels along  in the framework. The Raman spectrum is consistent with the presence of multiple As3+O3 groups.