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How groups view themselves and each other is very important in order to promote effective work practices. These views can be tribal in nature and lead to stereotyping which may affect how we communicate and act with other groups. This study primarily aims to identify how student radiographers view their own and other radiographic profession.
A survey was undertaken using the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire with all radiographic training sites in England. The questionnaire was given to radiography students training as either diagnostic radiographers or therapeutic radiographers. It asked students to rate four professions: doctors, diagnostic radiographers, therapeutic radiographers and nurses on nine characteristics.
The online survey was open between February and July 2019 and elicited 233 responses. Overall, the radiography students’ perceptions of their own profession and the other non-radiography professions were generally positive; however, each radiographic profession’s view on the other radiographic professions was less favourable, the scores being significantly lower than for other professions. The professions each identified unique attributes (interpersonal skills, being a team player and independent working) that separated the professions from each other. Differences and similarities in stereotypes appeared not to change with time, although gender differences for certain attributes did exist.
Students appear to have preconceived positive stereotype of their own profession and a more negative stereotype of the other radiography profession that appears relatively stable during their training period and was unaffected by interprofessional education.
Field hospitals are a vital element in providing as many medical services as possible to a stricken population in times of disaster. Setting up a field hospital with advanced auxiliary medical services is possible as long as there is comprehensive and careful planning, training, and preparation done ahead of time. The main objective of the AMS department is to organize and assist in establishing the field hospital, ensure its smooth and efficient operation throughout the stay, and, at the close of a mission to disassemble the equipment for its return journey and then ensure it is in optimum working order for the next call up. The department is responsible for maintaining all medical devices in perfect working order with the focus being on safety compliance and patient welfare. The four core services provided by the department cover medical engineering, medical equipment and pharmacy, diagnostic imaging, and the clinical laboratory. All these services operate according to a predetermined workflow and clear working guidelines. In keeping with the goals of the humanitarian mission, the medical engineering service will handle the acquisition and maintenance of equipment capable of functioning in an electricity free environment. They will verify that all devices are robust and capable of operating under extreme weather conditions and comply with any specifications mandated by the different countries. The pharmacy service plays a vital role in ensuring medicine and its accompanying information is handled efficiently and safely. Data is accrued over the span of a mission to assist with ever more accurate future planning. The diagnostic imaging service must be able to provide both investigative and diagnostic examinations. This service is agile and can be provided in an imaging department tent, a dedicated container unit or bedside for patients who are not to be moved. The clinical laboratory service performs a full array of tests that facilitate in diagnosis and treatment of the patient. The services provided by the laboratory include biochemistry, hematology, and microbiology. The laboratory diagnoses the pathogens in infectious diseases and identifies the type of bacteria and its susceptibility to various antibiotics.
Lateral neck radiographs are commonly used in the investigation and management of patients presenting with suspected fish bone impaction. The effectiveness of these is questioned, as many fish do not have radio-opaque bones.
This study evaluated the utility of lateral neck radiographs in the management of patients presenting with fish bones retained in the upper aerodigestive tract, with the creation of a treatment algorithm to guide further management.
An audit of practice was undertaken at the University Hospital of Southampton, identifying all patients admitted with potential fish bone impaction in the upper aerodigestive tract. Following analysis, a treatment algorithm was constructed for use by junior doctors.
In total, 34 per cent of patients with a normal radiograph were subsequently found to have a fish bone present under local or general anaesthetic assessment. The sensitivity of radiographs in the detection of fish bones was found to be 51.6 per cent.
Lateral neck radiographs have limited value in the management of suspected fish bone impaction, and should only be used following detailed clinical examination of the upper aerodigestive tract.
This chapter considers how did Ghanaian physicists made nuclear science their own under the watchful eye of the International Atomic Energy Agency within what I term a “nuclear protectorate?” During the long battle to secure a nuclear reactor for the Ghana, GAEC sustained one of its additional roles as outlined in the initial 1963 Act 204 that had established it: monitoring radiation at the nation’s x-ray facilities. This work gave GAEC a mandate to apply physics to human bodies. Hospitals and ports turned on radiation sources and GAEC scientists monitored them to measure the levels of exposure to radiographers. Nuclear physicists also introduced new ways to irradiate insects to sterilize pesky disease-carrying flies and kill insect eggs on crops to prolong shelf live. While it took a long time to expand their research programs with an actual reactor, GAEC scientists managed to flourish in their continued quest to make physics relevant to Ghanaian life. The IAEA came to depend on Ghanaian experts as some of the most highly trained nuclear scientists in Africa. They were constantly in demand to represent the continent in IAEA committees, training programs, and observational teams.
Laser–solid interactions are highly suited as a potential source of high energy X-rays for nondestructive imaging. A bright, energetic X-ray pulse can be driven from a small source, making it ideal for high resolution X-ray radiography. By limiting the lateral dimensions of the target we are able to confine the region over which X-rays are produced, enabling imaging with enhanced resolution and contrast. Using constrained targets we demonstrate experimentally a
X-ray source, improving the image quality compared to unconstrained foil targets. Modelling demonstrates that a larger sheath field envelope around the perimeter of the constrained targets increases the proportion of electron current that recirculates through the target, driving a brighter source of X-rays.
The Weibel instability and the induced magnetic field are of great importance for both astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Because of the stochasticity of this magnetic field, its main wavelength and mean strength, which are key characteristics of the Weibel instability, are still unobtainable experimentally. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the autocorrelation tensor shows that in proton radiography of the Weibel-instability-induced magnetic field, the proton flux density on the detection plane can be related to the energy spectrum of the magnetic field. It allows us to extract the main wavelength and mean strength of the two-dimensionally isotropic and stochastic magnetic field directly from proton radiography for the first time. Numerical calculations are conducted to verify our theory and show good consistency between pre-set values and the results extracted from proton radiography.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
High-energy electron radiography (HEER) has been proposed for time-resolved imaging of materials, high-energy density matter, and for inertial confinement fusion. The areal-density resolution, determined by the image intensity information is critical for these types of diagnostics. Preliminary experimental studies for different materials with the same thickness and the same areal-density target have been imaged and analyzed. Although there are some discrepancies between experimental and theory analysis, the results show that the density distribution can indeed be attained from HEER. The reason for the discrepancies has been investigated and indicates the importance of the uniformity in the transverse distribution beam illuminating the target. Furthermore, the method for generating a uniform transverse distribution beam using octupole magnets was studied and verified by simulations. The simulations also confirm that the octupole field does not affect the angle-position correlation in the center part beam, a critical requirement for the imaging lens. A more practical method for HEER using collimators and octupoles for generating more uniform beams is also described. Detailed experimental results and simulation studies are presented in this paper.
Studies have investigated the prevalence of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue in various healthcare professions. However, the majority of evidence is linked to the nursing profession and little is known about paramedical professions such as radiography and even less is known about its prevalence in students. The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue in the student population and how they varied in time.
Students undertaking radiotherapy training at the researcher’s host sites were surveyed using the Professional Quality of Life questionnaire at the end of each final clinical block in each year of their training.
Results and conclusion
During the 3 years of training compassion satisfaction falls and burnout increases in the student population, although the change is not significant. Secondary traumatic stress increases significantly during the 3 years of training, F=5·725, p=0·005. Considerable variation also exists in the three scores dependent on the student’s clinical training site. Relationships are also observed between some personality traits, particularly conscientiousness and neuroticism and compassion scores.
Here a compact three orthogonal planes high-energy electron radiography system was proposed. One of the critical technologies, the ultra-fast beam bunches split from the bunch train are studied. The separated bunches could be transported to the three orthogonal planes of the target for dynamic radiography diagnostics. The key elements of the ultra-fast bunches split system are transverse deflecting cavity (TDC) and the twin septum magnet (TSM). The principle of TDC and TSM are briefly introduced. An example of the beam bunches split system for test experiment (40 MeV electron beam) with TDC and TSM is designed and studied by particle-tracking simulation and it confirms this method is valid and feasible. Especially with TSM, a compact three orthogonal planes radiography system can be realized. The evolution of the beam parameters along the beam line from simulation are investigated. The detailed design of the beam split system and beam dynamics simulation study are presented in this paper.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet existing diagnostic tools remain inadequate. We aimed to evaluate laboratory and radiological methods for detecting pneumococcal aetiology in CAP patients and to estimate Spn prevalence in this group. All-aged patients hospitalized with clinically defined CAP in northern Togo were enrolled during 2010–2013. Latent class analysis pooled results of semi-automated blood culture (SABC), whole blood lytA real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and chest radiography (CXR) and categorized patients as likely pneumococcal or non-pneumococcal CAP. We enrolled 1684 patients; 1501 had results for all tests. CXR, SABC, lytA rt-PCR and CRP >71·2 mg/l had sensitivities of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87–100], 13% (95% CI 10–16), 17% (95% CI 14–21) and 78% (95% CI 75–80), and specificities of 88% (95% CI 84–93), 100% (95% CI 99–100), 97% (95% CI 96–99) and 77% (95% CI 75–79), respectively. Pneumococcal attributable proportion was 34% (95% CI 32–37), increasing with age and in men. We estimated that Spn caused one third of CAP. Whole blood lytA rt-PCR was more sensitive than SABC; both had low sensitivity and high specificity. Conversely CXR was highly sensitive and reasonably specific; it could be a useful tool for epidemiological studies aiming to define Spn pneumonia incidence across all ages.
Introduction: The Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) are a clinical decision tool used to minimize unnecessary radiographs in ankle and foot injuries. The OAR has been shown to be a reliable rule to exclude fractures in children over 5 years of age. However, there is limited data to support its use by other health care workers in children. Our objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the OAR, to detect clinically significant fractures, when applied by allied health providers (AHPs). Methods: Children aged 5 to 17 years presenting with an acute ankle or foot injury were enrolled. Patients assessed by a physician prior to an AHP, presenting for reassessment or >24 hours after the injury, having open, penetrating or neurovascular injury, or multiple injuries were excluded. Patients with metabolic bone disease, a previous x-ray, or the inability to communicate or ambulate before the injury were also excluded. Baseline data on x-ray use was collected in a convenience sample of 100 patients. AHPs then completed an OAR learning module. Then in phase 2, AHPs applied the OAR to a convenience sample of 186 patients. Both AHPs and physicians performed inter-observer assessments. Results: When AHP’s applied the ankle portion of the OAR, the sensitivity was 88% (95% CI 46.7-99.3) and the specificity was 32.5% (95% CI 24.5-41.6) for clinically significant fractures. When AHP’s applied the foot portion of the OAR, the sensitivity was 87.5% (95% CI 46.7-99.3) and the specificity was 15.6% (95% CI 7.0-30.1) for clinically significant fractures. In total, 2 clinically significant fractures (1 foot fracture and 1 ankle fracture) were missed by AHP’s. Inter-observer agreement was κ=0.24 for the ankle rule and κ=0.32 for the foot rule. The missed ankle fracture had a positive OAR when performed by a physician as an inter-observer assessment. The missed foot fracture was a distal metatarsal fracture that was outside of the “foot zone” as defined by the OAR. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the OAR when applied by AHP’s was very good. Both clinically significant fractures that were missed by AHP’s would likely have been picked up by a physician assessment. More training and practice using the OAR would likely improve AHP’s inter-observer reliability. Our data suggest the OAR may be a useful tool for AHP’s to apply as a screening tool prior to physician assessment.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Irish healthcare has seen radical reforms in recent years. Regulatory Body Registration was introduced to improve patient care and regulate professionals. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a requirement of registration. Professionals need to keep up-to-date with new techniques and technologies while maintaining their skills.
This research assessed the factors affecting CPD participation in Radiation Therapists and Diagnostic Radiographers and their knowledge and attitudes towards Regulatory Body Registration.
Materials and methods
Online surveys were designed and made available on the Irish Institute of Radiography and Radiation Therapy (IIRRT) Website for IIRRT members. The responses were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ2 tests in a statistical computer programme.
Personal development, time, cost and staff shortages negatively affect CPD participation. Reflective practise is not a barrier to CPD. Knowledge and attitudes to Regulatory Body Registration varied.
CPD must be developed in Radiation Therapy and Diagnostic Radiography. Funding, time and increased staffing could result in effective implementation of CPD. Regulatory Body Registration has been communicated but more information regarding the process is required.
We have developed a new radiography setup with a short-pulse laser-driven x-ray source. Using a radiography axis perpendicular to both long- and short-pulse lasers allowed optimizing the incident angle of the short-pulse laser on the x-ray source target. The setup has been tested with various x-ray source target materials and different laser wavelengths. Signal to noise ratios are presented as well as achieved spatial resolutions. The high quality of our technique is illustrated on a plasma flow radiograph obtained during a laboratory astrophysics experiment on POLARs.
The use of bowel preparation strategies to reduce the degree of rectal distension during prostate radiotherapy is well documented. This retrospective pilot study analysed and compared a probiotic agent against a psyllium-supplemented diet to establish the feasibility of probiotics as a bowel preparation for patients receiving radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
A retrospective chart review of five patients taking probiotics and five taking psyllium husk (psyllium) during their course of radiotherapy treatment was conducted. On treatment, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were compared with planning CTs to quantify inter-fractional variation in rectal volume and distension.
Forty-five CBCT scans were available in both the psyllium and probiotics groups for analysis. Variation in mean difference in rectal volume from planning (ΔRV), mean rectal cross-section area (CSA) and mean relative cross-section area (CSArel) was significantly increased for the probiotics group compared with the psyllium group (p=0·001, 0·008 and 0·007, respectively). No statistically significant differences in mean ΔRV, CSA and CSArel were detected between the two groups.
This retrospective analysis suggests that a probiotics-based bowel preparation that utilises Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis may result in increased rectal volume and CSA variation throughout treatment in comparison with a psyllium-supplemented diet.
Proton radiography is used for advanced hydrotesting as a new type radiography technology due to its powerful penetration capability and high detection efficiency. A new proton radiography terminal will be developed to radiograph static samples at the Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Science. The proton beam with the maximum energy of 2.6 GeV will be produced by Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooling Storage Ring. The proton radiography terminal consists of the matching magnetic lens and the Zumbro lens system. In this paper, the design scheme and all optic parameters of this beam terminal for 2.6 GeV proton energy are presented by simulating the beam optics using WINAGILE code. My-BOC code is used to test the particle tracking of proton radiography beam line. Geant4 and G4beamline codes are used for simulating the proton radiography system. The results show that the transmission efficiency of proton without target is 100%, and the effect of secondary particles can be neglected. To test this proton radiography system, the proton images for an aluminum plate sample with two rectangular orifices and a step brass plate sample are respectively simulated using Geant4 code. The results show that the best spatial resolution is about 36 μm, and the differences of the thickness are not >10%.
Since Roentgen's discovery of X rays in the late 1800s the use of penetrating radiation to form images has become a part of our everyday life as well as providing a useful tool for the scientific study of processes that have been previously impossible to measure. This can include the study of processes that are too deeply embedded in opaque materials for direct observation, or that occur on a length or time scale smaller than otherwise can be easily measured. As technologies to generate penetrating radiation and quickly collect images have matured, new techniques have emerged to measure processes that have been hidden for many years. One example is advances in flash radiography using charged particles as radiographic probes, including proton radiography and electron radiography. Recently the successful commissioning of proton microscope systems has provided remarkable improvements in spatial resolution. These techniques are being implemented for applications with electron radiography. With the evolution of these new techniques comes the opportunity to choose the probe that provides the maximum information for the desired measurement. This paper describes these new imaging techniques, predicts the capabilities of high-energy electron radiography, and provides a guide for identifying the optimal probe for a wide range of measurements.
We report on an experimental study on the interaction of a high-contrast 40 fs duration 2 TW laser pulse with an argon-cluster target. A high-charge, homogeneous, large divergence electron beam with moderate kinetic energy (~2 MeV) is observed in the forward direction. The results show that an electron beam with a charge as high as 12 nC can be obtained using a table-top laser system. It was demonstrated that the accelerated electron beam is suitable for a variety of applications such as micro-radiography of thin samples in a wide field of view. It can also be applied for in vitro dosimetry studies.
There is no consensus as to whether all routine bilateral polypectomy specimens should be sent for formal histopathological diagnosis to exclude underlying neoplastic pathology. This study assessed the necessity for histopathological investigation as routine practice in cases of bilateral and unilateral nasal lesions by estimating the incidence of unexpected pathologies. It also evaluated the ability of computed tomography to predict histopathological diagnosis in patients with unilateral nasal lesions.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 98 patients undergoing nasal polypectomy over a 12-month period.
Five of 23 patients with a unilateral lesion on nasendoscopy had inverted papillomas on histopathological examination. None of the 75 patients with clinically bilateral lesions on nasendoscopy showed evidence of neoplasia on histopathological examination. Patients with inverted papillomas had significantly lower total Lund–Mackay scores than those with bilateral polyps. Asymmetry scores of inverted papilloma patients were significantly higher compared to both bilateral and unilateral polyps patients.
The results suggest that histopathological diagnosis is only necessary in unilateral lesion patients as no unexpected histopathological diagnoses were made in bilateral lesion patients. Computed tomography imaging may have a role in predicting histopathological diagnosis by demonstrating asymmetry and less overall sinus opacification in patients with neoplastic lesions.